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Full text of "Italy : handbook for travellers"

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BELGIUM and HOLLAND, witn or maps and 16 Plans. 

Fifth Edition. 1878. 5 marks. 

THE RHINE from ROTTERDAM to CONSTANCE (the 

Seven Mountains, Moselle, Volcanic Eifel, Vosges Mis., Black 
Forest, etc.), with 2 L Maps and 19 Plans. Sixth Edition. 1878. 6 marks. 

NORTHERN GERMANY, with 15 Maps and 27 Plans. Sixth 

Edition. 1877. 5 marks. 

SOUTHERN GERMANY and AUSTRIA, including Hun- 
gary and Transylvania, with 13 Maps and 24 Plans. 

Fourth Edition. 1880. G marks. 

THE EASTERN ALPS, including the Bavarian High- 
lands, THE TYROL, SaLZKAMMERGUT, etc. With 21 Maps, 
10 Plans, ="»<! 7 Panoramas. Fourth Edition. 1879. 6 marks. 



NORTHERI 

Raveni 

THROUGH 

32 Plans. 
"CENTRAL 

a Panora 

SOUTHERI 

Lipari 
Corfu, 

LONDON a 
Isle o 

Edition. 

NORWAY . 



ROBERT W. WOODRUFF 
LIBRARY 




ORN, FLORENCE, 

JA, and Routes to Italy 

stria , with 8 Maps and 

6 marks. 

Maps, 27 Plans, and 

'. 6 marks. 



excursions to the 
ardinia, Malta, and 

i Edition. 1880. 7 marks. 

ing Brighton, the 

and 14 Plans. Second 
6 marks. 

>s and 3 Plans. 1879. 

9 marks. 

PARIS AND L„ , !»UTES FROM LONDON 

to Paris , and from Paris to the Rhine and Switzerland , with 
11 Maps and 15 Plans. Sixth Edition. 1878. 6 marks. 

SWITZERLAND, and the adjacent Parts of Italy, 

SAVOY, and the TYROL, with 24 Maps, 10 Plans,. and 9 Panoram 
Eighth Edition. 1879. 

THE EAST. LOWER EGYPT, with the Fayum and the 

PENINSULA OF SlNAI, with 16 Maps, 29 Plans, 7 Views, and 76 
Vignettes. 1878. 15 marks. 

PALESTINE and SYRIA, with 18 Maps, 43 Plans. 

1 Panorama of Jerusalem, and 10 Views. 1876. 20 marks. 

THE TRAVELLER'S MANUAL OF CONVERSATION, in 

Knglisii, German, French, ani> Italian. 3 marks. 



as. 
7 marks. 



SOUTHERN ITALY 



AND 



SICILY. 



COMPARATIVE MONEY-TABLE. 

Approximate Equivalents. 



It 


ali an. 


American. 


E 


nglish. 




Francs. 


Centesitni. 


Dollars. 


Cents. 


'Pounds. 


Shillings. 


Pence. 




5 




1 






'h 





25 


— 


5 


— 


— 


2'|, 


— 


50 


— 


10 


— 


— 


5 


— 


75 


— 


15 


— 


— 


Tli 


1 


— 


— 


20 


— 


— 


93| 4 


'j 





— 


40 


— 


1 


7'N 


3 





— 


60 


— 


•) 


5 


4 





— 


80 


— 


3 


2>|* 


5 


— 


1 


— 


— 


4 




6 





1 


20 


— 


4 


93|, 


7 


— 


1 


40 


— 


5 


7>| 2 


8 


— 


1 


60 


— 


6 


5 


9 





1 


80 


— 


7 


2i| 2 


10 


— 


2 


— 


— 


8 




20 





4 





— 


16 


— 


25 


— 


5 — 


1 


— 


— 


100 


— 


20 — 


4 







COMPARATIVE TABLE 

of 

Neapolitan and Sicilian Miglie with Kilometres 

and 

English Miles. 



Neap. Mirjl. 


Kil. 


Engl. M. 


Sicil. Migl. 


Kil. 


Engl. M. 


0,54 


1 


0,62 


0,67 


1 


0,62 


0,87 


1,61 


1 


1 


1,49 


0,92 


1 


1,85 


1,15 


1,08 


1,61 


1 


9 


3,71 


2,30 


2 


2,97 


1,84 


3 


5,56 


3,45 


3 


4,46 


2,76 


4 


7,42 


4,60 


4 


5,94 


3,69 


5 


9,27 


5,75 


5 


7,43 


4,61 


6 


11,13 


6,90 


6 


8,92 


5.53 


7 




8,05 


7 


10,4, 


6,45 


8 


14,84 


9,20 


8 


11,89 


7,37 


9 


16,69 


10,35 


9 


13,38 


8,29 


10 


18,55 


11,50 


10 


14,87 


9,22 



] 'W 



3&£H c; : 




ITALY. 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS 



BY 



K. BAEDEKER. 



THIRD PART: 

SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY, 

with excursions to the 

LIPARI ISLANDS, MALTA, SARDINIA, TUNIS, AND CORFU. 

With 24 Haps and 14 Plans. 

Seventh Edition, Remodelled and Augmented. 



LEIPSIC: KARL BAEDEKER. 

LONDON: DULAU AND CO., 37 SOHO SQUARE, W. 

1880. 

All liitjlits Reserved, 



; Go, little book, God send thee good passage. 
And specially let this be thy prayere 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all'. 

Chaucbr. 



PREFACE. 



The objects of the Handbook for Italy, which consists 
of three volumes, each complete in itself, are to supply the 
traveller with the most necessary information regarding the 
history and culture of the people he is about to visit , to 
render him as independent as possible of the services of 
guides and valets-de-place, to protect him against extortion, 
and in every way to aid him in deriving enjoyment and 
instruction from his tour in one of the most fascinating 
countries in the world. These volumes will also, it is hoped, 
be the means of saving the traveller many a trial of temper ; 
for there is probably no country in Europe where the patience 
is more severely taxed than in some parts of Italy. 

The whole work is based on the Editor's personal ac- 
quaintance with the places described, most of which he has 
repeatedly and carefully explored. As, however, changes 
are constantly taking place, he will highly appreciate any 
communications with which travellers may kindly favour 
him, if the result of their own observation. The information 
already received from numerous correspondents, which he 
gratefully acknowledges , has in many cases proved most 
serviceable. 

The Handbook for Southern Italy and Sicily, which now 
appears for the seventh time, has been thoroughly revised 
and considerably augmented, and the information regarding 
Naples and its environs in particular has been carefully veri- 
fied. For the description of" Pompeii the Editor is indebted 
to Pmf. Nissen of Marburg. The article on Ancient Art by 
Prof. R. KekuU of Bonn has been adapted for the use of 
English travellers with the kind assistance of Mr. J. A. 
Crowe, the eminent historian of art, and will be found sug- 
gestive by visitors to the museums of Naples and Palermo or 
the ruins of Pompeii. The description of Sicily owes much 
of its value to the co-operation of Prof. Holm of Palermo, 
who has enriched it with interesting archaeological notices. 
The insertion of excursions to the Lipari Islands, Malta, Sar- 
dinia, Tunis (Carthage), Corfu, and Athens does not add ma- 
terially to the bulk of the volume, and will be acceptable to 
many travellers. 



vi PREFACE. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, and which have been nearly doubled in number, 
will abundantly suffice for the use of the ordinary traveller. 
The Plan of Xiqiles, like those of Rome and other large cities 
described in Baedeker s Handbooks, is divided into sections 
with a view to facilitate reference. The Map of Sicily, 
drawn by Prof. Kiepert of Berlin , is a reproduction on a 
reduced scale of the new map of the Italian Ordnance Survey ; 
the rivers which flow all the year round are printed in blue, 
those which are generally dry in brown. 

Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl. ft. = 0,3048 
metre!, and Distances in English miles (comp. p. iil. Pop- 
ulations are stated in accordance with the official returns 
of the Direzione General^ di Stutistica for 1877 ; in some cases 
they may appear exaggerated, from the fact that the returns 
apply to the political districts in which the respective towns 
and villages are situated. 

Hotels. In no country does the treatment which the 
traveller experiences at hotels vary so much as in Italy, 
and attempts at extortion are perhaps nowhere so out- 
rageous. The inns of S. Italy and Sicily, with the exception 
of those of Naples and a few other towns, are sadly behind 
the requirements of the age ; but the Editor has indicated 
by asterisks those which he has reason to consider compar- 
atively respectable , clean , and reasonable. The charges 
in the most frequented places have a constant tendency to 
rise , but those of the last few years are approximately 
stated in the Handbook for the traveller's guidance. 

To hotel -proprietors, tradesmen, and others the Editor 
begs to intimate that a character for fair dealing and cour- 
tesy towards travellers forms the sole passport to his com- 
mendation, and that advertisements of every kind are strictly 
excluded. 



C N T E N T S. 



Introduction. Pa(re 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money xi 

II. Period of Tour. Language xii 

III. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage .... xiii 

IV. Public Safety. Begging xiv 

V. Intercourse with Italians xv 

VI. Conveyances xvi 

VII. Hotels xix 

VIII. Restaurants, Cafes, etc xx 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops xxi 

X. Reckoning of Time xxii 

XI. Postal Arrangements xxiii 

XII Climate and Health of Naples xxiii 

XIII. History of Ancient Art, by Prof. R. Kekule . xxv 

History of the Kingdom of Naples xliv 

Route R0UteS - 

1 . From Rome to Naples by Railway 1 

2. From Rome to Naples by the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, 

Gaeta, and Capua 10 

3. From Leghorn to Naples (by Sea) 19 

4. Naples 20 

Preliminary Observations : 

Arrival. Hotels. Pensions, Restaurants, Cafe's, etc. . . . 20-24 

Bankers. Consuls 24 

Carriages, omnibuses, boats 24, 2o 

Baths, physicians, etc 26 

Shops 26. 27 

Theatres. Post Office, Telegraph Office. Railways, Steam- 
boats. Traffic 28 

Newspapers. Festivals 29 

English Church 29 

Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time 29 

Remarks on the Situation and Characteristics of Naples P>0 
I. Side next the Sea, to the E. of the Pizzofalcone (from 

the Largo della Vittoria to the Piazza del Mercato) H4 
II. Toledo. Capodimonte (from the Largo della Vittoria 
through the Strada Chiaja and the Toledo to Capodi- 
monte. Strada Foria) 41 

III. The Old Town. E. Quarters, between the Toledo and 
the Harbour (from the Strada Medina through the 
Str. Montoliveto to the Str. S. Trinita; Porta 

Capuana, Cemeteries, Str. de' Tribunali) ... 45 



viii CONTENTS. 

Route Page 

IV. The Museum 59 

V. Modem Quarters: The Chiaja, Villa Nazionale, Corso 

Vittorio Emanuele. — Castel 8. Elmo .... 83 

VI. Hill of Posilipo. Camaldoli 89 

5. Western Environs of Naples — Pozzuoli, Bai*, Misenum, 

Cumse 94 

6. Procida and Ischia 106 

7. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). Heroulaneum. 

La Favorita 112 

8. Mount Vesuvius 116 

9. Pompeii 123 

10. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri 149 

11. From Naples to Salerno, Piestum, and Amain . . . 162 

[. Corpo di Cava 164 

2. From Amalfl to Sorrento 174 

12. From Naples to Nola and Avellino 175 

E. and S. Districts of S. Italy. 

13. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi) 178 

1. From Foggia to Manfredonia 182 

2. From Foggia to Lucera 183 

From Foggia to Candela. Melfl. Venosa 183 

14. From (Ancona) Foggia to Naples 185 

15. From Pescara to Solmona and Aquila in the Abruzzi . 188 
From Solmona to Caianiello (Naples") 191 

16. From Terni to Aquila in the Abruzzi 193 

17. From Aquila to Avezzano and Roccasecoa (Naples) . 194 
IK. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian Peninsula . . 198 

19. From (Naples) Eboli to Potenza and Torremare on the 
Gulf of Taranto 206 

20. From (Naples) Ponte S. Cono to Reggio 207 

21 . From Bari to Taranto 212 

22. From Taranto to Reggio 216 

23. From Naples to Messina (by Sea) 222 

24. From Naples to Palermo (by Sea) 223 

Sicily. 

General Information 225 

Geography and Statistics 227 

Historical Notice 237 

1. Political History 237 

2. History of Civilisation and Art 243 

25. Palermo 250 

26. Environs of Palermo 265 

a. La Cuba. Monreale. S. Martino. La Zisa 265 

b. Monte Pellegrino The Favorita 268 

c. Bagheria. Solunto 270 

d. S. Maria di Gesii 271 

Island of Ustica ... 272 



MAPS. ix 

Route Page 

27. From Palermo to Segesta, Castelvetrano, and Selinunto 272 

28. From Calataflmi to Trapani, Marsala, and Castelvetrano 279 

29. From Castelvetrano (Selinunto) to Girgenti .... 284 

From Palermo to Sciacca by Corleone 285 

30. From Palermo to Girgenti and Porto Empedocle . . . 286 

31. Girgenti 289 

32. From Palermo and Girgenti to Catania 294 

From Castrogiovanni to Catania by Caltagirone .... 298 

33. From Girgenti to Syracuse by Palma, Licata, Terranova, 

Modica (Val d'Ispica), and Palazzolo 299 

From Modica to Syracuse by Noto 303 

34. From Palermo to Messina by the Coast 304 

35. Messina 310 

36. The Lipari Islands 317 

37. From Messina to Catania. Taormina 320 

38. From Taormina to Catania round the W. side of Mt. 

.Etna 327 

39. Catania 330 

40. Mount .Etna 335 

41. From Catania to Syracuse 342 

42. Syracuse 344 

43. Excursion to Malta 358 

44. Sardinia 361 

a. Cagliari and Environs ... 365 

b. From Cagliari to Sassari 368 

c. Sassari. Porto Torres 371 

d. From Cagliari to Nuoro, with Excursions into the Mountains 

of La Barbagia 372 

45. Excursion to Tunis. Carthage 373 

46. From Brindisi to Corfu 380 

47. From Naples or from Brindisi (Corfu) to Athens . . . 383 

Index 389 

List of Artists 405 

Maps. 

1. Map of Italy (1:3,000,000), facing title-page. 

2. General Map of the Environs of Naples (1 : 400,000), be- 
tween pp. 94, 95. 

3. Western Environs of Naples (1:100,000), between pp. 
96, 97. 

4. The Islands of Procida and Ischia (1 : 100,000), p. 106. 

5. Eastern Environs of Naples. Mt. Vesuvius (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 112, 113. 

6. Peninsula of Sorrento, and 7. Island of Capri, between 
pp. 150, 151. 

8. Environs of La Cava, Salerno, and Amalfi (1 : 100,000), 
between pp. 166, 167. 



x PLANS. 

9. District between Salbb.no am P.estum(1 : 286,000), p. 167. 

10. Environs of Taranto (1 : 50,000), p. 213. 

11. District of Metapontu.m (1 : 50,000), p. 217. 

12. Environs of Palermo, and 13. Environs of Trapani 
(1 : 250,000), p. 265. 

14. District between Calatafimi and Segesta (1:50,000), 
p. 274. 

15. District of Selinunto (1 : 50,000), p. 275. 

16. Environs of Girgenti (1 : 50,000), p. 2-i9. 

17. Environs of Messina (i : 400,000), p. 310. 

18. Environs of Taormina (1 : 50,000), p. 322. 

19. Mount .Etna (1 : 300,000), between pp. 334, 335. 

20. Environs of Syracuse (1 : 50,000), between pp. 344, 345. 

21. Malta, Gozzo,Comino, and 22. Environs of Tunis(1:500,000), 
p. 358. 

23. Map of Sardinia (1 : 1,350,000), p. 361. 

24. Map of Sicily with the Lipari Islands (1:800,000), after 
the Index. 

Plans. 
1. Naples, between pp. 20, 21. — 2, 3. Museo Nazionale at 
Naples, ground-floor p. 72, upper floor p. 73. — 4. Pozzuoli, 
p. 97. — 5. Pompeii, between pp. 124, 125. — 6. House of 
Pansa at Pompeii, p. 129. — 7. P^estum, p. 167. — 8. Palermo, 
p. 250. — 9, 10. Museo Nazionale at Palermo, ground-floor p. 261, 
upper floor p. 262. — 11. Acropolis of Selinunto, p. 276. — 
12. Messina and Environs, between pp. 310, 311. — 13. Catania, 
p. 330. — 14. Syracuse, modern town, p. 344. 

Abbreviations. 

R. = room; B. = breakfast; D. = dinner; S. = supper; L. = 
light; A. = attendance. — N. = north, northern, etc.; S. = 
south, southern, etc. ; E. = east, etc. ; W. = west, etc. — r. = 
right; 1. = left; min. = minute; hr. = hour. — M. = English 
mile; ft. = Engl, foot; fr. = franc, c. = centime. 

The letter d with a date, after the name of a person, indicates 
the year of his death. The number of feet given after the name of 
a place shows its height above the sea-level. The number of 
miles placed before the principal places on railway-routes and high- 
roads indicates their distance from the starting-point of the route. 



Asterisks are used as marks of commendation. 



INTRODUCTION. 



"Thou art the garden of the world, the home 
Of all Art yields, and "Nature can decree: 
E'en in thy desert, what is like to thee? 
Thy very weeds are beautiful, thy waste 
More rich than other climes 1 fertility, 
Thy wreck a glory, and thy ruin graced 
With an immaculate charm which cannot he defaced. 

Byron. 

I. Travelling Expenses. Money. 

Expenses. The cost of a tour in Southern Italy and Sicily 
depends of course on the traveller's means and habits, but it may 
be stated generally that his expenses need not exceed those in- 
curred in the more frequented parts of the continent. The average 
expenditure of a single traveller may be estimated at 25 francs 
per day, or about half that sum when a prolonged stay is made 
at one place, while those who are acquainted with the language 
and habits of the country may reduce their expenses to still nar- 
rower limits. Persons travelling as members of a party also effect 
a considerable saving by sharing the expense of guides, carriages, 
and other items. When, however, ladies are of the party, the ex- 
penses are always unavoidably greater. 

Money. The French monetary system is now used throughout 
the whole of Italy. The franc, (lira or franco) contains 100 
centesimi ; 1 fr. 25 c. = 1 s. = 1 German mark = '/ 2 Austrian 
florin. A piece of 5 c. is called a soldo (or sou), and as the lower 
classes often keep their accounts in soldi, the traveller may And 
it useful to familiarise himself with this mode of reckoning. See 
also the Money Table, opposite the title-page. 

Banknotes. Since the introduction of a paper currency during 
the war of 1866 , at a compulsory rate of exchange, gold and 
silver coins have almost entirely disappeared from ordinary cir- 
culation , and bulky bundles of small notes have taken their 
place. For these the purses used in most other countries are 
of course unsuitable, but one adapted for the purpose may be 
purchased in Italy for Vfo-I fr. ; in addition to which a strong 
pouch for copper will be found useful. A law passed in 187-J for 
the regulation of the paper currency restricts the right of issuing 
notes to six of the principal banks, which now issue in common the 
Biglietti Consorziali. current throughout the whole of Italy. The 



xii PLAN OF TOUR. 

traveller should be on his guard against the forged imitations of 
these notes which are occasionally met with. 

Exchange. Gold and silver are worth considerably more than 
Italian banknotes of nominally the same value. Of late years the 
gain in exchanging the precious metals, or English banknotes or 
circular notes, for Italian paper has averaged 10-15 per cent. A 
napoleon, for example, realises 22-23 fr., and a sovereign 27 ^ji- 
28 3 /'4 fr. If the traveller is required to make a payment in gold 
he is of course entitled to decline receiving banknotes in exchange, 
unless the difference in value be taken into account. In exchang- 
ing gold or English notes for Italian paper at a money-changer's 
('cambia valuta'), notes of small amount should be stipulated for, 
as the railway officials sometimes make difficulties about changing 
a note of large amount. Those money-changers who publicly exhibit 
a list of the current rates of exchange are the most satisfactory. 
The exchange is effected more advantageously at Naples that at 
any of the other towns. 

Best Monby for the Tour. Before entering Italy, the traveller 
should obtain a moderate supply of French Gold (one Napoleon 
= 22-23 fr. in paper), which is procured in England , France, or 
Germany on more advantageous terms than in Italy. Sovereigns 
are received at, or nearly at, their full value (27'/2-28 3 /4 fr.) by 
most of the hotel-keepers, as well as by the money-changers in 
the principal towns and resorts of travellers, but not in remote 
districts. The Circular Notes issued by the English banks are 
very convenient for the transport of large sums, and always realise 
the full current exchange. English and German banknotes also 
realise more than their nominal equivalents. 

Money Orders payable in Italy, for sums not exceeding 1CM., 
are now granted by the English Post Office at the following rates : 
not exceeding 11., 9d. ; bl., Is. 6d. ; 11. , 'Is. 3d. ; 10i., 3s. These 
are paid in gold. The identity of the receiver must be guaranteed 
by two well-known residents. The charge for money-orders granted 
in Italy and payable in England is 40 c. per 1 1, sterling. 



II. Period of Tour. Language. 

Season. The season selected must of course depend on the 
traveller's convenience , but the best time for Naples , and par- 
ticularly for other parts of S. Italy and Sicily is spring, from the 
end of March to the end of May, or autumn , from the middle 
of September to the end of November. The rainy winter months 
had better be devoted to Rome. The hot season may be spent 
at some of the charming summer resorts in the environs of Na- 
ples, such as Sorrento , Castellamare , Ischia, and La Cava, but 
is unfavourable for travelling in the South of Italy. The 
scenery indeed is then in perfection , and the long days are 



LANGUAGE. xiii 

hailed with satisfaction by the enterprising traveller ; but he will 
soon experience the enervating effects of exposure to the fierce 
rays of an Italian sun. These effects are produced, not so much by 
the intensity, as by the protracted duration of the heat, the sky 
being frequently cloudless, and not a drop of rain falling for several 
months in succession , until the first showers of autumn again 
refresh the parched atmosphere about the end of August. 

At p. 30 the traveller will find various plans for excursions 
in the environs of Naples , and at p. 226 are others for a tour 
in Sicily. The other districts described in the Handbook are 
rarely visited by ordinary tourists , but those who desire to ex- 
plore them, whether in search of the picturesque, or for scien- 
tific purposes, will have no difficulty in framing an itinerary. 

Language. The time and labour which the traveller has 
bestowed on the study of Italian at home will be amply repaid 
as he proceeds on his journey, and more particularly in Southern 
Italy and Sicily. It is quite possible to travel in the regions 
around Naples and Palermo with a knowledge of a little French 
only, but in this case the traveller cannot conveniently deviate 
from the beaten track, and is moreover constantly exposed to gross 
extortion. Those , therefore , who desire to derive instruction 
from their tour and to confine their expenditure within moderate 
limits will find a slight acquaintance with the language -j- of the 
country indispensable. 

III. Passports. Custom-house. Luggage. 
Passports. Passports are not required in Italy, but it is un- 
wise not to be provided with one of these documents, as it may 
occasionally prove useful. Registered letters, for example, are not 
delivered to strangers unless they exhibit a passport as a guar- 
antee of their identity. In the remote districts, too, where the 
public safety still demands rigorous supervision, especially in the 
southern provinces , the traveller who cannot show his creden- 



t 'Baedeker's Manual of Conversation in four Languages (English, 
French, German, and Italian), with Vocabulary, etc' (Stereot. Edit.) will 
be found serviceable for this purpose. With the addition of a pocket-dic- 
tionary , the traveller will soon be able to make himself understood. — 
A few words on the pronunciation may be acceptable to persons unac- 
quainted with the language. C before e and / is pronounced like the 
English ch ; g before e and i like j. Before other vowels c and g are 
hard. Ch and gh, which generally precede e or i, are hard. Sc before « 
or i is pronounced like sh ; gn and gl between vowels like nyi and lyi. 
The vowels a, e, i, o, u are pronunced ah, a, ee, n, oo. — In addressing 
persons of the educated classes 'Ella 1 or 'Lei 1 , with the 3rd pers. sing., 
should always be employed (addressing several at once, 'loro' with the 
3rd pers. pi.). 'Voi" is used in addressing waiters, drivers, etc., 'tu 1 
in familiar conversation only by those who arc proficient in the language. 
'Voi 1 is the common mode of address employed by the Neapolitans, but is 
generally regarded as inelegant or uncourteons. 



xiv PUBLIC SAFETY. 

tials is liable to detention. The Italian police authorities, how- 
ever, will be found uniformly civil and obliging. 

Custom House. The examination of luggage which takes 
place at the Italian custom-houses on the arrival of the traveller 
by land or sea , even when the vessel has come from another 
Italian port, is usually very lenient. Tobacco and cigars are the 
articles most sought for. Weapons of all kinds are liable to con- 
fiscation (see below). The ' dazio consumo ', or municipal tax 
levied on comestibles in most of the Italian towns, seldom of 
course requires to be paid by ordinary travellers. An assurance 
that their luggage contains nothing liable to duty generally suffices 
to prevent detention. 

Luggage. If possible, luggage should never be sent to Italy 
by goods' train, and then only through the medium of a trustworthy 
goods-agent , to whom the keys must be forwarded. As a rule 
the traveller will find it advisable, and less expensive, never to 
part from his luggage , and always to superintend the custom- 
house examination in person. 

IV. Public Safety. Begging. 

Travelling in the neighbourhood of Naples and many other 
regions of Southern Italy is now hardly attended with greater 
hazard than in any of the northern European countries. The 
traveller should, however, avoid the poorer and less frequented 
parts of large towns, particularly of Naples, after nightfall. Most 
of the high-roads, and even the less frequented districts, may also 
be pronounced safe, especially for unpretending travellers. Tem- 
porary associations of freebooters are indeed occasionally formed, 
even in the most secure districts, for some predatory enterprise, 
but the attacks of such bands are generally directed against wealthy 
inhabitants of the country, who are known to be travelling with 
large sums of money, and seldom against strangers , with whose 
movements and finances such marauders are not likely to be ac- 
quainted. The Brigantaggio, properly so called, is now almost 
entirely rooted out, the only traces of it still found being in some 
parts of Sicily. It is , however, a purely local evil , which it is 
always easy to avoid. The reports of predatory attacks which are 
sometimes current are generally greatly exaggerated. For in- 
formation as to the safety of the roads the traveller should apply 
to the officials , or to the Carabinieri, or gensdarmes (who wear 
a black uniform, with red facings, and cocked hats), a respectable 
and trustworthy corps. 

Weapons cannot legally be carried without a licence. For the 
ordinary traveller they are a mere burden, and in the case of a ren- 
contre with brigands they only serve greatly to increase the danger. 

Begging, which was countenanced and even encouraged by 
the old system of Italian politics, still continues to be one of those 



INTERCOURSE WITH ITALIANS. xv 

national nuisances to which the traveller must habituate himself. 
At Naples the evil has been to a great extent suppressed under 
the new re'gime, but in many of the small towns it is still nearly 
as rife as ever. The best mode of getting rid of importunate ap- 
plicants is to bestow a donation of 2 c. or at mo4 5c, or else 
firmly to decline giving with — 'niente', or a gesture of disapproval. 

V. Intercourse with Italians. 

Travelling in Italy, and particularly in the southern pro- 
vinces, differs essentially in some respects from that in France, 
Germany, and Switzerland, chiefly owing to the almost invariable 
necessity for bargaining with innkeepers , cab-drivers, boatmen, 
and others of a similar class. The system of fixed prices is being 
gradually introduced, but it gains ground much more slowly in 
Southern than in Northern and Central Italy. 

The traveller is regarded by the classes in question as their 
natural and legitimate prey. Deception and imposition are 
considered very venial offences by Italians of the lower orders, 
and they regard success in these arts as a proof of superior 
sagacity. The traveller who complacently submits to extortion 
is therefore less respected than one who stoutly resists barefaced 
attempts upon his credulity. On the principal routes, and especially 
in Naples, the insolence of this mercenary fraternity has attained 
to such an unexampled pitch, that the traveller is often tempted 
to doubt whether such a thing as honesty is known in Italy ; but 
a more intimate acquaintance with the people and their habits 
will satisfy him that his misgivings apply to the above classes 
only, and not to the community generally. 

In Italy the pernicious custom of demanding considerably more 
than will ultimately be accepted is universal ; but a knowledge 
of the custom , which is based upon the presumed ignorance of 
one of the contracting parties, tends greatly to mitigate the evil. 
Where tariffs and fixed charges exist , they should be carefully 
consulted. In other cases where an average price is established by 
custom, the traveller should make a precise bargain with respect 
to the service to be rendered, and never rely on the equity of 
the other party. The preliminaries of a bargain once adjusted, 
the traveller will often find the people with whom he has to 
deal more trustworthy than he anticipated. 

Individuals who appeal to the generosity of the stranger, or to 
their own honesty , or who , as rarely happens, are offended by 
manifestations of distrust, may well be answered in the words of 
the proverb, 'patti chiari, amicizia lung a! . In the following 
pages the average prices of hotel accommodation and other items 
are stated with all possible accuracy , and although liable to 
fluctuation , will often prove a safeguard against gross extortion. 



xyi CONVEYANCES. 

The equanimity of the traveller's own temper will greatly assist 
him if involved in a dispute or bargain , and he should pay no 
attention whatever to vehement gesticulations or an offensive 
demeanour. The slighter his knowledge of the Italian language 
is, the more careful should he be not to involve himself in a war 
of words, in which he must necessarily be at great disadvantage. 

It need hardly be observed that the representations of drivers, 
guides, and others of a similar class, with whom even the in- 
habitants of the place often appear to act in concert, are unworthy 
of the slightest reliance. In such eases the traveller may gen- 
erally depend on the data in the Handbook. Where farther in- 
formation is required, it should be sought from printed tariffs, from 
fellow-travellers, gensdarmes, respectably dressed persons present, 
occasionally from landlords, but seldom or never from waiters. 

The traveller should always be provided with an abundant 
supply of copper coin in a country where trifling donations 
are incessantly in demand. Drivers, guides, porters, and donkey- 
attendants invariably expect , and often demand as a right , a 
gratuity (buona mano, mancia, da bere, bottiglia, caffe, fumata), 
varying according to circumstances from 2-3 sous to a franc or 
more, in addition to their hire. The traveller need not scruple 
to limit his donations to the smallest possible sums, as liberality 
is often a fruitful source of annoyance and embarrassment. The 
bestowal of half-a-franc when two sous would have sufficed may 
be fraught with disagreeable results to the injudicious donor; 
the fact speedily becomes known, and he is besieged by a host 
of other applicants whose demands it becomes utterly impossible 
to satisfy. 

VI. Conveyances, f 

Railways. With the exception of the Rome and Naples and the 
Naples and Avellino lines, which belong to the Ferrovie Romane, 
the whole of the railways of S. Italy and Sicily are in the hands of 
the Ferrovie Meridionali company. The first-class carriages are 
seldom better than the second on most of the German and Swiss 
lines. 'Si cumbia eonvoglio' means 'change carriages'. 

'■Fare il biglietto' signifies 'to take one's ticket'. The ticket- 
office is usually open half-an-hour before the departure of the 
train, but the issue of the tickets is often so extremely slow that 
travellers with luggage should always endeavour to be among the 
first applicants. The exact fare should, if possible, be kept in 



I The most trustworthy time-tables are those contained in the Indi- 
catore Ufficiale delle Strode Ferrate, della Nangazione e Telegrafia del 
Regno d' Italia , published at Turin monthly by the Fratelli Pozzo (with 
map, price 1 fr.J, with which every traveller should be provided. Smaller 
collections of time-tables are also published at Naples, in Sicily, and 
elsewhere for local use (10-50 c). 



CONVEYANCES. xvii 

readiness in order that farther delay may be avoided. The wait- 
ing-rooms are kept closed until hfilf-an-hour before the departure 
of the train. By a law passed on 14th Oct. 1866, a tax of 5 c. 
is Imposed on each railway-ticket. Except at Naples and a few 
other large stations, passengers do not give up their tickets until 
they leave the station (where uscita is usually called out to attract 
their attention). 

The traveller is recommended to ascertain the weight of his 
luggage, if possible, before going to the station, in order to guard 
against imposition. Luggage may be booked to any station whether 
the passenger accompanies it or not, and the traveller is thus en- 
abled to send his luggage to his final destination while he himself 
breaks his journey at pleasure. No luggage is allowed free, except 
what is taken by the passenger into his carriage, which must not 
exceed 20 kilogrammes (about 44 lbs. Engl.) in weight. Porters 
who convey luggage to and from the carriages expect a few sous 
where there is no fixed tariff. Travellers who make a short stay 
only at any station may deposit their luggage at the luggage-office 
(dare in deposito, or depositare). 

CmctxAR Tickets are issued on the N. Italian and Roman rail- 
ways only (the latteT extending as far as Naples), but not on the 
S. Italian lines. A list of the various circular tours may be con- 
sulted in the 'Indicatore Uf'ficiale'. Through-tickets to Naples, 
Brindisi, etc., may be obtained in England and in Germany. 

Steamboats. A voyage on the Mediterranean or Adriatic is 
almost inseparable from a tour in Southern Italy. If the vessel 
plies near the coast, the voyage is often entertaining ; and if the 
open sea is traversed, the magnificent Italian sunsets, lighting up 
the deep blue water with their crimson rays, present a scene not 
easily forgotten. Rough weather is not very often to be appre- 
hended in summer. 

Tickets should be purchased by the traveller in person at the office 
of the company. The ticket is furnished with the purchasers name and 
destination, the name of the vessel, and the hour of departure. First and 
second class family-tickets, for not fewer than three persons, are issued 
by all the companies at a reduction of 20 per cent on the passage-money, 
but not on the cost of food. A child of 2-10 years pays half-fare, but in 
this case must share the berth of its attendant. Two children are entitled 
to a berth for themselves. — Enquiry should be made beforehand as to 
the punctuality of the vessel, as it sometimes happens that the shipment 
and unshipment of goods prolong the voyage for a day or move beyond 
the advertised time. 

The First Class saloons and berths are comfortably and elegantly 
fitted up, those of the Second tolerably. Second-class passengers, like 
those of the first, have free access to every part of the deck. Officers of 
the Italian and French armies, up to and including those of the rank of 
captain, are entitled to second-class berths only. When ladies are of the 
party it is of course advisable to travel first-class. 

T.cggage. First-class passengers are allowed 70 kilogrammes (156 lbs. 
Engl.), second-class 45 kilogr. (100 lbs.), but articles not intended for per- 
sonal use are prohibited. 

Food of good quality and ample quantity is generally included in the 

■RAKDKKI.-B Tt-lii TTT 1l\. TT.J!*.--- k 



Xviii CONVEYANCES. 

first and second-class fares. Dijetiner a In fourchette, served at 10, con- 
sists of 3-4 courses , table-wine , and coffee. Dinner is a similar repast 
between 5 and 6 o'clock. Passengers who are too ill to partake of these 
repasts are provided with lemonade , etc. , gratuitously. Refreshments 
may of course be procured at other hours on payment. 

Fees. The steward expects 1 fr. for a voyage of 12-24 hrs., but more 
if the passenger has given unusual trouble. 

Embarkation. Passengers should be on board an hour before the 
advertised time of starting. The charges for conveyance to the steamboat 
(usually 1 fr. for each person with luggage) are fixed by tariff at all the 
seaports, and will be found in the Handbook. Passengers should there- 
fore avoid all discussions on the subject with the boatmen, and simply 
direct them to row 'al Vaticano', 'alia Bella Venezia', or whatever the 
name of the vessel may be. On the way, the boatmen often make demands 
extravagantly in excess of the tariff, such as, 'Signore, sono cinque lire! 1 
— to which the passenger may simply reply, 'avanti!' On arriving at 
the vessel, payment should not be made until the traveller with all his 
luggage is deposited on deck. The wild gesticulations of the boatman, 
who has perhaps calculated upon the credulity of his passenger, but re- 
ceives no more than the fare fixed by tariff (which is ample remune- 
ration), may be enjoyed with serenity from the deck, a 'terra sacra' on 
which disputes are strictly prohibited. 

The passenger gives up his ticket on board, receives the number of 
his berth, superintends the stowing away of his luggage, and finally repairs 
to the deck to observe the progress of the vessel as it quits the harbour, 
of which a fine view is generally obtained. 

Diligences. Vetture Corrieri are the swifter conveyances which 
carry the mails , and accommodate two or three passengers only 
at high fares. DUigenze, the ordinary stage-coaches, convey tra- 
vellers with tolerable rapidity, and generally for the same fares 
as similar vehicles on other parts of the continent. They are in 
the hands of private speculators, and where several run in com- 
petition the more expensive are to he preferred. When ladies 
are of the party the coupe' (one-third dearer) should if possible 
be secured. The drivers and hostlers generally expect a few soldi 
at the end of each stage. 

Carriages. Those who travel in a hired carriage of their own 
are of course much more independent than diligence-passengers. 
On the more frequented routes a carriage with one horse may gener- 
ally be hired for 3 / 4 -l fr., and on the less frequented for l /2- 3 /i fr- 
per English mile. 

Walking Tours. An Italian never walks if he can possibly 
drive ; to him it is an inscrutable mystery how walking can afford 
pleasure. In the more frequented districts, however, such as the 
environs of Naples, the inhabitants are accustomed to this mania of 
travellers from the north. Walking excursions in other parts of 
Italy also have their peculiar attractions, and among other advan- 
tages that of procuring for the pedestrian the enviable reputation 
of being a pittore, or needy individual from whom little is to be 
extorted. 

Prolonged and fatiguing walking-tours, such as are undertaken 
in more northern climates, will be found impracticable in Italy. 
Cool and clear weather should if possible be selected, and ex- 



HOTELS. xix 

posure to the sirocco studiously avoided. The height of summer 
is totally unsuitable for tours of this kind. 

Biding. A horse (cavallo), mule (mulo), or donkey (sommaro ; 
Neapol. ciucio ; Sicil. vettura, applied to all three animals), between 
which the difference of expense is trifling, often affords a pleasant 
and cheap mode of travelling, especially in mountainous districts, 
where the attendant (pedone) also acts as a servant for the time 
being. Side-saddles for ladies are also generally procurable. A 
bargain should be made previously , tutto compreso , a gratuity 
being added if the traveller is satisfied. 

VII. Hotels. 

First Class Hotels, comfortably fitted up, are to be found at 
Naples and some of the places in its vicinity, at Brindisi, Palermo, 
Messina, Catania, and Acireale, the landlords of many of them being 
Swiss or Germans. Rooms 2 1 / 2 -5fr., bougie 75c.-l fr., attendance 
1 fr., table d'hote 4-6 ft., and so on. Families, for whose reception 
the hotels are often specially fitted up, should make an agreement 
with regard to pension (8-10 fr. per day for each person). Visitors 
are expected to dine at the table d'hote ; otherwise theyare charged 
more for their rooms, or are informed that they are engaged by 
other travellers. French is spoken everywhere. Cuisine a mixture 
of French and Italian. — The numerous Pensions in or near 
Naples, often kept by English or German ladies, are usually com- 
fortable, clean, and moderate. Passing travellers are received at 
many of them even for a day or two. 

The Second Class Inns, as in Northern and Central Italy, gener- 
ally have a trattoria in connection with the house. Room i^Ji-i, 
light and attendance 1 fr. per day. Enquiry as to charges, however, 
should always be made beforehand ; and in bargaining for a room 
the 'servizio e candela' should not be forgotten. An extortionate 
bill may even be reduced though no previous agreement has been 
made, but this is never effected without long and vehement dis- 
cussions. 

Attendance, exclusive of boots and commissionnaire, is usually 
charged in the bill at the best hotels. In the smaller inns it is 
generally included in the charge for rooms ; but if not, 1 fr. per 
day may be divided between the waiter and the facchino, or less 
for a prolonged stay. Copper coins are never despised by such 
recipients. 

The popular idea of cleanliness in Southern Italy is behind the age, 
dirt being perhaps neutralised in the opinion of the natives by the bril- 
liancy of their climate. The traveller will rarely suffer from this short- 
coming in hotels and lodgings of the best class; but those who quit, the 
beaten track must be prepared for privations. In the village-inns the 
pig (animate nero) is a privileged inmate , and the poultry are freely ad- 
mitted. Iron bedsteads should if possible be selected, as being less in- 
fested by the enemies of repose. Insect-powder (polvere di Persia, or 
Keating's : better procured before leaving home) or camphor should be 

b* 



xx RESTAURANTS. 

plentifully sprinkled on the beds and on the traveller's clothing in places 
of doubtful cleanliness. The zanzdre, or mosquitoes , are a source of 
great annoyance, and even of suffering, in summer and autumn. "Windows 
should always be carefully closed before a light is introduced into the 
room. Light muslin curtains (zanzarieri) round the beds, masks for the 
face, and gloves are used to ward off the attacks of these pertinacious 
intruders. The burning of insect-powder over a spirit-lamp is also re- 
commended, and pastilles for the same purpose may be purchased at the 
principal chemists'. A weak solution of carbolic acid is efficacious in 
allaying the irritation caused by the bites. 

A list of the Italian names of the ordinary articles of underclothing 
(la biancheria) will be useful in dealing with the washerwoman : shirt 
(linen, cotton, woollen), la camisca (di tela, di cotone, di lana); collar, il 
collare; cuff, il manichino; drawers, le mutande; woollen undershirt, una 
giuba di fianella; petticoat, la sottana; stocking, la calza; sock, lo scap- 
pino ; handkerchief (silk), il fazolelto (di seta). To give out to wash, dare 
a bucato (di bucato, newly washed); washing-list, nota; washerwoman, 
laundress, la lavandaja, la stiratriee. 



VIII. Restaurants , Cafes. 

Restaurants (trattorie) are chiefly frequented by Italians, 
and by travellers unaccompanied by ladies. Dinner may be obtain- 
ed a la carte at any hour between 12 and 7 or 8 p. m., for l 1 /2 _ 5fr. ; 
or a repast (pasto) may be ordered at the lixed price of 3-5 fr. for 
each person. The waiters expect a gratuity of 2-5 soldi, or about 
1 soldo for each franc of the bill. The diner who desires to keep 
his expenses within reasonable limits should avoid ordering dishes 
not included in the bill of fare. 

List of the ordinary dishes at the Italian restaurants : — 



Minestra, or Zuppa, soup. 

Consume, broth or bouillon. 

Zuppa alia Sante, soup with green 
vegetables and bread. 

Riso con piselli, rice-soup with peas. 

Risotto, a kind of rice-pudding (rich). 

Maccaroni al burro, with butter; al 
pomidoro, or alia Sapolitana, with 
tomatas, see below. 

Manzo, beef. 

Lesso or bollito, boiled meat. 

Fritto, fried meat. 

Frittura mista , liver , brains , arti- 
chokes, etc., fried together. 

Frittata, omelette. 

Arrosto, roasted meat. 

Bistecca, beefsteak. 

Coscietto, loin. 

Arrosto di vitello , or di mongana, 
roast-veal. 

Testa di vitello, cairs head. 

Fe'gdto di vitello, calf's liver. 

Costoletta or braccioletta di vitello, 
veal-cutlet. 

Patate, potatoes. 

Quaglia, quail. 

Tordo, field-fare. 

Lodola, lark. 

Sfoglia, a kind of sole. 



Antepasto, principi alia tavola , or 

piattiiii, hot relishes. 
Funghi, mushrooms (often too rich). 
Presciutto, ham. 
Salami, sausage. 
Polio, or pollastro, fowl. 
Gallotla, turkey. 
Umidi, meat with sauce. 
Stufatino, ragout. 
Erbe or legumi, vegetables. 
Carriofi, artichokes. 
Piselli, peas. 
Lenticchie, lentils. 
Cavoli fori, cauliflower. 
Fave, beans. 

Fagiuolini, French beans. 
Sale, salt. 
Pepe, pepper. 

Mostarda, simple mustard. 
Sendpe, hot mustard. 
Oslriclie, oysters (good in winter 

only) . 
Frntta or Giardinetto, fruit-desert. 
Crostata di frutti, fruit-tart. 
Crostata di pasta sfoglia, a kind of 

pastry. 
Fragole, strawberries. 
Peru, pear. 
Pomi or mele, apples. 



CAFtiS. 



Persiche, peaches. 
Uva, bunch of grapes. 
Limone, lemon. 

Arancio or Portogallo, orange. 
Pane francese, bread made with yeast 
(the Italian is without). 



Finocchio, root of fennel. 
Formaggio , or in S. Italy caccio, 

cheese. 
Vino rosso or nero, red wine; bianco, 

white; asciutlo, dry; dolce, sweet; 

vino del paese, wine of the country. 



The Maccaroni of Naples is much esteemed , but is generally hard, 
and should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti\ It is usually flavoured with 
pomi d"oro (tomatas) , of which the Neapolitans are very fond. Sea-fish 
and ragosta, a kind of lobster, excellent. Shell-fish-soup (zttppa di von- 
gole), a good but indigestible dish. 

Cafes are frequented for breakfast and luncheon , and in the 
evening by numerous consumers of ices. Cafe noir (Caffe nero) 
is most commonly drunk (15-20 c. per cup). Caffe latte is coffee 
mixed with milk before served (20-30 c.) ; or co/fe e latte, i. e. 
with the milk served separately, may be preferred (30-40 c). 
The usual viands for lunch are ham, sausages, cutlets, and eggs 
(uova da here, soft; toste, hard; uova al piatto, fried). 

Ices (sorbetto, or gelato) of every conceivable variety are 
supplied at the cafes, particularly at Naples, at 30-90 c. per por- 
tion ; or half-a-portion (mezzo) may generally be ordered. Oranita, 
or half-frozen ice (limonata, of lemons; aranciata, of oranges; 
di caffe, of coffee), is chiefly in vogue in the forenoon. The 
waiter (cameriere), whose accuracy in giving change is not always 
to be relied on, expects a fee of 5-10 c. 

Cigars in Italy are a monopoly of Government, and bad. The prices 
of the home-made cigars (Scelti Romani , Virginias , Vevays , Cavours, 
Napolitaiii, etc.) vary from 5 to 10 c. Good imported cigars may be bought 
at the best shops in the large towns for 25-60 c. — Passers-by are at 
liberty to avail themselves of the light burning in every tobacconist's, 
without making any purchase. 

IX. Sights, Theatres, Shops. 

Churches are open in the morning till 12 or 12.30, and gener- 
ally again from 2-4 to 7 p.m. Visitors may inspect the works of 
art even during divine service , provided they move about noise- 
lessly, and keep aloof from the altar where the clergy are officiating. 
The verger (sagrestano or nonzolo) receives a fee of V2 fr. or U P~ 
wards, if his services are required. 

Museums, picture-galleries , and other collections are usually 
open from 10 to 3 o'clock. By a law of 1875 all the collections 
which belong to government are open on week-days at a charge of 
1 fr., and on Sundays gratis. They are closed on public holidays. 

The Museo Nazionale at Naples, for instance, is closed on New Year's 
Day, Epiphany (6th Jan.), the king's birthday (14th Mar.), Easter Sunday, 
Ascension Day, Corpus Christi, Festa dello Statute (first Sunday in June), 
Day of SS. Peter & Paul (29th June), Assumption of the Virgin (15th 
Aug.), Birth of the Virgin (8th Sept.), St. Januarius (14th Sept.), All 
Saints' Day (1st Nov.), Feast of the Conception (8th Dec), and on Christ- 
mas Day. 

Theatres. The performances at the larger theatres, beginning 
at 8, 8. 30, or 9, and ending at midnight or later , consist ex- 
clusively of operas and ballets , the first act of an opera being 



RECKONING OF TIME. 



usually succeeded by a ballet of three or more acts. The pit (platea), 
to which holders of the ordinary biglietto d'ingresso are admitted, 
is the usual resort of the men. For the reserved seats (scanni 
chiusi, sedie chiuse , poltrone , posti distinti) and boxes (palco) ad- 
ditional tickets must be taken. Ladies of course engage a box, or 
at least reserved seats. The former must always be secured in 
advance. — A visit to the smaller theatres, where dramas and 
comedies are acted, is recommended for the sake of familiarising 
the ear with the language. Performances in summer take place 
in the open air. — The theatre is a favourite evening resort 
of the Italians, and silence during the performance of the music 
is never very strictly observed. 

Shops rarely have fixed prices. As a rule two-thirds or three- 
quarters of the price asked should be offered (comp. p. 26). The 
same rule applies to artizans , drivers, and others. 'Non volete?' 
(then you will not?) is a remark which generally has the effect of 
bringing the matter to a speedy adjustment. Purchases should 
never be made by the traveller when accompanied by a valet-de- 
place. These individuals, by tacit agreement, receive at least 10 
per cent of the purchase-money, which of course comes out of the 
purchaser's pocket. 

X. Beckoning of Time. 

The old Italian reckoning from 1 to 24 o'clock is now disused 
in all the larger towns, except by the lower classes, but is still 
almost universally employed in the country, especially in Sicily. 
The ordinary reckoning of other nations is termed ora francese. 

The moment of the sun's disappearance below the horizon is 
'half past 23 o'clock' ; the twilight lasts about half-an-hour, after 
which it is '24 o'clock', or the close of the day, when 'Ave Maria' 







By Ital. time 






By Ital. time 


"5" " 










w ° 5 






« O S 






our 


our 






our 


our 


O^ to 






noon 


midnt. 




noon 


midnt 






is 


is 


5 *-"" 




is 


is 




Jan. 


1—12. 


19 


7 


5 


July 1—12. 


16 


4 


8 




13—31. 


1»>|, 


63|, 


51|4 


13—31. 


16i|, 


4i|4 


73(4 


Feb. 


1-15. 


18i| 2 


6' |a 


5i| 2 


Aug. 1—15. 


16>)2 


4i| 2 


7i 2 




16—24. 


I8I/4 


6>J4 


53) 4 


16—25. 


163)4 


43|, 


7'« 




25—28. 


18 


6 


6 


26—31. 


17 


5 


7 


March 


1— 5. 


18 


6 


6 


Sept. 1 — 5. 


17 


5 


7 




6—15. 


173| 4 


53/* 


6i| 4 


6—16. 


171/4 


5i|4 


63| 4 




16—26. 


17>( 2 


51 12 


6'|s 


17—27. 


171/2 


5i 2 


61/2 




27—31. 


17i), 


5>|4 


63/4 


28—30. 


JZ 3 ' 4 


53/4 


61/4 


April 


1—10. 


1T1/4 


51)4 


63|, 


Oct. 1—10. 


J?' 4 


53)4 


61/4 




11—20. 


17 


5 


7 


11—20. 


18 


6 


6 




21—30. 


163/4 


43|4 


7>| 4 


21—31. 


18i| 4 


6i), 


53/4 
51)2 


May 


1—15. 


16'l 2 


4M 2 


71J2 


Nov. 1—15. 


18i/ 2 


6') 2 




16—31. 


16>4 


4>4 


73|4 


16—31. 


18>4 


63 4 


5'l« 


June 


1—30. 


16 


4 


8 


Dec. 1—31. 


19 




5 



CLIMATE. HEALTH. xxiii 

is rung. The following hours are usually called 'un ora di notte', 
'due ore di notte', etc. This troublesome mode of calculation 
would necessitate a daily alteration of every time-piece in the 
kingdom, but it is thought sufficiently accurate to alter the 
hour of Ave Maria by a quarter of an hour about once a fort- 
night. The accompanying table shows the Italian compared with 
the ordinary hours. 

XI. Postal Arrangements. 

Post Office. The address of letters, whether poste restante (Ital. 
ferma in posta), or to the traveller's hotel, should in all cases be 
simple and distinctly legible, all superfluous titles being omitted. 
In asking for letters it is advisable to show one's visiting-card, and 
to see that a proper search is made among the poste restante letters. 

Postage-stamps (francobolli) are sold at many of the tobacco- 
shops. A letter of 15 grammes C/2 oz., weight of about 3 soldi) 
to any of the countries included in the postal union 25 c. ; post- 
card (cartolina postale) 10 c. ; book-post (stampe sotto fascia) 5 c. 
per 50 grammes ; registering (raccomandazione) 25 c. 

Letters by town-post 5 c. ; throughout Italy 20 c. prepaid, 
30 c. unpaid; post-cards 10 c, with card for answer attached 15 c. 

In the larger towns the post-office is open daily (including 
Sundays and holidays) from 9 a. m. to 10 p. m. 

Telegram of 20 words to Great Britain 10 (London 9) fr., 
France 4, Germany 5, Switzerland 3, Austria 3 or 4, Belgium 5, 
Denmark 7y 2 j Russia 11, Norway 8 1 / 2 , Sweden 8 fr. — To 
America from 3 3 /4 fr. per word upwards, according to the distance. 

In Italy, 15 words 1 fr.; with special haste (telegrammi urgenti) 
5 fr. ; each additional word 10 or 50 c. — Registered telegrams may 
be sent at double charges. 

XII. Climate and Health of Naples. 
Climate. The hills in the vicinity of Naples only afford it par- 
tial protection against the winds. The Posilipo and the heights of 
S. Elmo and Capodimonte shelter it tolerably well on the N.W. 
and N. ; but the N.E. (Tramontana), S.E. (Scirocco), and S.W. 
(Libeccio) winds are opposed by no such natural barrier. The alter- 
nation of these air-currents from the N. and S. exercises the most 
material influence upon the temperature of the different seasons 
at Naples , and is the usual cause of the extreme variations which 
sometimes occur in the course of a single day. The month of Sep- 
tember and the first half of October form as a rule a favourable season 
for a visit to Naples, the mean temperature being about 70° Fahr., 
and the sky generally bright and cloudless. In November the rainy 
S. wind prevails , while in December, during which the N. wind 
blows, many fine days are enjoyed. The mean winter temperature 
is about 50°, but in the cold nights of January the thermometer 



xxiv CLIMATE. HEALTH. 

sometimes sinks 5-6° below freezing-point. Snow seldom falls in 
Naples itself, but the top of Mt. Vesuvius is often covered witn 
snow during the winter rainy season. Fogs are very rare, lowar » 
the end of January, or in February at latest , the S. winds again 
predominate, and a rainy season sets in , which often lasts till 
April. March resembles an English April in its changeableness, 
while April (mean temperature 60°) is perhaps the mostdelightlul 
month of the whole year. May (68°) is also an exceedingly plea- 
sant month. In June, July, and August the prevalent winds are 
from theN. and N.E., and the weather is extremely dry and sultry. 
The heat sometimes rises to 100° (mean 72-77°), but is pleasantly 
tempered by the S. wind, which rises in the forenoon and blows 
till about 4 p.m., an advantage unknown at Rome or Florence. 

Health. The sanitary condition of Naples is on the whole 
not unsatisfactory , and epidemics have not shown themselves so 
deadly here as in many large towns in cooler climates. This is . 
doubtless owing to its constant ventilation by the various winds ; 
but the traveller must be on his guard against the sudden changes 
of temperature occasioned by these otherwise beneficial currents. 
Rooms facing the S., such as are easily obtained in the -Sir. S. 
Lucia and Str. Vhiatnmone , are absolutely essential for the deli- 
cate, and highly desirable for the robust. Those, however, who 
object to dust and wind should avoid these localities. Another 
point to be observed is that the drains emptying themselves here 
into the sea pollute the air very perceptibly when the wind blows 
inshore. If diet be properly attended to, there is probably not so 
much risk of typhus fever arising from this cause as is sometimes 
imagined ; but delicate or nervous persons had better choose one of 
the hotels or pensions in the Ccrso Vittorio Emanuele. For a prolong- 
ed stay the parallel streets to the N. of the Riviera di Chiaja (S. 
Maria in Portico, S. Teresa, Cavallerhza, etc.), may be recommend- 
ed as sheltered, free from dust, and sufficiently well ventilated. 
The upper floors of the houses are often damper than those on the 
ground-floor, owing to the thinness of the walls. Care should be 
taken to see that all the doors and windows close satisfactorily. 
Travellers should be provided with a supply of warm clothing, 
and should be careful not to go out in the evening too lightly clad. 
Natives are generally much less negligent of these precautions 
than strangers. 

The water of Naples is obtained partly from aqueducts and 
partly from cisterns. It is of very indifferent quality, and, though 
rendered more palatable by the addition of snow or ice , cannot in 
this way be made any purer or more wholesome. — Attention to 
the above hints will generally enable the traveller to ward off 
illness, but should continued diarrhea or other serious symptoms 
occur, no time should be lost in summoning a physician. 



ANCIENT ART, 

from the German of 

Prof. Reinhard Kekule. 



We store 

The sculptured relics of the Past, 

And deplore 

The beautiful as lost at last. 

The traveller whose attention is directed to the treasures of 
the National Museum at Naples, to the relics of antiquity scattered 
throughout Southern Italy and Sicily , and who , possibly setting 
foot on the soil of Attica, finds himself, if favoured by fortune, in 
the presence of her glorious ruins — has in all probability had 
his appetite whetted in Rome, and has there collected such data as 
he will readily apply to all that presents itself as new to his obser- 
vation. But even he who turns himself at once to the contemplation 
of an heritage of antiquity such as that comprised in the favoured 
regions of Campania and Sicily has the promise of a rich and ab- 
undant harvest, if he but know how to prize its fruits. 

The National Museum partakes in many of its departments of 
the same character as the Vatican with its Statue world , and in- 
cludes many works in marble which have indeed been brought 
thither from Rome, notably those formerly belonging to the Farnese 
family. By the careful observer many of the statues will be re- 
cognised a- repetitions of those already seen in Rome. They belong 
to the numerous class of copies made from renowned masterpieces, 
which in the old Roman time were indispensable adjuncts to 
a display of wealth and refinement. Many of these marbles betray, 
owing to a certain redundancy and pliancy of outline , a taste 
peculiar to people of these coasts upon which Nature has lavished 
her choicest gifts. The exquisite Greek coins remind us that we are 
in a land that was once the thriving and envied seat of Greek cul- 
ture : innumerable tripods, candelabra, lamps, braziers, jars, jugs, 
caskets, bracelets, needles, house and kitchen-utensils of all kinds, 
weapons of warriors and gladiators, the numerous figures in bronze, 
above all a stately array of some hundreds of wall-paintings, unique 
in the world, indicate with sufficient clearness that here are col- 



xxvi ANCIENT ART. 

lected the results of excavations which present as in a mirror a 
complete and charming picture of ancient life, and that we are in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Pompeii , Herculaneum, and 
Stabise, long buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

His first impression of purely Greek art the Northern traveller 
in Italy receives at Paestum. The drive through a lonely, insecure 
country ; the picturesque beauty of the ruins and landscape with 
the glittering sea in apparently close proximity; the melancholy re- 
flection that these proud temples before their decay looked upon 
a thriving Hellenic city amid the smiles of nature, instead of a 
fever-stricken pestilential wilderness : all this serves so to excite 
the susceptibility of the beholder, that he will find the impression 
produced by these ruins , conspicuously that of the Temple of 
Jupiter , almost more overpowering than even the spectacle of the 
Roman forum. There the scale , the solidity and splendour of the 
edifices, as well as the surpassing wealth of form and sculptured 
ornament, are imposing. Here the architecture appears externally 
poor in merely superficial decoration : poorer than it had originally 
been. The coating of stucco , so fine and firmly set that it gave to 
the porous limestone a surface smooth as marble, is shattered and 
weather-stained , the forms themselves have extensively suffered ; 
wind and weather have obliterated the coloured leaves which de- 
corated the heavy collars of the capitals together with all that gay 
adornment bestowed according to Greek custom. But precisely in 
this absence of adornment , in a simplicity which brings to view 
only what is indispensable and essential, does this stern Doric 
temple with its dense array of mighty columns, with its lofty and 
ponderous entablature and far-reaching projection of cornice, in 
the clear and simple disposal of the masses, in solemnity and 
strength of proportion, in beauty and distinctness of outline, pre- 
sent itself as a revelation of the spirit of Greek architecture, which 
so fills us with amazement that we are apt to overlook the very 
slight expenditure of material space employed to produce this in- 
comparable impression of grandeur and sublimity. One who has 
seen the ruins of Paestum will have the more pleasure in examin- 
ing less impressive mementoes of the Greek ages from the city dedi- 
cated to Poseidon — the fine monumental paintings from Paestum 
in the National Museum of Naples : Warriors departing for the 
combat whence they are never to return. 

The Temple of Poseidon at Paestum is ascribed to the close of 
the 6th century B.C. From a far remoter past, however, dates 
the fragment of art-history which we are enabled to trace in Seli- 
nunto, although it cannot of course be deciphered on the spot from 
its ruins alone. The imagination is less severely taxed to supply 
all that is lost to the beauteous ruins in Segesta and Oirgenti. In 
Selinunto the effects of earthquakes have been so destructive that a 
clear conception of the temples can only be attained by reference 



ANCIENT ART. xxvii 

to the architects' plans and drawings. The sculptures belonging to 
these temples, brought to lightby recent excavations, are to be found 
in the Museum of Palermo. The oldest temple, usually distinguish- 
ed by the letter C, is that on the Acropolis. This was probably de- 
dicated to Apollo as god of succour, and was erected immediately 
subsequent to the foundation of the city, an event assigned variously 
to B.C. 651 and B.C. 628. The neighbouring and northernmost 
temple of the Acropolis, Z>, presumably sacred to Athena, is scarcely 
more recent. In the three metope-Teliefs which belong to the first- 
named temple C, scarcely a trace of Grecian beauty is discernible ; 
indeed they are almost ludicrously primitive and rude. And yet 
they afford an instructive insight into the rudimentary Sculpture of 
the Greeks. Possibly, in the place for which they were designed, 
aloft between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze, and set in a frame- 
work of strong and clearly denned architectural lines , the reliefs 
may have had a less repulsive effect. But it is curious to ob- 
serve how the same stage in art which had in architecture attained 
to an essentially coherent system , primitive perhaps in its severity 
and unwieldiness , yet conveying the impression of harmony in its 
completeness, should in the rendering of such figures as would con- 
tribute to its architectural ornamentation be beset by a childish 
restraint and uncertainty of aim ; how the same eye that watched 
over the ordered arrangement of each part and proportion as 
well as the delicate rendering of each line and ornament of the 
building , could be content to give representations of mythical 
events , which, as it appears to us, must have exhibited an aimless 
and startling conspicuousness and a grotesque vivacity, entailing 
the disfigurement of the human form and the entire sacrifice of 
natural proportion. And yet in these characteristics lies the germ 
of a mighty future, in the religious enthusiasm which anim-' 
ated the artist as he strove to give intelligible expression to 
the sacred history which he had to relate , in the independence 
and directness with which he embodied its purport in sculp- 
tured forms. Not that we can suppose such scenes to have been 
altogether new to him. He might have seen them in other 
places and in earlier times. But he had to mould them anew 
and from his own individual resources , without available pattern, 
and without that readiness in execution which the hand can only 
acquire by frequent exercise. The head of Medusa alone, this 
earliest figurative expression of destruction and horror, is clearly 
and unfailingly pourtrayed. To the artist as well as his contem- 
poraries this poverty in execution was not apparent. Their sucess- 
ors were not slow to make far different pretensions. If a kind 
fate had preserved the single statue of the youthful god that stood 
in the sanctuary, or at some future time should discover it to us, 
we should probably be overwhelmed with astonishment at the con- 
trast presented by the statue to the reliefs. At a time when such 



xxviii ANCIENT ART. 

reliefs as these were possible, Greek art had already possessed itself 
of a definite type for the statue of Apollo , and for the youthful 
form generally, in archaic stiffness , but conformable with the law 
of nature in shape and proportion ; while by constant comparison 
with nature it continued to gain in purity and truthfulness. 

By the same process representation in relief is gradually en- 
nobled. Offences against proportion and drawing are more easily 
overlooked in relief than in a lifesize work in the round ; the sus- 
ceptibility of the eye moreover is more readily forgotten in the in- 
terest excited by the pictorial narration. The monuments of Seli- 
nunto are pre-eminent in the opportunity they afford for observing 
on the spot what has sprung from these beginnings. Of the group on 
the Eastern hill the Temple F in point of time is next to those of 
the Pfean Apollo and of Athena. Then come Temple O, likewise 
dedicated to Apollo, one to Juno E, and lastly Temple A, occupy- 
ing the Acropolis. Temple F still belongs to the 6th century B.C., 
a period when the building of the Apollo Temple O had begun, to 
be completed at a later period. The Herseum (Temple of Juno) E 
and temple A date from the middle of the 5th century B.C. or 
not much later. Two halves of metope-slabs have been brought 
to light which adorned the temple F (a god and goddess contend- 
ing with giants), and four similar slabs from the Herseum are so 
far preserved that they furnish a sufficiently intelligible repre- 
sentation of Zeus and Hera, Artemis and Actseon, Heracles and 
the Amazons, and Athena contending with the Giants. 

In both metopes from F extraordinary clearness and animation 
again arrest the attention. The impetuous rush of the victorious 
goddess, the dying agonies of the fallen giant, his head convulsive- 
ly thrown back, his mouth open and grinning, his utter helpless- 
ness, are rendered with a turbulence , and with an expenditure of 
means, which appear to us very much in excess of what is needed 
for clear expression, and which simply outrage instead of satisfying 
one's sense of the beautiful. The two art -stages to which these 
reliefs, and the quaint rudeness of those of the Apollo Temple on 
the Acropolis belong, offer a certain analogy. In both cases all 
available means are applied with recklessness and in excess. Those, 
however, at the disposal of the later artist were infinitely richer 
and more perfect. While his predecessor had not altogether mastered 
the forms of art, he had acquired a certain familiarity with them, 
though at the cost of much toil and trouble ; but his power was so 
new and unwonted that he could not refrain from abusing it. The 
Metopae from the Hera um on the other hand, which mark the maturity 
of archaic art, show a command of expression ennobled by a fine 
perception of the beautiful. These qualities declare themselves most 
felicitously in the two compositions which represent the meeting 
of Zeus and Hera on Mount Ida and Artemis punishing Actseon. 
The expression of godlike serenity and joy which pervades the first 



ANCIENT ART. xxix 

scene transcends all similar efforts whether of earlier or later art : 
while the second is scarcely less admirable from the way in which 
the unmistakable wildness of the subject is subdued to something- 
like softness by modulation of'movement and occupation of allotted 
space. The technical method employed in the more recent metopes 
is peculiar. In the antique vases with black figures on a red giound 
the men are usually black, and the women, as far as the body itself 
is visible, white. Here the indication of the lighter and darker flesh 
colour of the two sexes has superficially supplied a necessary char- 
acteristic. But the perfected art also resorted to this distinction in 
rendering flesh-colour. In the paintings of Pompeii the bronzed, 
sunburnt bodies of the men form an effective contrast to the deli- 
cate and fairer forms of the women. Something of the same kind 
is found in the metopes of the Heraeum. As the entire temple is of 
tufa, they too are of the same material. Owing to the rugged and 
faulty nature of the material the architect resorted to a coating 
of stucco upon which he displayed his gaudy decoration. In the 
relief's on the other hand the nude forms of the women are given 
in white marble. The harmony of the different portions of the 
reliefs, multiform as they were, was restored by a profuse appli- 
cation of colour, which the purely architectural accessories also re- 
quired. 

These beautiful reliefs, which may appear somewhat primitive 
in our eyes, are contemporaneous with, or perhaps even more recent 
than the building and plastic decoration of the Parthenon in Athens. 
Compared with the works of Attica they exhibit a distinctly dif- 
ferent order of art, a Doric fashion of sculpture, which we again 
meet with in the older metopes from Selinunto. At a time when 
Greek art was in the zenith of its splendour, the Western Hellenes, 
who like the Greeks of Asia Minor had been once in advance of the 
mother-country, lost their advantage. Magna Graecia and Sicily can 
boast of no name comparable with those of Phidias and Polycletus. 
The reliefs of Selinunto have more in common with the works of 
Polycletus, than with those of the Attic school. In the National 
Museum at Naples there is a fine reproduction of the Doryphorus of 
Polycletus, from which we learn what Dobic Pbloponnesian sculp- 
ture was at its best ; in like manner the Farnese Head of Juno 
(p. 65), surpassing all similar conceptions of the goddess in majestic 
severity and repressed energy, fitly affords an idea of the master- 
piece of Polycletus. In a well-known passage in his history of art, 
Winckelmann describes perfect beauty as twofold, as having a double 
grace : the one as winning, — 'she descends from her eminence, 
revealing herself to the observant eye with a suavity devoid of 
self-abasement: she is not over-anxious to please, but would 
not be overlooked'. The other is self-satisfied and would be sought 
rather than court attention , — 'she holds converse only with the 
wise, appearing to the populace inimical and morose, she locks 



xxx ANCIENT ART. 

within her breast the soul's vibrations, and nearly attains to the 
blessed repose of the divine nature : and thus according to ancient 
writers the greatest artists sought to pourtray her'. To those who 
know how to observe will be revealed beneath the morose solemnity 
of this Farnese Juno an impressive picture of godlike repose and 
majesty. 

The Old Attic School is represented in Naples by the group 
of the tyrant-slayers Harmodius and Aristogiton (p. 65), a copy of that 
work of Anterior which stood in the market-place at Athens. The 
two Athenians rush to the attack , the sword of the younger being 
raised to strike ; the older of the two (the head of this figure does 
not belong to it, the original was bearded) is at hand to protect his 
brave comrade, as soon as the time comes for him to interfere ; and 
here the words of the great authority already quoted, in reference to 
the attributes of a severe style, are applicable: 'The drawing was 
impressive but hard , powerful but devoid of grace. The force of 
expression detracts from the beauty'... 'Art was hard and severe as 
the justice of the time which punished the most trilling offence with 
death'. Those who can retain in the eye a correct impress of forms 
may compare the two metopes of Temple F with this Attic group 
of the murder of Hippias. The same violence of action and render- 
ing of form are observable in both. But the reliefs appear wild, 
almost disordered and devoid of beauty, beside the symmetrical ac- 
curacy and precision , the concentrated power, the beautiful flow of 
lines in the group of statues. Farther, a comparison of the finest 
metopes from the Hera temple with this and other Attic works will 
give an insight into the various phases of subtlety and grace which 
find a place in the collective Greek character. Above all, such a 
comparison will direct attention to the widely differing conditions 
requisite for the execution of reliefs intended for architectural de- 
coration from those imposed upon the author of a self-contained 
work in the round on the grandest scale. This distinction must 
neither be overlooked nor too lightly estimated. 

Though in the National Museum there may not be found any 
very pure or important example of the Attic school of Phidias' time, 
a succeeding school is most happily illustrated by the Orpheus Belief 
(p. 70). Orpheus is permitted to bring his consort Eurydice out of 
Hades and to restore her once more to the light of the sun on con- 
dition that he shall not look upon her during the passage. He has 
failed to fulfil this condition. Hermes, the conductor of departed 
souls, with gentle measured gesture takes the hand of Eurydice to 
consign her anew to the realm of shades. In contemplating this com- 
position, beautiful in its simplicity as it is, hope and dismay altern- 
ately possess us. The advance of the train, Orpheus in the act of 
casting the fatal glance, the confiding communion of man and wife 
are quite unmistakable, as well as the interruption of their pro- 
gress and the subsequent return of Eurydice. And here we may 



ANCIENT ART. xxxi 

pause to wonder how antique art could present powerful effect 
clothed in persuasive beauty, or, if subdued , yet with striking ex- 
pression : and with what a modest expenditure of means she could 
assert 'this noble simplicity and grandeur of repose'. Even in its 
own time this work must have enjoyed a considerable reputation, 
as replicas are still to be seen in the Villa Albani at Rome and in 
the Louvre at Paris. The Neapolitan example is the most beauti- 
ful, and the severest too, of those extant. It may be remarked, by 
the way, that the inscriptions introduced, though they may be cor- 
rect in the explanation they give , must be of doubtful antiquity. 
— By far the greater number of sculptures in Naples belong like 
those in Rome to a more recent period of Greek art. The prostrate 
Amazon stretched out in death, a Dead Persian, a Dead Giant, and 
the Wounded Oaul, which will be readily recognised from its re- 
semblance to a master-piece of the Pergamenian school, the Dying 
Gaul in the Museum of the Capitol (the so-called dying gladiator), 
are parts of a votive offering of King Attalus of Pergamum at Athens, 
of which single figures are to be seen in Venice and in Rome. 

The colossal group of the so-called Farnese Bull (p. 64), which 
brilliantly represents the Rhodtan School, is more likely to arrest 
attention. This group will produce a powerful impression upon 
most beholders, and this not by force of its material bulk alone. 
The effect would have been even more impressive, had the work of 
restoration been successful, particularly in the standing female 
figure. It will be worth our while to analyse the nature of this 
effect, as well as the forces which contribute to it. An occurrence 
full of horror is presented to our view. Two powerful youths are 
engaged in binding on the back of a furious bull the helpless form 
of a woman. The mighty beast is plunging violently, and in another 
moment will be away, hurrying the burden he is made to bear to 
the terrible doom of a martyr. As soon as we have attained to an 
accurate conception of what is passing before us, horror and dismay 
rather than pity take possession of us. "What impels the youths 
to the deed? How is it that they are allowed to effect their purpose 
undisturbed? The answer is to be found outside the work itself. 
Antiope, expelled by her father, has given birth to Amphion and 
Zethus and abandoned them. The sons grow up under the care 
of an old shepherd. Antiope has yet other sufferings to endure at 
the hands of her relation Dirce who maltreated her. Dirce wander- 
ing on Mount Cythaeron in bacchanalian revel would slay the 
victim of her persecutions. She bids two young shepherds bind 
Antiope to a bull that she may thus be dragged to her death. The 
youths recognise their mother before it is too late : they consign 
Dirce to the doom prepared for Antiope. The ancient Greeks were 
familiarised with this myth by a celebrated tragedy of Euripides ; 
the subordinate work on the base, the mountain-god Cythaeron 
decked with Bacchic ivy, and the Bacchic Cista on the ground, 



xxxii ANCIENT ART. 

would help to recall all the minor incidents of the story. A doom 
pronounced by the gods is executed ; the fateDirce had prepared tor 
another recoils upon herself. But all this, or at least as much as 
will suffice for a satisfactory understanding of the work of art as 
such, cannot be gathered from the work itself. In the Orpheus 
relief we recognise without extraneous aid the separation of two 
lovers calmly resigned to their fate, their severance by the conductor 
of souls. An acquaintance with the exquisite legend will merely 
serve to enhance the thrilling emotions evoked by the sculptured 
forms. The Bull will excite our abhorrence if the story be not 
known to us ; while the knowledge itself and such reflections as it 
would suggest could scarcely reconcile us to the cruelty of the 
deed, nor help us to endure without something akin to petrifaction 
these moments of horror. But when our thoughts are sufficiently 
collected to allow of our realising the event, we are again lost in 
admiring wonder at the aspiring courage, at the command of all 
artistical and technical resources possessed by the author of this 
sculpture which uprears itself with such unfaltering power. The 
base is adorned with suggestions of landscape and appropriate 
animal-life more elaborately than was then usual in works of this 
kind, although analogies are not wholly wanting. But the landscape, 
the figure of the mountain-god Cythseron, together with all minor 
accessories, are far surpassed in interest by the principal figures 
and their action. The lovely feminine form of Dirce vainly im- 
ploring the powerful youths whose utmost exertions scarcely suf- 
fice to restrain the infuriated beast , the vivid reality of the whole 
scene , the artistic refinement in the execution have scarcely yet 
been sufficiently admired. We readily concede to one like Welcker, 
who brought the finest perceptions to bear on the exposition of 
antique art, 'that it is impossible to attain to the highest excellence 
in any particular direction without at the same time postponing 
one or other consideration of value'. That which was esteemed as 
the highest excellence, the goal which must be reached at the cost 
of all other considerations, has varied with successive epochs of 
Greek art. In the present case repose and concentration are sacri- 
ficed to the overwhelming effect of a momentary scene. Even at 
a time when restoration could not have interfered with the original 
design , the impression of a certain confusedness must have been 
conveyed to the spectator, at least at the first glance. It is emin- 
ently characteristic of this group 'that it powerfully arrests the 
attention at a point where an almost wild defiance of rule declares 
itself. The contrast presented in the scene — the terribly rapid 
and unceasing movement as the inevitable result of a momentary 
pause, which the artist with consummate boldness and subtlety has 
known how to induce and improve, give life and energy to the 
picture in a wonderful degree'. But Welcker himself, from whom 
these words are borrowed, reminds us how this group first arrests 



ANCIENT ART. xxxiii 

attention 'by the uncommon character of its appearance'. The 
group of the Bull assuredly displays excellences which belonged 
to the antique of every epoch, especially the intuitive perception 
that truth in the sphere of art is not identical with an illusory 
realism. The conception of this group proceeds from a complete 
apprehension of the subject to be embodied. But this fulness of 
apprehension is derived from the Tragedy. From the very beginning 
plastic art and poetry have been as twin streams springing from 
one source and flowing separately, yet side by side. Often indeed 
their waters have met and mingled. But it was long e'er the tide 
of poetry seeking a separate channel helped to feed the sister 
stream. The scene presented to us by this Farnese group was 
illustrated by Euripides long before its embodiment by plastic art 
in his tragedy, where Dirce's death is Telated by the messenger. The 
artist found material for his inventiveness at hand, which his fanc>. 
passionately stimulated, presently endowed with plastic form and 
life at a moment which promised 'an uncommon appearance', a 
majestic and overpowering effect which should command astonish- 
ment and admiration. We have already attributed the Farnese group 
to the Rhodian School in speaking of the origin and development 
of art. It was the work of two sculptors Apollonius and Tauriscus 
of Tralles in Asia Minor ; for, according to the Roman author Pliny, 
the group is identical with one by these artists which was brought 
to Rome from Rhodes, and in all probability found its way thence 
to Naples. — The colossal group of a man who bears away the dead 
body of a boy on his shoulders is usually ascribed to the Rhodian 
School. It has been described as Hector with the body of Troilus. 
But the corpse of a beloved brother saved from the battle-field 
would hardly be seized in such fashion. It would rather appear 
to be that of a victim borne away in triumph by a ruthless victor. 

In Naples we have a number of instructive examples of the 
two styles which are frequently designated as an antique Renais- 
sance, the New-Attic School, and the School of Pasitklbs ; of 
the latter in the bronze figure of Apollo playing the Lyre from Pom- 
peii, and in the archaic simplicity of the affecting group of Orestes 
and Electra ; of the former in the Vase of Salpion, or better still in 
the Aphrodite from Capua, the so-called Psyche, and similar works. 
In Naples abundant opportunity will be found for continuing the 
study begun in Rome of the heroes of an ideal world, of portraits 
(among which the mild and melancholy head of M. Brutus, the 
murderer of Caesar, is conspicuous), sarcophagus-reliefs, or whatever 
else may especially engage the attention. Probably, however, 
curiosity and interest will be most excited by the appearance of 
antique paintings from Pompeii and the neighbouring cities of Cam- 
pania buried at the foot of Vesuvius. 

The history of Greek Painting presents a problem difficult 
of solution. Happily we have outlived the superstition that the 
Baedeker. Italy III. 7th Edition. C 



xxxiv ANCIENT ART. 

people amongst whom the Parthenon arose , and who gave birth to 
a sculptor such as Phidias, should have contributed in painting 
nothing worthy of record. What we most desire, however, is still 
wanting. We are not in possession of any work by a master of the 
art ; but only of the products of a subordinate and mechanical art, 
and these only from a single and comparatively recent period. 

The greatest painter of the older time — and probably one of 
the greatest artists of all times — was Polygnotus , a native of 
Thasos. He lived for the most part in Athens, where he was pre- 
sented with the rights of citizenship, and was, though a contemporary 
of Phidias, his senior. As Phidias was a favourite of Pericles and 
employed by him, it would appear that Polygnotus was a protege" of 
Cimon. Pausanias, the Greek author of travels (in the time of 
Antoninus), had seen two large paintings by Polygnotus covering 
the wall in Delphi, and has minutely described them. In the one 
the fall of Troy was represented, in the otheT scenes from the nether 
world. In the first the Trojan Cassandra is the centre figure. Ajax 
has offered violence to her: she sits on the ground, in her hand the 
image of the insulted Athena ; around her the Greek heroes are 
sitting in judgment upon Ajax. In the background is the citadel 
of Troy, the head of the wooden horse reaches above its wall, which 
Epeios, the builder of the horse, is about to demolish. Right and 
left of the central group are scenes of destruction ; heaps of the 
slain, the savage Neoptolemus still persisting in his work of 
slaughter, captive women, and terrified children ; nor were more 
inviting scenes wanting. Close to the captive Trojan women iEthra 
was seen, the liberated slave of Helen , and farther back the tent 
of Menelaus is taken down and his ship equipped for departure. 
On the other side of the picture was recognised the house of An- 
tenor, which the Greeks had spared, while he himself and his 
family make ready to quit their desolated home and depart for 
foreign lands. Thus the entire centre of the composition has refer- 
ence to the crime committed after the conquest, which called aloud 
for punishment by the gods ; these scenes of death and horror were 
enclosed at the extremities by more peaceful incidents — the 
horror of the lower world whose shades envelope renowned heroes 
and heroines ; Odysseus compelled to descend to the abode of the 
departed — all this Polygnotus combined in one grand picture, 
skilfully alternating peace and the torments of hell, prodigious 
ghastliness and tender grace. Polygnotus had not only embodied in 
these pictures the mythical matter with which religious rites, epic 
poem, vulgar tradition and humour, as well as the earlier works of 
plastic art, could furnish him ; not only had he animated this 
material with captivating motives strongly appealing to the be- 
holder's imagination; but he had, as may still be recognised, while 
painting, asserted his power as a poet and supplied much that was 
original in the realm of fancy. The technical means at the disposal 



ANCIENT ART. xxxv 

of Polygnotus were so limited, so simple and antiquated, that in 
the Roman times admiration of his pictures was ridiculed as a con- 
ceit of dilettantism — just as at one time it was customary to scoff 
at the admirer of Giotto. Nevertheless with these simple means, 
Polygnotus could express himself with so much clearness, so nobly 
and sublimely, that Aristotle boasted of him that his forms were 
more noble and grander than were commonly seen in life , while 
the painter Pauson presented men worse than they really were, and 
Dionysius was true to nature. Having regard to these separate qua- 
lifications he suggested that the youthful eye should Teceive its im- 
pressions from Polygnotus and not from Pauson. In later times the 
beauty of Polygnotus' pictures continued to charm : in the second 
century A. D. his Cassandra supplied an author of refinement and 
penetration, like Lucian, with the material for a description of fe- 
minine beauty. 

While the fame of Polygnotus and his contemporaries rested 
principally on wall-paintings, lateT critics would maintain that 
those of his successors who first produced artistic effect in portable 
pictures were the only true painters. As the first painter in this 
sense the Athenian Afollodortjs may be named. The work which 
he began was completed by Zsrxis of Heraclea and Pakrhasius of 
Ephesus. We still possess a description by Lucian of the Centaur 
family by Zeuxis. The female Centarjr reclines on the grass, the 
human upper part of the body being raised and supported by the 
elbow. One of her two infants she holds in her arms giving it 
nourishment in human fashion ; the other sucks as a foal her teats. 
The male Centaur looks down from above. He holds in his right 
hand a lion-cub which he swings over his shoulder as if jokingly 
to frighten his young ones. 'The further excellences of the picture,' 
modestly continues Lucian, though evidently an accomplished 
connoisseur , 'which to us laymen are but partially revealed, 
which nevertheless comprise the whole of art's resources, correct 
drawing, an admirable manipulation and mingling of colour, man- 
agement of light and shade, a happy choice of dimension, as 
well as just relative proportion of parts to the whole, and the com- 
bined movement of the composition — these are qualities to be ex- 
tolled by one of art's disciples who has mastered the subject in it? 
detail'. This eloquent description by Lucian has been made the sub- 
ject of a spirited drawing by Genelli. I'nfortunately no such record 
of Parrhasius' works remains. The credit of having first applied 
symmetry, i.e. probably the systematic regard for the proportion 
recognised by later leaders in art, to painting, is claimed for Par- 
rhasius, as well as delicacy and grace in the artistic rendering of the 
countenance and hair. He is said, too, to have been supreme in 
the management of contour. But in later times Parrhasius was 
esteemed simple as a colorist compared with Apelles. 

The authors to whom are ascribed most of the notices of painter? 



xxxvi ANCIENT ART. 

that we possess, distinguish different schools. The Helladic 
School included the painters of Athens and those of the mother- 
country of Greece along with those of Sicyon. But owing to the 
pre-eminence achieved for Sicyon by the painter Eupornpus, the 
Helladic school was again subdivided under the title of Sicyonic 
and Attic or Attic-Theban , after certain artists of these schools. 
To this, or these schools rather, was opposed the Asiatic (Ionic). 
Pausias, whose name is known to us by Goethe's exquisite poem. 
was one of the Sicyonian School, and, so, it appears, was that spirited 
painter Timanthes, whose best-known work was his Iphigenia. She 
stood at the altar ready to be sacrificed , surrounded by the heroes 
of the Grecian camp, in whose persons, according to the character 
of each and with due regard to appropriateness, was pourtrayed 
every degree of mental anguish. Agamemnon himself veiled his 
head. Nicomachus, Aristides, Euphranor, likewise renowned as 
sculptor and master of heroic representation, and Nicias the friend 
of Praxiteles belong to the Theban-Attic school. Amongst the pic- 
tures of Aristides was one of a woman wounded during the siege. 
She is dying while her infant still clings to her breast. In the ex- 
pression of the mother's countenance could, it was thought, be read 
the fear lest her blood should be mingled with the milk the child 
was sucking. — The most brilliant master of the Ionic school — 
though he had had the advantage of studying his art in Sicyon — 
the most renowned indeed of the painters of antiquity, was Apelles. 
the contemporary of Alexander the Great, and incomparable in his 
power of expressing grace in all its forms. As yet we are not in pos- 
session of any distinct clue to the character of his most esteemed 
works, of Artemis, with her band of attendant Nymphs clustering 
around her, hurrying to the chase, nor of Aphrodite rising from the 
sea. "We are more fortunate in the instance of two younger painters. 
Aetion and Timomachus. Of the nuptials of Alexander by Aetion 
we have again a masterly description by Lucian, with which all are 
acquainted who have seen the beautiful Raffaelesque composition in 
the Palazzo Borghese at Rome. The Medea of Timomachus is to 
be traced in a series of imitations or reminiscences, on monuments 
of different kinds, but most remarkably in a mutilated picture from 
Herculaneum, and again in another perfectly preserved from 
Pompeii. 

The services thus rendered us by the Campanian towns in 
bringing to light the works of Timomachus encourage us to hope 
that they may be repeated in the case of other Greek celebrities. 
It is in fact concluded with a considerable show of probability that 
in the Pompeian representations of the liberation of Andromeda by 
Perseus are to be recognised influences of a picture by Nicias. It 
has frequently been attempted with much pains, and with aid of 
more or less audacious assumptions and combinations, to contrive 
copies of these renowned Greek masters, and when after all it has 



ANCIENT ART. xxxvii 

been found that such efforts are for the most part vain and futile, 
it has been urged in explanation of the failure that our acquain- 
tance with celebrated cabinet-pictures is too limited. We must, 
then, however unwillingly, accept the conclusion that anything more 
than a very qualified belief in Pompeian pictures is impossible. 
They are invaluable as a clue to many qualities which were com- 
mon to the painting of antiquity; invaluable, too, because they 
assuredly possess, in obedience to the unvarying traditions of an- 
tique art — which having taken a theme in hand would work it out 
to the last possible variation — a wealth of imagery and redundance 
of lineament which connect them more or less closely with the works 
of the great masters. But it is scarcely to be wondered at that the 
authenticity of copies from celebrated cabinet-pictures of the best 
period should be so rarely established, or wear even the appearance 
of probability ; it were a wonder indeed if so much could be accom- 
plished. 

Demosthenes reminds his countrymen in scathing words how 
in the palmy days of Athens the noblest edifices were erected in 
honour of the gods, while the dwellings of the most distinguished 
Athenians were simple and inconspicuous as those of their neighbours. 
Even at the time these words were spoken a change had come over 
Greek life. For the stern sublimity of the creations of an earliertime, 
Art had substituted a milder and more effeminate type of divinity, 
nor did she now disdain to enter the abodes of men. The splendour 
which had been reserved for the gods, now found its way into pri- 
vate dwellings. "What at first had been a bold innovation and an 
exception , presently grew into a universal requirement. From the 
epoch of culture inaugurated by Alexander onwards , sculptor and 
painter alike contributed to the artistical beauty and sumptuous 
adornment of dwelling-houses. Inventiveness, displayed in the 
designing and ornamentation of household furniture of every kind, 
followed as a matter of course , and though in Athens and Hellas 
expenditure in this way remained moderate, in other great cities, as 
Alexandria in Egypt and Antioch in Syria , artist and handicrafts- 
man alike vied with the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants, not 
only in beautifying the cities externally, but in lavishing upon the 
dwelling-houses of the rich the utmost attainable splendour. Plans 
were extended and adapted to the employments and highest enjoy- 
ment of life ; floors, walls, and ceilings were arranged and decorated 
in ever new and varying style. Then decoration in stucco and 
painting was supplemented by mosaic work which enlivened the 
floors with an effect as charming as that of painting ; nor was it 
long restricted to the floors. Along with other elements of culture 
the Roman world had borrowed from the Greek the beautifying of 
their houses , and as movement is never absolutely suspended, this 
taste received in Roman times a farther impetus in its original 
direction. We may safely assume, however, reasoning from aiiciloey. 



xxxviii ANCIENT ART. 

that it departed farther and farther from the purity and harmony of 
the Greek pattern. 

In the picture which Pompeii presents as a whole we see the 
last trace of that combined art and beauty which with trie later 
Greeks permeated life in every vein and in all its phases : a feeble 
and faded picture it must remain, however active the fancy may- 
be in investing it with attributes belonging to Hellenic art in the 
zenith of its splendour. From an earlier period, when the influence 
of the Greek was more directly felt, we have not received much from 
Pompeii that is instructive. The general impression is derived 
from the restorations consequent on the earthquake of the year 
A.D. 63. The great mass of decoration is the work of the sixteen 
years intervening between A.D. 63 and the town's final destruction 
in A.D. 79, and was in the newest fashion then prevailing in Rome, 
but necessarily on a scale commensurate with the resources of a pro- 
vincial town. As the Roman senate had ordered the rebuilding of the 
town, the pay of handicraftsmen would doubtlessly be attractive 
enough. The houses were made habitable with the utmost de- 
spatch, and received their decorations with the same haste. It is im- 
possible but to believe that the greater number of houses were thus 
completed by a comparatively small number of masters with their 
staffs of workmen. They had their pattern-books for the decoration 
of entire rooms and walls, as well as for simple pictures, and they 
resorted to these pattern-books more or less according to their need 
or fancy. The favourite motives and forms were so familiar to 
them that they had them literally at their fingers' ends : with incre- 
dibly certain and facile hand, and without concerning themselves 
about means or method, they fling their gaud and glitter over the 
naked walls. And very captivating is this stirring picture-pattern 
world which moved obedient to their will. Vistas of airy fantastical 
forms architecturally disposed and decked with wreaths and gar- 
lands delusively mask the narrow limits of the allotted space : 
while, by way of completing the illusory effect of this mock archi- 
tecture, graceful figures move in the midst, or from the open window 
look in upon the chamber. Arabesques, sprays and borders of 
foliage and flowers, and garlands gracefully enliven and divide the 
walls ; while in the midst of the enclosed spaces, from a dark back- 
ground, figures single or in pairs stand out in dazzling relief, and 
whether winged or otherwise are always lightly and surely poised. 
Here and there lovely maidens are seen dancing in mid-air; Ero 
tinkles on the strings of the lyre which Psyche holds ; Satyrs and 
Nymphs, Centaurs and Bacchantes, female figures with candelabra, 
flowers and fruits people this airy realm of fancy. Separate pic- 
tures at intervals engage the attention. They tell the story of the 
handsome but unsusceptible Narcissus , of Adonis the favourite of 
Aphrodite, whose early loss the goddess bewails with Eros, of Ph«- 
dra's shameless passion for Hippolytus ; the loves of Apollo and 



ANCIENT ART. xxxix 

Daphne , of Ares and Aphrodite , Artemis and Acteon , Ariadne 
abandoned by Theseus , the story of Leda, the life and pursuits of 
Bacchus and his followers, of the god finding the forsaken Ariadne, 
and of Satyrs pursuing Nymphs. Scenes of terror, too, there are : 
Dirce bound to the Bull, Medea meditating the murder of her 
children, the sacrifice of Iphigenia — but even these are rendered 
with an effect of sensuous beauty so entrancing that they are lost 
in the gladsome world of exuberant life about them. Mere tragedy, 
mere convulsive effort, acquired no enduring power over the senses: 
they are rather beguiled by the remembrance of some captivating 
legend, some transient impulse, a throb of compassion, which infuse 
a wholesome element into pictures abounding with expressions of 
rapturous delight. Where passion exerts itself it is but for the 
moment — the power of love for good or evil , the beauty of the 
human form , moments of bliss whether of mortals or the immor- 
tals — such is the material for an ever-recurring theme. Bits of 
landscape , houses with trees, rocks, or a grotto on the strand are 
suggestive of idyllic delights. And around these more conspicuous 
figures are grouped an accompaniment of small friezes with pic- 
torial accessories grave and gay, still life, animals and incidents of 
the chase, pygmies, masks, fresh fruit, and household vessels. 

The liveliest impression is made by the best examples of 
figures separately poised on the walls. Curiosity is most excited 
by the separate pictures ; they are the last remnant of the historical 
painting of the old world. They cannot, however, enable us to 
form a just estimate of the works of the greatest ancient masters. 
If genuine and adequate copies of celebrated cabinet-pictures from 
the best period were to be found amongst Pompeian decorations it 
would be by an accident altogether exceptional and capricious. 
The artist-bands who subsequently to the earthquake of A.D. 63 
pushed their work so easily and so rapidly had neither these ca- 
binet-pictures nor the genuine and adequate copies to guide them, 
but simply the drawings of their pattern-books. 7 Thoroughly trained 
as they were mechanically to the work , they turned their sketches 



t There have been long-standing differences of opinion about the me- 
chanism of painting practised in Pompeii. A solution of the problem is 
the result of researches conducted by the painter 0. Donner (in a work 
published by Prof. Helbig, entitled 'Wall-paintings of the cities of Cam- 
pania destroyed by Vesuvius', Leipsic 1868). According to this authority it 
is certain that, the greater number of the pictures as well as wall-decora- 
tions were painted in fresco , i. e. upon a newly prepared and moistened 
surface — and only in exceptional cases and as a makeshift upon a dry 
ground. Conclusive evidence of this is afforded by the presence, to which 
Donner refers, of so-called Fresco-edges, i.e. of spots where the newly 
prepared surface came in contact with what was already dry. The sur- 
face intended for the reception of colour was prepared by the painters of 
antiquity with such care that it retained the moisture much longer than 
in recent times has been found attainable. They were thus enabled to 
cover large wall-spaces without interruption and in this respect had a con- 
siderable " advantage over us moderns. — In 1873 Professor Helbig pub- 



xl ANCIENT ART. 

to the best possible account, transferred them on the required scale, 
making additions or omissions as the case might be, varying, modi- 
fying and curtailing, as necessity, fancy, and the measure of their 
capacity might prescribe. The enclosed pictures, which in graceful 
inventiveness and execution often enough surpassed the forms oc- 
cupying the open spaces, cannot be considered apart from the 
general decoration with which in manner and method they are 
identical. They betray moreover in spite of all that is beautiful 
and admirable about them, symptoms of degeneracy; just as the 
wall - decorations of Pompeii descending from elegance to the 
trivialities of mock architecture exhibit a degeneracy which must 
not, however, be regarded as inherent in the art of which we see 
here but a feeble reflection. Thus we learn that the way from the 
great painters of Greece to the wall-pictures of Pompeii is neither 
short iiot straight, but long and too often hard to find. Many of 
the forms and groups so gracefully poised in the open wall-spaces 
may in their origin have reached back so far as to the happiest 
period of Greek art; it is also possible, that, when framed pictures 
were for the first time painted on the walls of houses in the epoch 
of Alexander, or at whatever other period this style of decoration 
came into vogue, celebrated easel-pictures were copied or laid 
under contribution. The designers of the pattern-books may have 
betaken themselves to a variety of sources , they may have ap- 
propriated and combined , as old and new patterns , entire de- 
corations together with separate figures and finished pictures. Like 
the pattern-books for the sarcophagus-reliefs, they must have been 
full of ideas and motives derived from an earlier and nobler art. 
And as wall-painting is more akin to high art we may encourage 
the hope that patient research will often be rewarded by discovering 
— as hitherto amidst a tanglement of conflicting evidence — not 
the works themselves of the great masters, but those traces of their 
work which we so eagerly seek. In Pompeii, however, we learn the 
necessity of caution, for we there find examples of a much earlier 
style of decoration than the 'Pompeian'. 

No one could overlook the solemn dignity of aspect which makes 
the Casa del Fauno conspicuous amidst the mass of habitations in 
Pompeii. Here beauty reveals itself in column and capital, cornice 
and panelling, favourably contrasting with the gaudy frippery of a 
fantastical mock architecture with its pictorial accompaniments. 
The wealthy family which occupied this mansion may have rejoiced 
in the possession of many a costly cabinet -picture. But at the 
time the house was built it was not yet the custom, or it was not the 
owner's pleasure to follow the newest fashion. In their place a 



lished a supplement to his earlier work (Leipzig), and in 1879 a con- 
tinuation of his list of mural paintings appeared in Italian , under the 
title 'Zc PMure Mnrali Campane scoverte nzgli anni 1867-79, descritte da 
Antonio Sogliano\ 



ANCIENT ART. xli 

complete series of the finest mosaics formed a part of the general 
decoration of the house. These are still partially preserved and to 
be seen on the spot. Here the celebrated Battle of Alexander was 
found, grand in composition, and a gemiine example of high art, in 
which we recognise once more the magic touch of Greek genius : 
how with the simplest possible means the loftiest excellence was 
achieved ; here, too, we gain an insight into the method pursued by 
the great painters in their works. A very different and far grander 
art declares itself in these mosaics than in the wall-paintings. The 
other mosaics found in this mansion also rank high in point of 
beauty as well as in precision and purity of drawing, and owing to 
the difficulties of reproduction in mosaic consequent on the nature 
of the material the fact becomes doubly suggestive that in effectual 
and complete mastery of drawing there is nothing in the whole 
range of Pompeian pictures to surpass the border of masks, gariands, 
foliage and fruits of the Casa del Fauno or the mosaics attributed 
to the artist Dioscorides. But we may well delight in the air of 
cheerful airy grace pervading these pictorial decorations of Pom- 
peii, in this precious heritage of Grecian — and in part old Gre- 
cian — life and beauty which a licentious posterity has scattered 
over its dazzling walls. 

Whoever has had eye and sense alike familiarised with the 
wonders of antique art will be richly repaid by a visit to Athens, 
the venerable city of Pericles and Phidias. Here , in spite of the 
ravages of time, he will find the fulfilment of his cherished desire. 
For he is in the home of all that is most noble and precious, of 
what Rome and Naples had afforded him but a glimpse and a 
foretaste. There is not a fragment, whether bearing inscription or 
Telief , to be picked up on the Acropolis of Athens that does not 
tell how religion , art, and civic life were constantly interwoven ; 
how deeply they were rooted in their native soil. And on the 
loftiest summit of this castle-rock, towering above all surround- 
ing objects, there yet stands the most strikingly impressive and 
splendid record of this composite life, a witness of the time 
when the Attic people were at the height of their prosperity and 
their greatness — the Parthenon of Pericles, having an import in 
its ruins which elevates and engrosses the soul. 

The Doric structure is in its general scope very much what we 
see in Psestum, only of finer material, purer form, and more uni- 
form completeness. Thought and feeling are distinctly traceable 
in the simple and beautiful proportions of the Poseidon Temple, 
though in a guise somewhat primitive and harsh. We are im- 
pressed by the dense array of stout columns, and never doubt their 
power to sustain with their broad capitals the weight of ponderous 
entablature and roof imposed upon them. In the Parthenon a 
forest of pillars rear themselves above the majestic flight of marble 



xlii ANCIENT ART. 

steps which separate and lift the building from the earth 'which, 
slender but stalwart, seem to defy the impending burden' ; 'and 
this burden itself, the entablature and roof, is so richly elaborated, 
so forcibly projected, is so harmoniously adjusted in its proportions 
to the structure beneath, that the conflict between burden and 
bearer which in earlier times' was so apparent is here no longer 
recognised as conflict. The more intently we gaze, the more are we 
impressed as with the glories of Nature ; above all in the structure 
as a whole we behold not only the enchantment, but the entire 
solemnity of beauty, and as we endeavour to analyse this effect, it 
resolves itself into wonder that the mind which controlled the shap- 
ing of each part should yet have failed to endow the mighty unit 
with the talisman of life'. We may not indeed recognise the hand 
of Ictinus in the building ; but by a comparison with the temple 
now known as that of Theseus , intrinsically beautiful as it is, we 
see plainly enough with what good reason the work of this master 
was highly prized; we can participate, too, in the admiration for 
Mnesicles, the architect of the Propylaea. The genius of Phidias 
was associated with that of Ictinus. The creations of his hand are 
to be seen in pediment , metopes, and interior frieze — wherever 
sculpture would be admissible or could be called into requisition. 
In Athens herself, too, enough remains to convince us of the force 
and richness of these sculptures. But instead of the goddess herself 
who stood in her shrine, colossal in size and wrought in gold and 
ivory, we have an unfinished statuette only, probably once rejected 
as a failure , which at best can but convey in the vaguest pos- 
sible manner an idea of the mere material characteristics of the 
original statue without affording a glimpse of its amazing beauty 
and richness. 

Besides the works of the great masters, besides Propylaa, 
Parthenon, Erechtheum, and Temple of Victory, besides the Theseum 
and the elegant Lysicrates Monument, — the beautiful Votive Reliefs 
of the Asklepieum, and still more the Sepulchral Beliefs which form 
so large a part of the Athenian collections, and those by the Di- 
pylon which afford a distinct picture of an Athenian street of tombs 
or Attic cemetery, claim our attention. They perhaps show most 
clearly how every class of the Athenian community was possessed 
with a sense of the beautiful ; how the obscurest handicraftsman, 
though he might not soar on the wings of genius , still might in 
time come to share his acquisitions. Amongst these sepulchral 
reliefs are single examples of considerable antiquity, such as the 
stele of Aristion which bears his portrait, attired as warrior in full 
armour. The majority belong to the 4th century B.C. and a time 
shortly ensuing. Amongst other particulars the sepulchral relief 
records the manner of the deceased's death. Thus the youthful 
Dexileus, who fell in glorious battle at Corinth in B.C. 394, is 
represented fighting on horseback. The most prevalent style, 



ANCIENT ART. xliii 

however, is that of the so-called family-scenes. They are indeed 
family - pictures , but not of everyday or indifferent moments. 
Separation and sorrow are expressed in gentle and temperate, but 
unmistakable manner. Husband and wife, father and mother, 
parent and children and relations offer the hand in parting ; and 
when on the grave of a matron or maiden a festive scene is intro- 
duced, a reference to death was never very remote. 

But just as in Athens we are made sensible that classic art is 
not a mere historical phenomenon like hundreds of others , but has 
a definite retrospective value which cannot be ignored, there it is 
that our regrets for all that is lost or destroyed must be most pro- 
found. Even now we are linked by a thousand invisible chains 
to the inspired achievements of the foremost Greeks. Travel and 
life in these southern lands will tend not a little to awaken and 
foster the conviction that we should do ill to sever these bonds. 
He to whom this conviction remains, even though it be the solitary 
fruit of his travel, will have little occasion for regret. 



History of the Kingdom of Naples. 

The former kingdom of Naples contained at the end of 1878 
10,328,000 inhab. (including Benevento) , and is divided into 16 
provinces. In ancient times it embraced the tribes of the Volsci, 
Samnites, Oscans, Companions, Apulians, Lucanians, Calabrians r 
Bruttians , Siculians , and a number of others of less importance, 
all of whom were characterised by the most marked peculiarities 
of language, custom, and political constitution. The Oscan lan- 
guage , the one most generally spoken , predominated in Samnium, 
Campania, Lucania , and Bruttium. On the W. and S.W. coast, 
and especially in Sicily, Greek colonists settled in such numbers 
that the S. portion of the Italian peninsula received the name of 
Magna Graecia. After the war against Pyrrhus , king of Epirus, 
in the 3rd cent, before Christ, the Romans became masters of the 
land, but the Greek language and customs continued to predominate 
until an advanced period in the Christian era. That this was the 
case in the time of the early emperors has been distinctly proved 
by the character of the antiquities of the excavated Oscan towns of 
Herculaneum and Pompeii. After the fall of the Western Empire 
this district was occupied by Ostrogoths and Lombards , then by 
Romans from the E. Empire , who in their turn were constantly 
harassed by Arabian bands which attacked them by sea, and who 
finally succumbed in the 11th cent, to the Norman settlers. The 
Hohenstaufen family next held the country from 1194 to 1254. In 
1265 Charles of Anjou gained possession of Naples and established 
his dominion , which was secured by the cruel execution in 1268 
of Conradin, the lawful heir. His power , however, having been 
impaired by the Sicilian Vespers, 30th May, 1282, rapidly declined 
in consequence of the crimes and degeneracy of the royal family 
and of disastrous wars with the island of Sicily, then in possession 
of the Arragonese. Charles VIII. of France , as heir of the Anjou 
family, undertook a campaign against Naples and gained possession 
of the kingdom in a few days , but was unable to retain it. His 
successor Louis XII. allied himself with Ferdinand the Catholic of 
Spain with a view to conquer Naples , but in consequence of dis- 
sensions was compelled to abandon his enterprise after the victory of 
(ionsalvo da Cordova on the Liris. Naples, like Sicily and Sardinia, 
then yielded to the power of Spain, which maintained her dominion 
till 1713. Gonsalvo da Cordova was the first of the series of Spanish 



HISTORY OF NAPLES. xlv 

viceroys, many of whom, such as Don Pedro de Toledo under 
Charles V. (1532-54) , did much to promote the welfare of the 
country. The rule of others, especially during the 17th cent., was 
such as to occasion universal distress and dissatisfaction , a mani- 
festation of which was the insurrection under Masaniello at Naples 
in 1647. At the peace of Utrecht in 1713 Philip V. of Spain, of 
the house of Bourbon , ceded Naples and Sicily to the house of 
Hapsburg, but after prolonged conflicts they reverted to his son 
Charles in 1734, under the name of the '•Kingdom of the Two Sici- 
lies'. Notwithstanding revolutionary disturbances, the Bourbons 
continued to reign at Naples until the close of the century. In 
1806 Napoleon I. created his brother Joseph king of Naples , who 
was succeeded in 1808 by his brother-in-law Joachim Murat. 
In June, 1815, King Ferdinand, who with the aid of the English 
had meanwhile maintained his ground in Sicily, returned to 
Naples , and in his person the Bourbon dynasty was restored. 
The following October, Joachim Murat ventured to land at Pizzo 
in Calabria , but was captured , tried by court-martial , and shot. 
15th Oct. 1815. Popular dissatisfaction, however, still continued, 
and in 1820 a rebellion broke out in Italy and Sicily, but it was 
speedily quelled by the Austrians under Frimont in 1821 , who 
occupied the country till 1827. King Ferdinand I. was succeeded 
in 1825 by his eldest son Francis I. , and the latter in 1830 by 
Ferdinand II., whose reign was characterised by an uninterrupted 
succession of internal struggles, partly in Naples and partly in Si- 
cily , especially after the year 1848. In the spring of 1859, when 
the war between Sardinia and Austria broke out in N. Italy, which 
by the peace of Villafranca would have entirely changed the inter- 
nal condition of Italy, Ferdinand II. died, and his son Francis II. 
(married to the Princess Mary of Bavaria) was compelled to yield 
to the storm which burst forth afresh. In May , 1860 , Garibaldi 
began his victorious march through Sicily and Calabria , which 
ended at Naples in August. In the meantime the Piedmontese 
troops, at the instigation of Cavour, had also entered the kingdom 
of Naples. On 1st Oct. Francis II. was defeated at a skirmish on 
the Volturno. On 7th Oct. King Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 
entered Naples side by side amid the greatest popular enthusiasm. 
Francis was then besieged at Gaeta from 4th Nov., 1860, to 13th 
Feb., 1861, and at length compelled to surrender and retire to 
Rome. 

In a land, whose history, like its volcanic soil, has been dis- 
turbed by a long succession of internal struggles . and where so 
many and so different nations have ruled, repose and the develop- 
ment of civilisation must necessarily be difficult of attainment. 
The present government has adopted a wise course in endeavouring 
to raise the standard of national education , in energetically sup- 
pressing the brigandage in the provinces , and the 'Camorra' and 



xlvi HISTORY OF NAPLES. 

gangs of thieves in the city , and in introducing a number of re- 
forms -well adapted to improve the condition of the nation. 

Dates. The following are the most important dates in the 
history of the Kingdom of Naples (comp. pp. 242, 243). 

I. Period. The Normans , 1042-1194: 1042, William, son of 
Tancred of Haute ville , Comes Apuliae. — 1059, Robert Guiscard 
(i. e. 'the Cunning'), Dux Apuliae et Calabriae. — 1130, Roger, 
proclaimed king after the conquest of Naples and Amain, unites 
the whole of Lower Italy and Sicily. — 1154-66, William I. ('the 
Bad'). — 1166-89, William II. ('the Good'). — 1194, William III. 

II. Period. The Hohenstaufen, 1194-1268: 1194, Henry VI. 
of Germany, I. of Naples. — 1197, Frederick II. — 1250, Conrad. 

— 1254, Manfred. — 1268, Conradin. 

III. Period. House of Anjou, 1265-1442 : 1265, Charles I. of 
Anjou. From 1282 to 1442 Sicily formed an independent king- 
dom under the house of Arragon. — 1285, Charles II., 'the Lame'. 

— 1309, Robert 'the Wise'. — 1343, Johanna I. (married Andreas 
of Hungary). — 1381, Charles III. of Durazzo. — 1386, Ladislaus. 

— 1414, Johanna II. — 1435, Renato of Anjou, banished by Al- 
phonso 'the Generous'. 

IV. Period. House of Arragon, 1442-1496: 1442, AlphonsoL, 
'the Generous'. After his death Sicily and Naples were again 
separated. — 1458, Ferdinand I. — 1494, Alphonso II. — 1495, 
Ferdinand II. — 1496, Frederick banished (d. 1554 at Tours, the 
last of the House of Arragon). 

V. Period. Spanish Viceroys, 1503-1707. — On 7th July, 
1707, during the Spanish War of Succession, Count Daun marched 
into Naples and established the Austrian supremacy. 

VI. Period. Austrian Viceroys, 1707-1734. — Charles III. of 
Bourbon, crowned at Palermo 1734, recognised by the Peace of 
Vienna 1738, defeats the Austrians at Velletri 1744, finally re- 
cognised by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle 1748. In 1758 Charles 
was proclaimed king of Spain , and resigned the crown of Naples 
and Sicily in favour of his son. 

VII. Period. The Bourbons, 1734-1860: 1734, Charles III. — 
1759, Ferdinand IV. (regency during his minority till 1767), mar- 
ried Caroline of Austria, sister of Joseph II., but a monarch of 
very different character from the latter. — 23rd Jan. 1799, the 
Repubblica Parthenopea proclaimed by General Championnet. — 
1 4th June, 1799, the French banished. Reaction of Cardinal Ruffo. 

— 14th Jan., 1806, Joseph Buonaparte established by Massena. — 
15th July, 1808, Joachim Murat. king of Naples. — 1816, Ferdi- 
nand assumes the title of Ferdinand I. of the Two Sicilies. — 
1825, Francis I. — 1830, Ferdinand II. — 1859, Francis II. — 
21st Oct. 1860 , the Kingdom of Naples annexed to Italy by 
plebiscite. 



HISTORY OF NAPLES. xlvii 

VIII. Period. House of Savoy. Victor Emmanuel II. (d. 1878). 
— Since 1878, Humbert I. 



Art. In art , as in literature , the attainments of trie natives 
of S. Italy have been insignificant. The Norman Period, however, 
under Arabian influence , produced both on the mainland and in 
Sicily (p. 247) -works of architecture and sculpture which at least 
hold their own when compared with the contemporaneous monu- 
ments of Central Italy. These, however, are not found in the metro- 
polis, but at the seats of the princes and bishops, as Bari, Trani, 
Amalfi, Ravello, and Salerno. The art of decoration, as applied in 
mosaic flooring , pulpits , and choir-screens , was in particular 
brought to great perfection. The brazen doors , at first imported 
from Constantinople, were afterwards made in the country itself; 
thus those at Canosa were executed by a master of Amalfi, and 
those at Ravello and Trani are the work of a native of the place 
last named. The arts of mosaic composition and mural painting 
were sedulously cultivated in S. Italy during the whole of the 
early middle ages , a fact mainly due to the constant intercourse 
maintained with Byzantium. — In the Period or Giotto, during 
which great advances in painting were made throughout the rest 
of the peninsula, S. Italy remained nearly inactive, content to 
depend on foreign artists for the supply of her artistic wants. 
Thus Arnolfo di Cambio , the famous Florentine architect, also 
practised his profession in the South ; and Pietro Cavallini , the 
most celebrated Roman painter at the beginning of the 14th cent., 
Giotto himself (in S. Chiara) , and probably Simone Martini of 
Siena, all left memorials of their skill in S. Italy. — During 
the Fifteenth Century the realism of the Flemish school of the 
Van Eycks produced a marked effect on Neapolitan art. The 
most important works of this period are the frescoes , unfor- 
tunately in poor preservation, in the cloisters of S. Severino at 
Naples. They are associated with the name of Antonio Solario, 
Ho Zingaro\ an artist of whose life and work we possess most im- 
perfect and in part misleading accounts. To judge from these 
paintings he was related in style to the Umbro-Florentine school. 
Piero and Ippolito Donzello and Simone Papa are said to have 
been pupils of Lo Zingaro, but Piero Donzello at any rate learned 
his art at Florence. 

In the Sixteenth Century Raphael's influence extended even 
to Naples, as is apparent from the works, among others, of Andrea 
Sabbatini of Salerno, known as Andrea da Salerno, who flourished 
in 1480-1545. This artist studied under Raphael at Rome, and, 
like Polidoro da Caravaggio (1495-1543), was one of the foun- 
ders of the Neapolitan school of the 17th century. — In the Sev- 
enteenth Century the Neapolitan school is characterised by its 
'naturalistic' style. Among the most prominent masters were the 



xlviii HISTORY OF NAPLES. 

Spaniard Giuseppe Ribera, surnamed lo Spagnoletto (1588-1656), 
a follower of Caravaggio ; the Greek Belisario Corenzio (1558- 
1643), a pupil of the last; Giambattista Caracciolo (d. 1641), and 
his able pupil Massimo Stanzioni (1585-1656). The school of 
Spagnoletto also produced Aniello Falcone (1600-65), the painter 
of battle-scenes, and the talented landscape-painter Salvator Rosa 
(1615-1673). In 1629 Domenichino came from Rome to Naples, to 
decorate the Cappella del Tesoro for the Archbishop , but seems 
to have exercised no influence upon Neapolitan art. He fled to 
Frascati in 1635, to escape the plots laid for him by Ribera, but 
returned to Naples the following year and died there in 1641. In 
Luca Giordano (1632-1705), surnamed Fa Presto from his rapid- 
ity of execution , who also worked at Rome , Bologna , Parma, 
and Venice , Neapolitan painting reached a still lower level. — 
The history of Neapolitan art is as yet imperfectly investigated, 
but there seems little reason to doubt that farther research will 
serve to confirm the conclusion that Naples has never been able to 
dispense with the assistance of foreign artists. 



1. From Rome to Naples by Railway. 

Two main roads lead from Rome to Naples : one along the coast by 
Terracina (R. 2), the ancient Via Appia ; the other through the valley of 
the Sacco and Garigliano, the Via Latina; both uniting near Capua. 

The Railway, completed in 1862 (162 M. in length), is now the most 
important means of communication between Central and Southern Italy. 
Duration of journey 7-10 hrs. ; fares by the through trains, 34 fr. 25 c, 
23 fr. 50 c. ; by the ordinary trains, 28 fr. 75, 19 fr. 90 c, 14 fr. — Comp. 
p. xviii. 

The finest views are generally to the left. — For a more detailed de- 
scription of the stations between Rome and Segni, see Baedeker's Central 
Italy. 

Soon after leaving the city, the train diverges from the Civita 
Vecchia line. On the right rise the arches of the Acqua Felice and 
the Acqua Marcia, and beyond them are the tombs of the Via Appia. 
The Sabine and Alban mountains rise on the left. Stations: 9 M. 
Ciampino, where the line to Frascati diverges; 11 M. Marino; 
18M. Albano, 2M. from the town. To the right we obtain a glimpse 
of Monte Circello (1771 ft. ; p. 13), rising abruptly from the sea ; 
nearer are the Volscian Mts. — 20'/2 M. Civita Lavinia, the ancient 
Lanuvium. 

25 y 2 M. Velletri {Locanda Campana, *Gallo, each with a Trat- 
toria), the ancient Velitrae, a town of the Volscians, which became 
subject to Home in B. C. 338, is famous for its wine (pop. 16,500). 
It stands picturesquely on a spur of the Monte Artemisio , nearly 
Y2 M. from the station. The streets are narrow and crooked. Vel- 
letri is the residence of the Bishop of Ostia. The loggia of the 
Palazzo Lancelotti commands a beautiful and extensive view. 
Diligence from Velletri to Cori , see Handbook for Central Italy; 
to Terracina, see p. 11. 

The train passes between Mte. Artemisio and Mte. Ariano 
(Alban Mts.) on the left, and Mte. Santangelo and Mte. Lupone 
(Volscian Mts.) on the right, and turns E. towards the valley near 
the Mte. Fortino, in which lies — 

35Y3 M. Valmontone, a small town on an isolated volcanic 
eminence, possessing a handsome chateau of the Doria Pamphili. 

The train now enters the valley of the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus or Tolerus, and skirts its left bank, running parallel with 
the ancient Via Latina. This well-cultivated valley , bounded on 
both sides by mountains rising to a height of 4000 ft., was the ter- 
ritory of the Hernici (see below). To the right Monte Fortino, 
picturesquely situated on the hill-side. 

40 1 /.> M. Segni, the Signia of the Romans, founded by the last 
Tarquin with a view to keep the Volsci and Hernici in check , 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 7th Edition. 1 



2 Route 1 . ANAGNI. From Borne 

and still possessing huge lemnants of the ancient walls and gate- 
ways , is a very venerable place , situated on the hill to the right, 
about 5y 2 M - f rom the railway. 

46 M. Anagni (*Locanda d' Italia) , once a flourishing town, 
and in the middle ages frequently a papal residence, lies on the 
heights to the left, 5 M. from the station (omnibus 1 fr.). Here, 
on 7th Sept. 1303, Pope Boniface VIII., then considerably ad- 
vanced in years, was taken prisoner by the French knight 
Guillaume de Nogaret, acting in concert with the Oolonnas, by 
order of King Philippe le Bel, but was set at liberty by the 
people three days afterwards. The *Cattedrale di S. Maria, a well- 
preserved edifice of the 11th cent. , and pure in style, is adorned 
with a mosaic pavement by the master Cosmas , and in the crypt 
with ancient frescoes. The treasury contains vestments of Inno- 
cent III. and Boniface VIII. 

The next towns, with the imposing ruins of their ancient 
polygonal walls, are also situated on the hills at a considerable 
distance from the line. This is the territory of the Hernici, 
with the towns of Anagnia, Aletrium, Ferentinum, and Verulae, 
which allied themselves with Rome and Latium in B. C. 486, 
but were subjugated by the Romans, after an insurrection, in 
B. C. 306. The environs of these towns are picturesque. 

49^2 M. Sgurgola (from which Anagni may also be reached: 
4 M.) is a village on the hill to the right, above the Sacco ; still 
higher is Carpineto. 

551/2 M. Ferentino. The town lies on the hill (1450 ft.) to 
the left, 3 M. from the line. 

Ferentino (Hotel des Etrangers), the ancient Ferentinum, a 
town of the Volsci, afterwards of the Hernici, was destroyed in 
the 2nd Punic War, and afterwards became a Roman colony 
(pop. 10,200). The ancient polygonal town-wall is still traceable 
throughout nearly its whole circuit ; a gateway on the W. side 
especially deserves notice. The castle, whose walls now form the 
foundation of the episcopal palace, occupies the highest ground 
within the town. The Cathedral is paved with remains of an- 
cient marbles and mosaics. The font in the small church of 
S. Giovanni Evangelista is ancient. Interesting antiquities and 
inscriptions will also be observed in other parts of the town. 

Higher up among the mountains, 9'/2 M. from Ferentino, and about the 
same distance from Frosinone (see below) and Anagni, lies the town of 
Alatri, the ancient Aletrium, picturesquely situated on an eminence, and 
presenting an admirably- preserved specimen of the fortifications of an an- 
cient city. The "Walls of the castle, constructed of huge polygonal 
blocks, are still entire ; the gateway attracts special attention on account 
of the stupendous dimensions of the stones of which it is composed. The 
town with its gates occupies the exact site of the ancient town. Below it 
the direction of the walls may be traced. The town and castle were pro- 
vided with an aqueduct, a work which testifies to the skill in hydrodyna- 
mics attained in ancient times, as the water must have been forced up- 
wards from the valley from a depth of 330 ft. 



to Naples. CEPRANO. 1 . Route. '.\ 

At a distance of 3 M. is the famous ' Grotta di Collepardo , extending 
upwards of 2000 ft. into the limestone rock, with beautiful stalactites. 
About 3 /-i M- farther is observed an extensive depression in the soil, called 
II Pozzo d^Antullo , several hundred yards in circumference and 200 ft. in 
depth, overgrown with grass and underwood. 

On a hill , about 5 M. to the S. E. of Alatri , is situated Veroli , the 
ancient Vervlae, from which a road leads to Isola and Sora (p. 197). 

60'/2 M. Frosinone. The town (Locanda de Matteis; pop. 
10,600) , situated on the hill , 2 M. from the railway, is identical 
with the ancient Volscian Frusino, which was conquered by the 
Romans in B. C. 304. The relics of walls and other antiquities are 
scanty, but the situation is very beautiful. 

70 M. Ceccano. The village is most picturesquely situated on the 
hill-side , on the right bank of the Sacco, the valley of which 
now contracts. At the foot of the Mil, to the left of the river, 
once lay the ancient Fabrateria Vetus, numerous inscriptions from 
which are built into the walls of the church by the bridge. A 
road leads from Ceccano over the hills to Piperno and Terra- 
cina (p. 13). 

70 M. Pofi. 76 M. Ceprano, formerly the frontier station (Re- 
freshment Room). Outside the station a pleasing glimpse is obtain- 
ed of the valleys of the Liris and the Tolerus. The town of Ceprano 
is 2'/2 M. from the station. 

The train now crosses the Liris, which descends from the N., 
from the region of the Lago Fucino, forming the old boundary of 
the States of the Church. 77'/ 2 M. Isoletta. 

In the vicinity, on the right bank of the Liris, in the direction of 
S. Giovanni in Carico , are the scanty ruins of the ancient Fregellae, a 
Roman colony founded in B. C. 328, and a point of great military im- 
portance, as it commanded the passage of the river. It was destroyed 
by the Romans in B. C. 125, in consequence of an insurrection, and Fabra- 
teria Nova was founded in its stead. A number of antiquities may be 
seen in the Giardino Cairo, at the village of S. Giovanni in Carico, 3 M. 
from the station. 

The train now traverses the broad and fertile valley of the 
Liris , or Garigliano , as it is called after its union with the 
Sacco. 82'/2 M. Roccasecca. Diligence hence to the valley of 
the Liris and the Lago Fucino , in connection with the night- 
trains to and from Naples, see R. 17. 

85 '/2 M. Aquino, the ancient Aquinum , a small town pic- 
turesquely situated on the hill to the left , is celebrated as the 
birthplace of the satirist Juvenal (under Domitian) and of the phi- 
losopher Thomas Aquinas. The illustrious 'doctor angelicus', son 
of Count Landulf, was born in 1224 in the neighbouring castle 
of Rocca Secca, and was educated in the monastery of Monte 
Casino (p. 5). The Emperor Pescennius Niger was also a native 
of Aquinum. 

Aquino lies on a mountain stream, in a beautiful and salu- 
brious district. By the side of the Via Latina may be distin- 
guished the relics of the ancient Roman town : inconsiderable frag- 
ments of walls, a gateway (Porta S. Lorenzo), a theatre, remains 

1* 



4 Route 1. SAN GERMANO. From Rome 

of temples of Ceres (S. Pietro) and Diana (S. Maria Maddalena), 
and a triumphal arch. Near the stream are the ruins of S. Maria 
Libera, a hasilica of the 11th cent., commonly called II Vescovado, 
occupying the site of an ancient temple, and consisting of hand- 
some nave and aisles. Above the portal is a -well-preserved Madonna 
in mosaic. 

Beyond Aquino, on a bleak mountain to the left, the cele- 
brated monastery of Monte Casino (p. 5) becomes visible. 

93 M. Sail Germane — Carriage from the station to the town 
V2 fr- (bargain necessary). — Inns. 'Alb. Pomfei, prettily situated and 
clean, R. 2, pens, from 5>/2 fr. ; Alb. Vakkone, outside the town, on the 
site of the villa of M. Terentlus Varro (p. 5). 

A visit to S. Germano and Monte Casino may easily be accomplished 
within a stay of 24 hrs. (Luggage may either be forwarded direct from 
Rome to Naples, or left at the S. Germano station.) On arriving, the tra- 
veller , having partaken of some refreshment in the town, may either 
first explore the ruins of Casinum (for which , however , he would have 
time on the following day) , or proceed at once to the monastery of 
Monte Casino (IV2 hr. ; donkey IV2 fr.). The excursion should be so 
arranged that the traveller may return to the town a considerable time 
before sunset; at the same time it must be borne in mind that visitors 
are strictly excluded from 12 to 3. 30 o'clock. The monastery is justly 
noted for its hospitality, and affords good quarters for the night, although 
the fare is sometimes of a frugal description. No payment is demanded, 
but the traveller should give about as much as he would have paid at a 
hotel. Ladies are of course admitted to the church only. Travellers who 
wish to spend the night or dine here should apply to the padre forestieraio. 
Letters of introduction will be found very useful. At an early hoiir on 
Sundays and holidays the church and courts of the monastery are crowded 
with country-people from the neighbouring mountain districts, whose 
characteristic physiognomies and costumes will be scanned with interest 
by the traveller. Those who return to S. Germano to pass the night 
should allow 5 hrs. for the whole excursion. 

San Germano, which has of late resumed its ancient name of 
Cassino, a town with 13,300 inhab., is picturesquely situated in 
the plain at the foot of the Monte Casino, on the small river Rapido 
(Lat. Vinius), 3 / 4 M. from the station, and is commanded by a 
ruined castle. It occupies nearly the same site as the ancient 
Casinum, which was colonised by the Romans in B.C. 312, and 
was afterwards a flourishing provincial town. On its ruins sprang 
up San Germano during the middle ages. Pillars of great anti- 
quity are still to be seen in the churches. Various courts have 
been held here by popes and emperors, and in 1230 peace was 
concluded here between Gregory IX. and Frederick II. The foggy 
character of the climate is alluded to by the ancients. 

After traversing the uninteresting town, we turn to the left 
and follow the road coming from the N., which coincides with 
the Via Latina. About */2 M. from the town, on the right, are 
situated the colossal remains of an * Amphitheatre, which, accord- 
ing to an inscription preserved at Monte Casino, was erected by 
Ummidia Quadratilla at her own expense. The foundress is men- 
tioned by Pliny in his letters (vii. 24) as a lady of great wealth, 
who up to a very advanced age was an ardent admirer of theatrical 



to Naples. MONTE CASINO. 1. Route. 5 

performances. Farther on, and a little higher up, stands a square 
monument built of large blocks of travertine, with four niches, and 
surmounted by a dome, now converted into the church *Del 
Crocefisso (custodian 3-4 soldi). On the opposite bank of the 
Rapido lay the villa of M. Terentius Varro, where, as we are 
informed by Cicero (Phil. ii. 40), M. Antony afterwards indulg- 
ed in his wild orgies. — The path leading back to the town from 
Crocefisso is probably the ancient Via Latina, and traces of anci- 
ent pavement are occasionally observed. From this path, by keep- 
ing to the high ground to the left , we may proceed to Monte 
Casino without returning to the town. 

The monastery of * Monte Casino, situated on a lofty hill 
to the W. of the town, is reached in l 1 ^ ur - The path, which 
cannot be mistaken, affords exquisite views of the valley of the 
Garigliano and the surrounding mountains. The monastery was 
founded by St. Benedict in 529, on the site of an ancient temple 
of Apollo, to which Dante alludes (Parad. xxii. 37), and from 
its magnificent situation alone would be entitled to a visit. 

The extensive edifice, the interior of which resembles a castle rather 
than a monastery, is entered by a low passage through the rock, where 
St. Benedict is said to have had his cell. Several Courts are connected by 
arcades. The central one has a fountain of very good water, adorned with 
statues of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. On a square space 
higher up, enclosed by columns from the ancient temple of Apollo, stands 
the Church, erected in 1727 to replace the ancient edifice founded by St. 
Benedict. ' The fortunes of the abbey are recorded in Latin above the 
entrance of the hall. The principal door of the church is of bronze 
and is inscribed with a list, inlaid in silver, of all the possessions of the 
abbey in 1066. It was executed at Constantinople by order of the Abbot 
Desiderius, afterwards Pope Victor III. The interior is richly decorated 
with marble, mosaics, and paintings. On each side of the high altar 
is a mausoleum; one to the memory of Pietro de' Medici (p. 18), who 
was drowned in the Garigliano in 1503, executed by Francesco Sangallo by 
order of Clement VII. ; the other that of Guidone Fieramosca, last Prince 
of Mignano. Beneath the high altar, with its rich marble decorations, re- 
pose the remains of St. Benedict and his sister St. Scholastica. The sub- 
terranean chapel contains paintings by Marco da Siena and Mazzaroppi. 
The choir-stalls are adorned with admirable carving (by Coliccio, 1696), 
and the chapels adjoining the altar with costly mosaics. Above the doors 
and on the ceiling are frescoes by Luca Giordano (1677), representing the 
miracles of St. Benedict and the foundation of-the church. The organ is 
one of the finest in Italy. In the refectory is the 'Miracle of the Loaves', 
by Bassano. 

At a very early period the Library was celebrated for the MSS. 
executed by the monks. To the Abbot Desiderius of the 11th cent, we 
are probably indebted for the preservation of Varro, and perhaps of other 
authors. The handsome saloon at present contains a collection of about 
10,000 vols., among which are numerous rare editions published during the 
infancy of the printer's art. The MSS. and documents are preserved in the 
archives, in the passage leading to which a number of inscriptions are built 
into the wall, most of them rescued from the ruins of the ancient Casinum. 
Among the MSS. are : the commentary of Origen on the Epistle to the 
Romans, translated by Rufus, dating from the 6th cent. ; a Dante with mar- 
ginal notes, of the 14th cent, (the archives contain an interesting portrait 
of the poet) ; the vision of the monk Alberic, which is said to have sug- 
gested the first idea on which Dante founded his work ; various classical 
authors, the original MSS. of Leo of Ostia and Riccardo di San Germano. 



t> Route 1. MONTE CASINO. From Rome 

The 'Archives comprise a still rarer collection, consisting of about 800 
documents of emperors, kings, dukes, etc., and the complete series of 
papal bulls which relate to Monte Casino, beginning with the 11th cent., 
many of them with admirable seals and impressions. Among the letters 
are those exchanged by Don Erasmo Gattola, the historian of the abbey, 
with learned contemporaries. At the end of an Italian translation of 
Boccaccio's 'De Claris Mulieribus 1 is a letter of Sultan Mohammed II. to 
Pope Nicholas IV., complaining of the pontiff's preparations for war and 
promising to be converted as soon as he should visit Rome, together 
with an unfavourable answer from the pope. An ancient bath-seat in 
rosso antico, found on the bank of the Liris, is also preserved here. The 
tower in which St. Benedict is said to have lived contains pictures by 
Novelli, Spagnoletto, and others. 

The Benedictine monastery of Monte Casino, which will pro- 
bably be allowed to continue its existence in the form of an edu- 
cational establishment, has ever been conspicuous for the admirable 
manner in which its inmates have discharged their higher duties. 
They are the intelligent keepers of one of the most precious libraries 
in the world, and they educate about eighty students of theology. 
The monks at present number about thirty, including Tosti, the 
historian of literature , and there are ten lay brethren , twenty 
pupils of the upper classes, and numerous servants. The institution 
also comprises a telegraph-office and a printing-office. The revenues 
once amounted to 100,000 ducats per annum, but are now reduced 
to about 20,000. 

The monastery commands a magnificent prospect in all di- 
rections, which the visitor should not omit to enjoy- from the 
different points of view. To the W. and S. extends the broad 
valley of the Garigliano with its numerous villages, separated from 
the Gulf of Gaeta by a range of hills, and the sea is occasionally 
distinguishable. To the E. is the valley of S. Germano, com- 
manded by the rocky summits of the Abruzzi. To the N. a wild 
mountainous district. 

Close to the monastery rises the Monte Cairo , upwards of 5000 ft. in 
height, which may be ascended in 3-4 hrs.; the view from the summit 
is considered one of the finest in Italy, extending from M. Cavo in the 
Alban range to Camaldoli near Naples. 

Continuation of Journey to Naples. To the left, beyond 
S. Germano, we perceive the villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore, and 
S. Pietro in Fine. 100 M. Rocca d'Evandro. The train quits the 
valley of the Garigliano, and enters a richly cultivated defile, 
beyond which the country towards the right becomes flatter. 
104V-2 M. Mignano. The train now runs towards the S. through a 
a barren, undulating tract, which separates the Garigliano from the 
Voltumo. 107 M. Presenzano, which lies on the slope to the left. 

114 M. Caianiello Vairano , whence a high road leads through 
the Abruzzi to Pescara on the Gulf of Venice (R. 15), and to Aquila 
and Terni (R. 16). 

117y 2 M. Rinrdo; the village, with an old castle, lies on the 
left. 

121 M. Teano; the town (Locanda dell' Italia; 5000 inhab.) 



to Naples. CAPUA. t . Route. 7 

lies at some distance to the right, at the base of the lofty Rocca 
Monftna, an extinct volcano (3420 ft.). The extensive, but 
dilapidated old castle was erected in the 15th cent, by the dukes 
of Sessa. Ancient columns in the cathedral, inscriptions, remains 
of a theatre, and other antiquities are now the sole vestiges of 
the venerable Teanum Sidicinum, once the capital of the Sidicini, 
which was conquered by the Samnites in the 4th cent. B.C., after- 
wards subjugated by the Romans, and in Strabo's time the most 
flourishing inland city of Campania after Capua. 

From Teano the train turns to the right to the village of — 

125!/2 M. Sparanisi, whence a road leads to Gaeta (p. 17). 

About 4 M. to the N. E. of the railway to the left lies Calvi, the 
ancient Gales, a Roman colony founded B. C. 332, the wine of which 
(vinum Calenum) is praised by Horace. It now consists of a few houses 
only, hut contains an ancient amphitheatre, a theatre, and other anti- 
quities. Carriage with one horse from Capua, and back, 2-3 fr. 

As the train proceeds we obtain for the first time a view of Mt. 
Vesuvius in the distance to the right, and then of the Island of 
Ischia in the same direction. 124 l / 2 M. Pignataro. The train now 
intersects the plain of the Volturno, a river 94 M. in length, the 
longest in Lower Italy. We now enter upon the vast plains of the 
ancient Campania (now Terra di Lavoro), which, like the Cam- 
pagna di Roma, are of volcanic origin , but incomparably superior 
in fertility, and admirably cultivated. The district , one of the 
most luxuriant in Europe , is capable of yielding, in addition to 
the produce of the dense plantations of fruit-trees, two crops of 
grain and one of hay in the same season. 

135 M. Capua. — Inns. Albeego & Trattoria del Centro , in 
the Piazza de 1 Giudici. — Carriage from the station to the town with 
one horse (cittadina) 25, with two horses (carozza) 50 c. ; per hour, 1 or 
2 fr. ; to Caserta 1 fr. 90 or 3 fr. 90 c. ; to Aversa 3 or 6 fr. ; to S. Maria 
Capua Vetere 90 c. or 2 fr.; to S. Angelo in Formis 1 fr. 20 or 2 fr. 50 c. 

Capua, a fortified town with 13,300 inhab., the residence of 
an archbishop, lies on the left bank of the Volturno, by which the 
greater part of it is surrounded. It was erected in the 9th cent., 
after the destruction of the ancient Capua, on the site of Casi- 
linum, a town which was conquered by Hannibal after an obstinate 
resistance, and fell to decay in the time of the emperors. Turn- 
ing to the right on entering the town, and taking the first street 
to the left, we reach the Piazza de' Giudici, or market-place in 
6 min., and then enter the Via del Duomo to the right. 

The Cathedral, dating from the 11th cent., possesses a hand- 
some entrance court with ancient columns, but in other respects 
has been entirely modernised. 

Interior. 3rd Chapel on the left: Madonna della Rosa of the 13th 
century. 3rd Chapel on the right: Madonna with two saints by Silvestro 
de y Buoni. The Crypt, dating from the Romanesque period, but now mo- 
dernised, contains Mosaics from an old pulpit, a Roman Sarcophagus 
with a representation of the Hunt of Meleager, and a Holy Sepulchre by 
Bernini, being one of his best works. 

The Via del Duomo, passing through an archway, leads to the 



8 Route 1. S. MARIA DI CAPUA VETERE. From Rome 

Corso Museo Campano. (Proceeding thence in a straight direction, 
we may reach the ramparts, which command a pleasing view of 
the Volturno.) In this street, on the right, is situated the Museo 
Campano, which is entered from the first side-street on the right. 
It is open to the puhlic daily, 9-3 o' clock, except on Sundays and 
festivals. 

The Court contains reliefs from the amphitheatre of Capua (see below) ; 
inscriptions; ancient sarcophagi, including one of the period of Con- 
stantine ; medieval tomb-monuments ; a sitting statue of Frederick II. 
(now sadly mutilated and without its head), which formerly surmounted 
the gateway of the tete-de-pont constructed by him on the right bank of 
the Volturno about 1240, and destroyed in 1557; heads of statues of Pe- 
trus de Vineis and Thaddseus of Suessa, and a colossal head of 'Capua 
Imperiale 1 (casts at the Museo Nazionale in Naples), also from Frede- 
rick II. 's lete-de-pont. The rooms in the Interior contain ancient ter- 
racottas, vases, coins, a few pictures of little value, and a small library. 

The "bridge across the Volturno, restored in 1756, is adorned 
with a statue of St. Nepomuc. Beyond it is an inscription in 
memory of the Emperor Frederick II. The Torre Mignana within, 
and the Cappella de' Morti without the town commemorate the 
sanguinary attack made on Capua by Caesar Borgia in 1501, on 
which occasion 5000 lives were sacrificed. 

On our left after the train has crossed the Volturno, lies the 
battle-field on which King Francis II. was defeated hy the Gari- 
baldians and Piedmontese on 1st Oct. 1860. 

139 M. S. Maria di Capua Vetere ( Locanda Roma) is a prosper- 
ous little town, on the site of the celebrated ancient Capua, contain- 
ing some interesting ruins. 

Capua, founded by the Etruscans and afterwards occupied by Sabellian 
tribes, entered into alliance with the Romans B.C. 343, for the sake of protec- 
tion against the attacks of the Samnites. Owing to the luxuriant fertility of 
the district, the power and wealth of the city developed themselves at an 
early period , but it soon became noted for its effeminacy and degeneracy. 
When in the zenith of its prosperity it was the largest city in Italy after Rome 
and contained 300,000 inhabitants. In the 2nd Punic War, after the battle of 
Cannse (P.. C. 216), it entered into an alliance with Hannibal, who took up his 
winter-quarters here. That his army had become so enervated by their resi- 
dence at Capua as no longer to be a match for the Romans, is doubtless a mere 
hypothesis. Certain, however, it is, that the Romans soon regained their su- 
periority, and after along siege reduced the town, B. C. 211. Its punishment 
was a severe one, and the inhabitants were entirely deprived of all civic pri- 
vileges. It was rescued from its abject condition by Cfesar, and underhis suc- 
cessors regained its ancient splendour. It continued to prosper until the wars 
of the Goths, Vandals, and Lombards. In the 8th cent, it was destroyed by the 
Saracens, and the inhabitants emigrated to the modern Capua (p. 7). 

Proceeding straight from the station, taking the first street to 
the left, and following the Via S. Sebastiano in nearly the same 
direction to its farther end (5 min.), we turn to the left into the 
Via Anfiteatro which leads in a curve round the town to (10 min.) 
the ancient amphitheatre. Before reaching it, we cross an open space 
where we observe on the left the ruins of a Roman Triumphal Arch, 
now a gate, through which the Capua road passes. 

The *Amphithi;atre of Capua (adm. 1 fr. for each pers.), 
which is said to be the most ancient, and after the Colosseum at 



to Naples. CASERTA. 1. Route. 9 

Rome the largest, in Italy, is constructed of travertine. The longer 
diameter is 185 yds., the shorter 152 yds. in length. The arena 
measures 83 yds. by 49 yds. Three of its passages are tolerably 
well preserved, but of the 80 entrance - arches two only. The 
keystones are decorated with images of gods. The Arena , with 
its substructions, passages, and dens for the wild beasts (to which 
a staircase descends from the passage to the left), is, like that 
of Pozzuoli, better denned than that of the Colosseum at Rome. 
The Passages contain remains of ancient decorations, fragments 
of columns , bas - reliefs , etc. To the right, near the entrance, 
the visitor may ascend to the upper part of the structure, in 
order to obtain a survey of the ruins themselves, and of the ex- 
tensive surrounding plain. Large schools were once maintained 
at Capua for the training of gladiators, and it was here in B.C. 
83, that the dangerous War of the Gladiators under Spartacus the 
Thracian broke out, which was with difficulty quelled by Crassus 
two years later. 

Above Capua rises Mons Tifata, once the site of a temple of Jupiter, 
now crowned by a chapel of S. Nicola. At its base, about 4>/2 M. from 
S. Maria, stands the old church of S. Angelo in Formis, with Byzantine 
frescoes of the 11th cent, (valuable in the history of art), occupying the 
site of a celebrated temple of Diana, around which a village had 
established itself. 

The high road from Capua to Maddaloni (p. 10) by S. Maria 
and Caserta presents a scene of brisk traffic ; and a drive by 
carriage (p. 7) through this garden-like district is preferable to 
the railway journey. The road from S. Maria to Caserta (a drive of 
3 /4 hr.) passes two handsome Roman tombs. 

1421/2 M. Caserta — Hotels. !! Vittoria, with garden, R. 2, B. 
l*/z, pens. 7-10 fr. ; Villa Reale, well spoken of; both in the Via Vittoria; 
Villa di Firenze, near the palace; all with trattorie. — In the round 
piazza with its colonnades, at the entrance to the town from the palace, 
is a favourite Cafe". 

Carriage with one horse, per drive 35 c. ('vettura semplice' still 
cheaper), with two horses 60 c. ; to S. Maria di Capua Vetere 1 fr. 40 or 
2 fr. 30, to Capua 2 fr. 75 or 3 fr. 90 c. 

For a Visit to the Palace (interior 9-4; the garden till sunset) a per- 
messo from the royal intendant at the Palazzo Reale at Naples (p. 36) 
is required, but it may if necessary be obtained through one of the hotel- 
keepers at Caserta. Fee 1 fr.; for the chapel 25 c. 

Caserta, a clean and well-built town with 19,000 inhab. ('com- 
mune' 30,000) and a large garrison, may be called the Versailles 
of Naples. It possesses several palaces and barracks, and is the 
residence of the prefect of the province of Caserta. It was founded 
in the 8th cent, by the Lombards on the slope of the hill, but the 
modern town stands on lower ground. 

The * Royal Palace of Caserta, opposite the station, was erected 
in 1752, by Vanvitelli, by order of King Charles III., in the richest 
Italian palatial style. It forms a rectangle. The S. side is 830 ft. 
long and 134 ft. high, with thirty-seven windows in each story. 
The courts of the palace are traversed by a colonnade, from the 



10 Route 1. MADDALONI. 

centre of which ascends the handsome marble staircase, with 116 
steps. The statue of Vanvitelli, by Buccini, was erected in 1879. 
The palace is at present unoccupied. 

The Chapel, lavishly decorated with marble, imitated lapis lazuli, 
and gold, contains a 'Presentation in the Temple' by Mengs, five paintings 
by Conca, and an altar-piece by Bonito. — The Theatre is adorned with 
twelve Corinthian columns of African marble from the temple of Sera- 
pis at Pozzuoli, and contains forty boxes, besides that appropriated to 
the royal family. 

The *Oarden, with its lofty pruned hedges, contains beautiful 
fountains and cascades, adorned with statues. The grand terrace 
above the cascade (2 M. from the palace) affords beautiful points 
of view. The Botanical Garden is interesting as proving that the 
trees of the colder north can be grown here with success. The Ca- 
sino Reale di S. Leuci, in the park, about 2 M. to the N., com- 
mands another fine prospect. 

Caserta is the junction of the Naples and Foggia railway 
(R. 14), which runs above out line as far as the next station — 

146 M. Maddaloni ; the town (19,600 inhab.), situated to the 
left, with an extensive deserted palace of the Caraffa family, is 
commanded by a ruined castle. On the Foggia line, 2'/ 2 M. 
distant, are situated the Ponti della Valle, a celebrated aqueduct 
constructed by Vanvitelli to supply the gardens of Caserta with 
water, and usually visited from Maddaloni. 

150 M. Caneello , whence a branch-line diverges to Avellino 
(R. 12). 

From Cancello to Benevento, 25 M. Since the opening of the rail- 
way (R. 14) the high road has been used for the local traffic only. It leads 
by S. Felice and Arienzo, and then passes through a narrow defile, con- 
sidered by many to be identical with the Furculw Caudinw which proved 
so disastrous to the fortunes of Rome, whence it ascends to the village of 
Arpaia (the ancient Caudium according to some). It next passes the 
small town of Montesardiio, with its castle, once the residence of the 
d'Avalos family, and recently used as a state prison, in which, among others, 
the well-known Poerio (d. 1867) was confined. 

To the left we observe Monte Somma, which conceals the cone 
of Vesuvius (p. 117). 15472 M. Acerra (14,500 inhab.) was the 
ancient Acerrae, to which the Roman citizenship was accorded as 
early as B. C. 332. The train crosses the trenches of the Regi 
Lagni , which drain the marshes of Pantano dell' Acerra, the 
ancient Clanius, now VAgno, and form the boundary between 
the provinces of Caserta and Naples. 162 M. Casalnuovo. Vesu- 
vius becomes visible on the left. 

163 M. Naples. Arrival, see p. 20. 

2. From Rome to Naples 

by the Pontine Marshes, Terracina, Gaeta, and Capua. 

This road, until recently the principal route between Central and 
Southern Italy, is the most ancient in the peninsula. During the Samnite 
war, B. C. 312, the Via Appia from Rome to Capua (p. 1) was constructed 
by the censor Appius Claudius, and with it the present road is nearly iden- 



VIA APPIA. L\ Route. 1 1 

tical. It skirts the W. side of the Alban mountains , passes Albano, 
Genzano, and Velletri, intersects the plain on the coast, of which the 
Pontine Marshes form a portion, and reaches Terracina, formerly the 
frontier-town of the States of the Church. It then turns inland and traverses 
the mountain chain of Itri , which bounds the Bay of Gaeta on the N. W. 
It reaches the bay near Formia, skirts it for a short distance, and then 
again proceeds towards the interior by S. Agata , uniting at the Spa- 
ranisi station (p. 7) with the preceding route, 4 M. above Capua. 

Since the opening of the railway this road has been used for the 
local traffic only, but it is still strongly recommended to the notice of the 
traveller, as it traverses a singularly attractive district, and is one of the 
most beautiful routes in Italy. The drive by carriage from Rome to Naples 
is also preferable to the railway journey in this respect, that the transition 
from the one city to the other is thus rendered less abrupt. This region 
was a favourite haunt of brigands in 1860-70, but since the annexation 
of the States of the Church to Italy their bands have been dispersed. The 
journey may also be accomplished by diligence as far as Velletri (office 
near the Teatro Argentina), but this requires an additional day, which 
might probably be better employed. The malaria which prevails in the 
marshy districts in summer is considered especially noxious during sleep. 
The diligence conductors regard tobacco smoke as the most effectual anti- 
dote to the poison of the atmosphere. No risk need be apprehended 
during the colder seasons. There are fairly good hotels at Terracina and 
Formia. 

The whole journey occupies three days : — 1st Day. Railway to Vel- 
letri in 3/4-IV2 hr. (fares 4 fr. 75, 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 40 c; express, 6 fr. 40, 
4 fr. 30 c.) ; thence diligence (starting at 9 a.m. ; fare 7 fr.) in 7 hrs. to 
Terracina (visit Theodoric's palace). — 2nd Day. Diligence (generally about. 
11.30 a.m.; 5'/2 fr.) to Formia in 6>/2 hrs. The excursion to Gaeta is more 
easily made on the same day if a carriage be hired from Terracina to 
Formio. — 3rd Dat. Diligence (starring at 6 p.m. ; 3 3 /4 fr.) to Sparanisi 
in 3'/2 hrs., and railway thence to Naples in l>/ 2 -274 hrs. (fares 6 fr. 45, 

4 fr. 45, 3 fr. 10 c. ; express, 6 fr. 80, 4 fr. 75 c). The diligence from Spa- 
ranisi starts very early in the morning. 

To Velletri, 25i/ 2 M., see p. 1. The high road here descends to 
the plain to the right. About l'/2 M - before reaching Cisterna the 
road again unites with the ancient Via Appia. The extensive 
oak forests here were once a notorious haunt of banditti. On the 
height to the left we observe the villages of Cori and Norma (see 
Baedekers Central Italy). 

Farther on , below Norma, stands Sermoneta on an emin- 
ence, with an ancient castle of the Gaetani family, who thence 
derive their ducal title. Towards the sea, to the right, rises the 
isolated Monte Circello (p. 13). Cisterna (La Posta), 7>/ 2 M. 
from Velletri, a small town with a castle of the Gaetani, 
situated on the last hill before the Pontine marshes are reached, 
was called Cisterna Neronis in the middle ages, and is believed 
to occupy the site of the ancient Tres Tabernae. 

17 M. (from Velletri) Torre tre Ponti, a solitary post-house, 
where the diligence halts for an hour and changes horses, is a 
miserable tavern. Terracina is 22'/2 M. distant. (Sermoneta, 

5 M. distant from Torre tre Ponti, may be visited thence; see 
above.) About '^ M. farther the road crosses the Ninfa by an 
ancient bridge, restored, as the inscription records, by Trajan. 

We now reach the Pontine Marshes (Paludi Pontine), which 



12 Route 2. PONTINE MARSHES. From Rome 

vary in breadth between the mountains and the sea from 6 to 
11 M., and from Nettuno to Terracina are 31 M. in length. A 
very small part of them only is cultivated. They, however, afford 
extensive pastures , the most maTshy parts being the favourite 
resort of the cattle. Towards the sea the district is clothed 
with forest (macchia). The malaria in summer is a dreadful 
scourge. 

According to Pliny (Hist. Nat. iii. 5) , these marshes were 
anciently a fertile and well-cultivated plain, occupied by twenty- 
four villages, but towards the close of the republic gradually fell 
into their present condition owing to the decline of agriculture. 
A want of fall in the surface of the soil is the cause of the evil. 
The streams and canals are totally inadequate to carry off the 
excess of water which descends from the mountains during the 
rainy season, and its escape is further impeded by the luxuriant 
vegetation of the aquatic plants. Attempts to drain the marshes 
have been successively made by the censor Appius Claudius in 
B.C. 312 (so says tradition), by the consul Cornelius Cethegus 
130 years later, by Csesar, Augustus, Nerva, Trajan, and finally 
by Theodoric, King of the Goths, all of which were of temporary 
benefit only. Similar operations were undertaken by the popes 
Boniface VIII. , Martin V. , Sixtus V. , and Pius VI. To the 
last is due the present admirably constructed road across the 
marshes, the cost of which amounted to 1,622,000 scudi (350,100 1. 
sterling). 

For some distance the road follows the track of the ancient Via 
Appia in a straight direction, skirting the Canal delle Botte, 
which was constructed before the time of Augustus, and on which 
Horace performed part of his journey to Brundisium (Sat. i. 5). 

About 4 M. from Torre tre Ponti is Foro Appio , the 
ancient Forum Appii, described by Horace as 'differtum nautis 
cauponibus atque malignis'. Here, and at Tres Tabernae, the 
Apostle Paul met his friends from Rome (Acts, xxviii). 

The road pursues a perfectly straight direction, shaded by a 
double or quadruple avenue of stately elms. But for the moun- 
tains to the left, where Sezza has for some time been visible, the 
traveller might imagine himself transported to a scene in Holland. 

A conveyance in correspondence with the diligence from Velletri runs 
from Foro Appio to Sezza, the ancient Volscian Sella, which yielded a 
favourite wine. It is situated above the marshes on a hill which the old 
road to Naples skirted. The fragments of the old walls and of a so-called 
Temple of Saturn are still to be seen. — Instead of ascending the hill of 
Sezza, we may follow the road skirting its base to — 

Piperno (6 M.), the ancient Privernvta of the Volsci, which long with- 
stood the attacks of the Romans, and afterwards a Roman colony, the traces 
of which are seen 3/i M. to the N. in the plain, on the way to Frosinone. 
This plain is enclosed by lofty mountains, studded with ruined castles 
and villages: Rocca Oorga, Maeiiza, Rocca Secca, Prossedi, etc. About 3 M. 
farther, in the valley of the Amascno, is situated the Cistercian monastery 
of Fossa Nuova, where Thomas Aquinas died in 1274 while on his way to 



to Naples. TERRACINA. 2. Route. 13 

the Council of Lyons. Sonnino, 4»/ 2 M. distant, and San Lorenzo, in the 
valley of the Amaseno, about 9 31. distant, are both famous for the 
picturesqueness of the costume of the women , and formerly notorious 
for the audacity of the brigands. 

The road pursues a straight direction on a raised embank- 
ment, and leads to Bocca di Flume and Mesa. At the entrance 
of the post-house at Mesa are two ancient mile-stones of Trajan. 
In the vicinity are the ruins of a tomb on a square basement 
of massive blocks of limestone, obtained from the neighbouring 
Volscian mountains. 

Ponte Maggiore is the next post-station. Beyond it the road 
crosses the Amaseno, into which the Vfente empties itself a little 
higher up. 

We soon reach the locality which Horace mentions as the site 
of the grove and fountain of Feronia (Sat. i. 5 , 23) , but no 
traces of either are now visible. (They were perhaps near S. Mar- 
tino.) The new road now quits the Via Appia and approaches 
the mountains to the left, where palms and pomegranates, inter- 
spersed with orange groves and aloes, apprise the traveller of 
his entrance into Southern Italy. 

To the right, towards the sea, the Promontorio Circeo, or Circello (1771 ft.), 
which was visible even before Velletri was reached, now becomes more con- 
spicuous. This was the Circeii of the ancients, the traditional site of the palace 
and grove of the enchantress Circe, daughter of the sun, described by Homer. 
It is an isolated limestone rock, and may be reached in 3 hrs. from Terracina 
by a good path along the shore. On the summit, near S. Felice towards the S. 
and Torre di Paola towards the W. , some fragments are perceived of the 
ancient town of Circeii, captured by Coriolanus, and still existing in Cicero^ 
time. Cicero and Atticus, Tiberius and Domitian frequently resorted to 
this spot, attracted doubtless by the beauty of the situation and the excel- 
lence of the oysters. The Grotia della Maga, a stalactite cavern, deserves a 
visit. In spring and autumn the rocks are frequented by innumerable birds 
of passage. 

Terracina (Grand Hotel Royal, at the S. entrance to the town, 
with a view of the sea at the back ; *Locanda Nazionale, in the 
Piazza, less expensive), situated conspicuously on a rocky emin- 
ence (Hor. Sat. i. 5, 26), the Anxur of the ancient Volsci, 
and the Tarracina of the Romans, was formerly on the confines 
of the papal dominions , and still constitutes the natural frontier 
town between Central and Southern Italy. Pop. 7300. It is an an- 
cient episcopal residence, and is one of the most picturesque spots 
in Italy. The high road intersects the extensive but thinly peopled 
quarter of the town which was founded by Pius VI. , while the 
old town is built on the slope of the hill. Above the latter 
extend the ruins of the ancient city, crowned by the remains of 
the palace of Theodoric the Ostrogoth. 

The *Cattedrale S. Pietro is believed to occupy the site of 
a temple of Jupiter Anxiirus. The vestibule rests on ten ancient 
columns, with recumbent lions at their bases. On the right is 
a large antique sarcophagus, which, according to the inscription, 
was used in torturing the early Christians. The pavement of 



14 Route 2. TERRACINA. From Rome 

the square in which the cathedral stands dates from the Roman 
period. 

Interior. The beautiful fluted columns of the Canopy in the in- 
terior belonged to the ancient temple. The Pulpit, with its ancient 
mosaics, rests on columns with lions at their bases. — The Clock Tower 
(ascended by 91 steps) commands an extensive prospect. 

The summit of the promontory may be attained directly from 
the new town in % hr . ) tut more conveniently from the old 
town, the route being partly by an ancient road passing remains 
of tombs and ancient walls, and then leading to the right through 
olive plantations. The whole excursion requires about 3 hrs.; 
guide unnecessary. The *Palace of Theodoric, King of the Ostro- 
goths, erected about 500 A.D. and afterwards converted into a 
castle, occupies the summit. A corridor of twelve arches opens 
towards the sea on the S. side. The purposes of the different 
parts of the structure cannot now be ascertained. 

*View admirable. Towards the "W. the prospect embraces the 
plain as far as the Alban Mts., then the Monte Circello ; towards 
the S. are the Pontine or Ponza Islands, the N.W. group of which 
comprises Ponza (Pontiae , once a Roman colony), Palmarola (Pal- 
maria), and Zannone, all of volcanic origin, and the S. group 
Ventotene and S. Stefano • between the groups lies the small island 
of La Botte. The islands are still used, as in ancient times, as a 
place of detention for convicts. Ventotene is the Pandateria of 
melancholy celebrity, to which Augustus banished his abandoned 
daughter Julia, and Tiberius relegated Agrippina, the daughter of 
Julia, and where Nero is said to have caused his divorced wife 
Octavia to be put to death. Towards the E. the plain of Fondi is 
visible ; the village on the sea is Sperlonga (p. 15) ; farther off is 
the promontory of Gaeta with the Torre d'Orlando (p. 17), and 
finally the island of Ischia. 

The Harbour of Terracina, still recognisable by the break- 
water, was of great importance during the Roman period, but 
is now entirely filled with sand. A new Molo affords indif- 
ferent shelter to coasting vessels. The galley-slaves at the bagno 
here are partly employed in the harbour works, and partly in 
the quarries. — At the entrance to the town rises a picturesque 
mass of rock on the roadside, on which a hermit formerly dwelt. 

Beyond Terracina the road follows the direction of the Via 
Appia, and is flanked by remains of ancient tombs. The moun- 
tains which we skirt approach so near the sea as occasionally 
to leave barely space for the road. This pass was the ancient 
Lautulae. Here, in B. C. 315, the Romans fought a battle with 
the Samnites, and in the 2nd Punic War Fabius Maximus kept 
Hannibal in check here. On a hill about l /% M. to the left is 
situated the monastery of Retiro, on the site of the villa in 
which the emperor Galba was born. Then to the right is the 



to Naples. FONDI. l>. Route. 15 

Lake of Fondi, the Lacus Fundanus or Amyclanus of the an- 
cients , named after the town of Amyclae which is said to have 
been founded here by fugitive Laconians. The village towards 
the E. on the slope facing the sea is Sperlonga (see below). 

The papal frontier was formerly at Torre dell' Epitafta. We 
next reach the gateway of the tower de' Conftni, or La Portella, 
4 M. from Terracina. On a height to the left is the village of 
Monticelli; by the road-side are fragments of tombs. We now 
enter the extremely fertile Terra di Lavoro (p. 7). The next 
place (11 M. from Terracina) is Fondi (5000 inhab.), the ancient 
Fundi, where Horace derides the pride of a civic official 'with 
broad purple border and censer' (Hor. Sat. i. 5, 34). Change 
of horses , and halt of ^4 nr - (poor inn). The Chateau , part 
of which adjoins the inn, is miserably dilapidated. Some of the 
window-frames and decorations in the most tasteful Renaissance 
style testify to its ancient splendour. In the 16th cent, it belong- 
ed to the Colonnas , and in 1534 it was occupied by the beau- 
tiful Countess Giulia Gonzaga. One night the countess narrowly 
escaped being captured by the daring pirate Haireddin Barbarossa, 
who purposed conveying her to the Sultan Soliman II. Exasperated 
by his failure , he wreaked his revenge on the town , as an in- 
scription in the church records. The town was again destroyed 
by the Turks in 1594. In the vicinity is the church of S. Maria 
in the Gothic style , disfigured in the interior by whitewash. 
It contains an ancient pulpit adorned with mosaic, and on the 
right a Madonna by Silvestro de' Buoni. A chapel is shown in 
the Dominican monastery in which Thomas Aquinas once taught. 
Considerable remains of the ancient town-walls are preserved. 
The principal street coincides with the ancient Via Appia. In 
other respects the town is a sombre looking place, and like Itri 
(see below) was for centuries a haunt of brigands. 

Beyond Fondi the road traverses the plain for 3 M., after 
which it ascends Monte S. Andrea through mountain ravines, 
where additional horses are necessary. It then descends to the 
poor town of Itri, with a ruined castle, once notorious for the 
robberies committed there. It was here that the robber-chief 
Marco Sciarra promised a safe conduct and protection to the poet 
Tasso ; and Fra Diavolo (whose real name was Michele Pezza) was 
also a native of Itri. He was at last captured by the French 
near Salerno and executed. Anecdotes are still related of this 
daring brigand, and Washington Irving's sketch ' The Inn of 
Terracina', the foundation of Auber's opera, has greatly contri- 
buted to maintain their interest. 

A mountainous path leads from Itri, to the right, in 2*/4 hrs. to the 
fishing village of Sperlonga, situated on a sandy promontory, and deriving 
its name from the grottoes (speluncae) in the neighbouring rocks. In one 
of these, as Tacitus informs us (Ann. iv. 59), Sejanus saved the life of Ti- 
berius, which was imperilled by a falling rock. On the way to the grotto 



16 Route 2. FORMIA. From Rome 

we observe Roman ruins, and the grotto itself contains benches and stucco 
ornaments. The excursion may best be made by boat from Gaeta , from 
which Sperlonga is about 9'/2 M. distant. 

From Itri the road descends for some distance on galleries, 
and finally between woods and vineyards towards the coast, re- 
vealing an exquisite view of the bay of Gaeta, with its glittering 
villas and other edifices; in the distance are Ischia and Procida; 
still further off rise the Monte S. Angelo (p. 152) and Vesuvius. 

Farther on, we perceive to the right, in the middle of a 
vineyard, on a square base, a massive round tower, believed 
to be Cicero's Tomb. It was in this neighbourhood, not far 
from his Formianum, that the proscribed orator, who sought 
to elude the pursuit of the triumvirs Octavian, Antony, and 
Lepidus, was murdered by the tribunes Herennius and Popilius 
Lsenas , 7th Dec, B.C. 43, in the 64th year of his age. On a 
height above the road may be traced the foundations of a temple 
of Apollo, said to have been founded by Cicero. Numerous re- 
lics of ancient buildings are still extant on the whole bay, which, 
like the bay of Naples, was a favourite resort of the Roman nobles, 
and was covered with the most sumptuous villas. Tradition has 
assigned several of these to Cicero, but without the slightest 
historical foundation. The road now descends to Formia. 

Formia (*H6tel de I'Europe, on the coast, R. l'/ 2 &■> pre- 
ferable to the inns at Gaeta), the ancient Formiae, a town with 
9600 inhab., was called Mola di Gaeta under the former regime. 
The beauty of its situation constitutes its sole attraction. The 
mountain-range on the N. side of the bay rises abruptly from the 
sea, the lower slopes being clothed with gardens of lemons, oranges, 
and pomegranates, and with vineyards and olive-plantations. 

One of the most delightful points is the so-called Villa of 
Cicero , or Villa Caposele , above the town , formerly a favourite 
residence of the kings of Naples. It now belongs to Sign. Gaetano 
Rubino (permission to visit it obtained by leaving a card at his palazzo 
opposite the prefecture ; boy to act as guide J /2 fr-)- At the entrance 
are ancient inscriptions and statues. The Lower Part of the garden 
contains considerable remains of an ancient villa, supposed to have 
belonged to Cicero. Among the vaulted halls is one with eight 
columns and a semicircular apse, now converted into offices. Dur- 
ing the siege of Gaeta , General Cialdini established his head- 
quarters here. The Upper Terrace commands an uninterrupted 
survey of the charming bay, Gaeta, Ischia, the promontories of the 
Hay of Naples, and the mountain range to the S. of the Liris, which 
separates the latter from the region of the Volturno. 



Excursion to Gaeta, 4-5 hrs. there and back. 

Formia carries on a brisk traffic with Gaeta, 4 3 /i M. distant. Seat 
in public conveyance V2 fr. ; one-horse carr. there and back, according 
to tariff, 2 fr., or with a stay of some hours 3 fr., a drive of 3 / t hr. ; by 
boat somewhat longer, 3-4 fr. 



to Naples. GAETA. 2. Route. 17 

The road ascends through Formia, and beyond it descends 
to the coast, which it then skirts. Numerous remains of villas, 
which the Romans were in the habit of building out into the sea 
as far as possible, are passed. Among them a spot is pointed 
out as the scene of the assassination of Cicero (see above). Country 
attractive. Outside the town extends a long row of houses, called 
the Borgo. The road next passes the fortifications, which still 
bear traces of the bombardment of 1860. 

Gaeta (Albergo Villa Oaeta, well spoken of; Italia; Caff'e 
Nazionale), the ancient Portus Caieta, with 18,700 inhab., is an 
important fortress, but insignificant as a commercial town. The 
promontory of Gaeta resembles the cape of Misenum in formation, 
presenting from a distance the appearance of a gigantic tumulus. 
Tradition has pointed it out as the tomb of Caieta, the nurse of 
jEneas, and Munatius Plancus accordingly erected a conspicuous 
and imposing monument on its summit. From this eminence 
projects a lower rock which bears the citadel and the town. 

The strength of the place was first put to the test during the bar- 
barian immigrations. Gaeta successfully resisted the attacks of the Teutonic 
invaders, and with Amalfi and Naples constituted one of the last strong- 
holds of ancient culture. It afterwards became a free city, presided over 
by a doge, and carried on a considerable trade with the Levant. It bade 
defiance to the assaults of the Lombards and Saracens, and preserved its 
freedom down to the 12th cent., when with the rest of Southern Italy it 
was compelled to succumb to the Normans. The fortress was extended and 
strengthened at various periods by the Arragonese, by Charles V., and 
especially by the last Bourbon monarchs. In 1501 it surrendered to the 
French, in 1504 to the Spaniards under Gonsalvo da Cordova, in 1734' to 
the Spaniards again, and in 1798 to the French. In 1806 it was gallantly 
defended by the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal, who, aided by the Eng- 
lish fleet, held out for nearly six months against a powerful French army 
under Jlassena. In Nov. I860, Francis II. of Naples, the last of the Bour- 
bon kings, sought refuge here, and his queen Mary, Duchess of Bavaria, 
took a prominent part in the defence of the fortress, but the town was at 
length compelled to capitulate by the Italian fleet on 23rd Feb. 1861. The 
king was conveyed to Eome by a French man-of-war. Pope Pius IX. when 
banished in Nov. 1848, also sought an asylum here, and remained at Gaeta 
until his return to Rome in April, 1850. 

The Cattedrale di 8. Erasmo has a remarkable campanile ; at 
the entrance are four ancient columns and relics of old sculptures. 

Interior modernised. At the back of the high altar (covered) is the 
banner presented by Pope Pius V. to Don John of Austria, the hero of 
Lepanto, representing the Saviour with SS. Peter and Paul. 

Opposite the principal portal of the church is a sculptured Go- 
thic column resting on four lions. 

Among the antiquities may be mentioned the remains of an 
amphitheatre and of a theatre, and also a column bearing the names 
of the twelve winds in Greek and Latin. 

The chief object of interest, however, is the so-called *Torre 
d'Orlando, or tomb of Munatius Plancus, the contemporary of 
Augustus, and founder of Lyons (B. ('.43), situated on the 
summit of the promontory. We ascend from the Piazza to 
the Gothic church of S. Francesco , begun by Ferdinand II. in 
Baedeker. Italy III. 7th Edition. 2 



18 Route 2. 8. AG ATA. 

1849, seriously damaged in 1860, and since completed ; then 
turn to the left through an open garden gate , and reach the 
Torre by a good winding road in 25 min. The tomb consists 
of a huge circular structure of travertine blocks, resembling 
that of Caecilia Metella at Rome. Round the top runs a frieze 
with warlike emblems. On the N. side is, the inscription: L. 
Munatius L. f. L. n. L. pron. Plancus cos. cens. imp. iter. 
VII vir epulon. Mump, ex Raetis, aedem Batumi fecit de mani- 
bis, agros divisit in Italia Beneventi, in Gallia colonias deduxit 
Lugudunum et Rauricam. A more magnificent site for such a 
monument cannot well be conceived. The **View towards the 
N.W. embraces the coast as far as Mte. Circeo, to the W. the sea 
with the Ponza Islands, to the E. and S. the bay of Gaeta, Ischia, 
Procida, Capri, and the mountains of Misenum. 



Leaving Formia, the road now turns into the plain of the 
Oarigliano, the Liris of the ancients, which falls into the Bay 
of Gaeta. To the left, before reaching the bridge, we observe 
a long series of arches of the ancient aqueduct; then nearer 
the road, by the post-house, remains of the theatre and amphi- 
theatre of the venerable city of Minturnae, on the ruins of 
which, on the hill to the left, has sprung up the small town 
of Traetto. In the plain towards the Liris are situated the marshes 
where Marius once sought to elude the pursuit of the hirelings 
of Sulla. On the right bank of the Garigliano, 27th Dec. 1503, 
Don Gonsalvo da Cordova fought the decisive battle with the 
French which placed Naples in his power. Pietro de' Medici, who, 
having been banished from Florence, had followed the French, 
endeavoured to escape to Gaeta in a boat with four field-pieces. 
The boat, however, sank, and all its crew were drowned. Pietro 
was buried at Monte Casino (p. 5). 

The suspension-bridge over the Garigliano (7!/ 2 M. from 
Formia), constructed in 1832, is the oldest in Italy. Before 
it is reached the present road quits the Via Appia, which is 
distinctly traceable on the right bank as far as Mondragone, near 
the Sinuessa of Horace (destroyed by the Saracens in the 10th 
cent.), where to his great joy he was met on his journey (Sat. 
i. 5, 39) by his friends Plotius, Varius, and Virgil. Horace then 
crossed the Savo (Savone) by the Pons Campanus and proceeded 
to Capua. The present road, however, turns to the left towards 
the heights of Sant' Agata (change of horses, halt of l /± hr.), 
a busy post-station, where it is crossed by a road leading from 
Sessa to Mondragone. The volcanic peaks of the Campagna Felice, 
and among them the lofty Rocca Monfina, now become visible. 

Tlie Rocca Monfina, 4'/2 M. from Sant 1 Agata, is easily visited thence. 
On the way thither, •/« M. from Sant' Agata, on a volcanic eminence, lies 
Sessa, the ancient Svessa Aurmira , with interesting rains of a bridge, 
amphitheatre, etc. Other relics are preserved in the ancient cathedral 



VOYAGE TO NAPLES. 3. Route. 19 

and the churches of S. Benedetto and S. Giovanni. In the principal street 
are memorial stones with inscriptions in honour of Charles V., above 
which is an old crucifix with a mosaic cross. From the hills of Sessa to 
Mondragone, towards the S., extends Monte Massico, whose wines Horace 
and Virgil have immortalised. In the vicinity, towards the Volturnus, 
was the Ager Falernus, where excellent wine is still produced. 

The load from Sant' Agata to Sparanisi passes the village of 
Cascano, noted for the beauty of its women. The same repu- 
tation might indeed be fairly extended to the whole district around 
the Bay of Gaeta. About 4 M. from Cassano a road to the left 
leads to Teano (see p. 6). The road then crosses the Savone, not 
far from the picturesque castle of Francolisi, and (1V'2 M.) readies 
the railway-station of Sparanisi (seep. 7), whence Naples is reached 
by railway via Capua in about 2 hrs. 



3. From Leghorn to Naples (by sea). 

Steamboats. Two vessels of the Societii Flono (Wed. and Sat.) and 
one of the Socictb, Rubaitino (Tues.) leave Leghorn for Naples every week 
(embarcation 1 fr.; fare 49 fr., 31 fr.). A French steamer (Compcig?)ie 
Fraissinet) also sails once weekly, calling at Civita Vecchia. The direct 
voyage occupies 26-31 hrs., that by Civita Vecchia about 10 hrs. more. 

The great advantage of approaching Naples by sea is that the city is 
suddenly revealed to the traveller in the perfection of its majesty and 
beauty. The view on entering the bay on a line day is one of almost 
unparalleled loveliness. Most of the coasting steamers load and unload 
in the harbours during the day, and proceed on their way at night; the 
traveller should therefore take care to avoid those that enter the Bay of 
Naples in the dark. 

On emerging from the harbour of Leghorn the steamer affords 
a beautiful retrospect of the town. Towards the W. rises the 
island of Oorgona. The vessel steers towards the S. and soon 
comes in sight of the island of Capraja, while the dark outlines of 
Corsica are visible in the distance. The Italian coast continues 
visible on the E., and to the N.E. rise the Apennines. The 
steamer next proceeds between the island of Elba, with the 
Porto Longone and the islet of Palmajola, and the Punta di Pioin- 
bino, a beautiful passage , affording a line survey of the rocky 
islands as well as of the coast , with its numerous promontories 
crowned with lighthouses. Farther on is the island of Pianosa ; 
more towards the S., Qiglio, and the picturesque Monte Argentario 
(1770 ft.) rising abruptly from the sea. Then the islet of Oian- 
nutri. 

The coast becomes flat, and Civith Vecchia, picturesquely 
situated at the foot of a hill, at length comes in sight. 

To the S. of Civita Vecchia the coast is somewhat monoto- 
nous, and spacious plains, rarely relieved by hills, extend as far as 
the horizon. In clear weather the dome of St. Peter's at Rome 
is said to be visible. In the bay to the S. of Capo Lina.ro lies 
S. Severa, and beyond it Palo with its palace. At the mouth 
of the Tiber we observe Fiumicino and Oslia; farther on is Pnrto 

9* 



20 Route J. NAPLES. Arrival. 

d'Anzio; in the background rise the Alban and Volscian moun- 
tains. The dreary aspect of the Pontine marshes is relieved by the 
conspicuous Monte Circello or Circeo. To the S.W. are the Ponza 
islands, Ponza and Zannone. 

The steamer now stands out to sea, leaving the coast with 
the bays of Terracina and Gaeta to the E. The first land which 
again becomes -visible is the island of Ischia to the S., to the left 
of which we afterwards see the island of Procida. The vessel steers 
into the Strait of Procida, which lies between the island and the 
Capo Miseno. As soon as we have rounded the latter, the Bay of 
Naples in all its beauty bursts on our view, but the city remains 
concealed for some time longer. 

"The strait which lies between the low island of Procida on the 
right and the Capo Miseno on the left, is the channel by which 
the bay of Naples is entered in this direction, — the portal to 
what has been called a 'fragment of heaven to earth vouchsafed'. 
Capo Miseno is a rocky eminence, connected with the mainland 
by a long narrow isthmus ; a grey, deserted tower of weird aspect 
crowns the summit. The white houses of Procida, with their 
flat roofs glittering in the sunshine, remind one of a troop of 
pilgrims toiling up the ascent." 

The eminent author of the work from which the above extract 
is taken strongly recommends travellers to approach Naples by 
sea. The impression , as he justly observes, which is produced 
by a rapid transition by land from majestic Rome to squalid Naples 
is inevitably disappointing, whilst the traveller arriving from the 
sea is at once introduced to all the fascinating charms of the beau- 
tifu bay. 

Naples, see below. 

4. Naples. 

Arrival, fa) By Railway. The station (Stazione Centrale) is situated 
at the E. end of the town (PI. O, 3). The arrangements are far from satis- 
factory , and travellers are generally kept waiting a long time for their 
luggage. The formalities of the municipal douane are soon terminated, 
the declaration of the traveller that his luggage contains no comestibles 
liable to duty being generally accepted. Hotel Untiiibvses I'/'-j fr. ; public 
omnibus 20 c, each box 20 c. (not recommended to persons arriving for 
the first time!. Cabs: with two horses (nearest, the entrance) 1 fr. 40c, 
each trunk 20 c. ; with one horse (outside the railings, farther distant; 
seats for two persons only) 70 c, each trunk 20 c. ; no charge is made 
for .smaller articles of luggage. The Facchini who take the luggage to the 
cab are paid, according to tariff: 10 c. for a travelling-bag or a hat-box, 
20 c. for heavier articles, 40 c. for boxes weighing 2 1 0-400 lbs.; but a few 
soldi more are usually given. The principal hotels all send omnibuses 
or at, least their commissionnaires, to meet, the trains. 

On arriving at the station the traveller should entirely disregard the 
representations and suggestions with which he is generally pestered. Let 
him drive at once to the hotel he has selected, and if it should happen 
to be full he will there ascertain without difficulty where good accommo- 
dation may be procured. He should also keep a watchful eye on his 
luggage, decline the services of officious bystanders, and beware of pick- 



MAFGLI 



l. Albergo deToveri 
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Hotels. NAPLES. 4. Route. 21 

pockets. No unauthorised person should be allowed to mount the box 
of the cab, as sometimes one of the porters at the station will endeavour 
to do so, with a view of extorting money from the landlord of the hotel 
on the pretence that the traveller's choice has been the result of his ad- 
vice. As tricks of the above description are too often practised at Naples, 
the traveller should be on his guard throughout the whole period of his 
stay. In case of necessity assistance may be obtained from the nearest 
policeman (carabinieri, black and red coat with three-cornered hat; or the 
municipal guardia di pubbliea sicureiza, dark uniform with military cap). 

(b) Bt Steamboat. The steamers lay to outside the Porto Grande 
or in the Porto Militare. As soon as permission to disembark is granted, 
a small boat (1 fr. for each person with or without luggage; no attention 
should be paid to the absurdly extortionate demands usually made) conveys 
the passengers to the Dogana (PI. 24; F, 5), where luggage is examined. 
This done, one of the 'facchini della dogana 1 places the luggage on the 
fiacre or other conveyance (40 c. for luggage under 200 lbs., or GO c. up to 
400 lbs.). 

Hotels. Hotel charges are always high at Naples, particularly in 
spring, when the influx of visitors is at its height. Families visiting the 
city at this season had better secure rooms by letter, some time before 
their arrival. In summer the principal hotels are comparatively empty, 
and therefore cheaper. The average charges at these houses during the 
season are about as follows: R. 4-6 fr. and upwards, B. l'/2-2, D. 4-6, 
A. 1 fr. ; travellers who do not dine at the table d'hote pay more for 
their rooms; pension at some of the hotels 10-12 fr. and upwards. — See 
also p. xxiii as to climate and sanitary conditions. 

The new hotels in the Corso Viilorio Kmanuele and the adjoining 
Hi one Principe Amedeo (PI. li, C, 6), enjoy the healthiest situation and 
the finest view, and in spite of their remoteness from the centres of in- 
terest are steadily growing in public favour. (jrand Hotel Nobile; 
Rione Principe Amedeo, a palatial edifice, R. 5 fr., B. l'/a fr.; 'Hotel 
Bristol, "Hotel Tramontano-Beaurivage, D. 5 fr., both in the Corso Yitt. 
Emanuele. 

Lower Town, near the sea. In the Strada Chiatamone (PI. D, E, 6, 7), 
at the foot of the Pizzofalcone : * Washington (PI. a), with garden ; 'Hotel 
des K'oi angers, both opposite the Castel delf Ovo, with unimpeded view. 
Nearer the Chiaja, No. 9, Hotel Metropole, well spoken of. — In the 
Riviera di Chiaja (PI. D, C, B, 6), near the Villa Nazionale, with a view 
of the Villa and the sea, but noisy, the rattling of carriages continuing 
till far on in the night: No. 276, ::: Gran Bretagna (PI. h); Nos. 255-253", 
"Hotel du Lodvre (PI. k); No. 128, Hotel de la Ville (PI. 1), opposite 
the end of the Villa, pension 8-10 fr. — In the Strada S. Lucia, to the 
E. of the Pizzofalcone: Hotel de Rome (PI. m), close to the sea, R. 4, 
I). 5 fr., well spoken of; 'Hotel de Russie (PI. n), with a dependance, 
It. 3-4 fr. and upwards, B. l'/z, D. 5fr., patronised by the English. Hotel 
Vittoria, in the Piazza del Municipio, corner of Strada S. Brigida. 

The following second-class hotels, though not on the coast, are con- 
veniently situated near it. In the busy Strada Medina (PI. E, 5), not 
far from the harbour: "Hotel de Geneve (PI. o), entrance by No. 13 
Strada S. Giuseppe, R. 3, D. 4>/ 2 , B. 3 / 4 fr. ; Hotel Central (PI. p), Strada 
Medina 72, commercial, similar charges; Hotel National, Strada Me- 
dina 5. — In the Strada del Molo, opposite the Castel Nuovo: No. 24, 
'-Hotel Milano (PI. q), unpretending , R. 2 I / , 2, A. '/2 fr. — In the Piazza 
del Municipio (PI. E, 5): Hotel St. Petersbourg & Pension Cavour, with 
trattoria (p- 23), pens. 8 fr. ; Hotel de Globe; Albergo d'Italia, nearly 
opposite the church of S. Giacnmo, moderate; Trinacria. — In the Largo 
S. Ferdinando, at the beginning of the Toledo (PI. E, 6): Hotel de l'Eu- 
rope entrance by Strada Nardones 113, L>. 4, B. 1 fr., well spoken of; 
Hotel d'Orient, entrance by Strada Nardones 8. — In the Largo della 
Carita: Hotel de l'Univees, moderate. — In the Largo Fiorentini: Al- 
bergo dei Fiori, near the Teatro Fiorentini (PI. 28; E, 5). 

Pensions (Boarding Houses). The following may all be recommended 
for a stay of from 3-4 days upwards; some receive travellers even for a 



22 Route 4. NAPLES. Hotels. 

single day (comp. p. xix). Strada Chialamone: No. 23, Hotel & Pension 
Allemagna, 8-9 fr. per day. — Riviera di Chiaja: No. 287, Hot. & Pens. 
Anglo-Americaine, 9 fr. ; No. 155, Pension Romaine; No. 118, Hot. & 
Pens, della Riviera; No. 114, Pens. Anglaise, 7'/2-9'/2 fr. ; No - 61, Hot. 
& Pens. i>e Naples. — Near the Chiaja: Hot. & Pens. Hassler, Strada 
S. Teresa a Chiaja, 8-10 fr. ; Pens. Turner-Guidotti, Vico Giov. Bausan 
16; Montcenis, Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 67, with de'pendance at Vio 
primo degli Alabardieri 11, 1st floor; Orient, Strada Vitloria 44-47, near 
Ike piazza of that name, E. 3, B. l'/ 2 fr. — In the Higher Quarters of the 
Town (comp. p. 21): |' ! Britannique (Mme. Macpherson), Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele 38, near the large hotels ; Hot. & Pens. Casalta, Bione Prin- 
cipe Amedeo 14, well spoken of. 

Hotels Garnis. For a stay of some duration the traveller may prefer 
to take rooms at a private hotel, where he will he more independent than 
at a hotel or a pension. Charges vary with the season , culminating on 
unusual occasions, such as an eruption of 31 1. Vesuvius, which inva- 
riably attracts crowds of visitors. The rooms are generally large and 
fitted up for two persons: with one bed 2>/2-4, with two beds 4-6 fr. per 
day. The number of days for which the room is engaged should be ex- 
pressly stated, otherwise the visitor may be required to leave unexpectedly, 
and a distinct bargain should be made as to charges (e. g. : A. 1/2 fr., L. 
30 c. per day). Breakfast may usually be obtained in the house, but better 
at a cafe. Many of these establishments are well fitted up, but are not so 
clean or well organised as the principal hotels. Houses of this kind are 
to be found on the side of the town next the sea, from S. Lucia and Chia- 
tamone to the Chiaja and the Mergellina , and also in the side-streets 
near the Chiaja (Giovanni Bausan, Mandella Gaetana, Sta. Teresa a 
Chiaja, etc.). Thus in S. Lucia Nos. 28, 31, 92 (3rd floor); in the Chiaja, 
Kos. 171, 260, 263, 267 (1st fl.), 270, etc. The well-known Casa Combi, 
formerly in S. Lucia, is now at Strada Vittoria 38. There are also several 
hotels garnis in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and in the Rione Principe 
Amedeo. 

Private Apartments. Furnished rooms may be easily obtained at 
Naples. Those in the best quarters (Pizzofalcone , Biviera di Chiaja, 
Corso Vitt. Emanuele) cost 40-60 fr. a month. 

Restaurants ( Trattorie) very numerous. Italian cuisine. Dinners usually 
a la carte; three dishes with fruit and wine 2-3y 2 fr. ; iced water (acqua 
gelata) 5 c. ; good table-wine 30-40 c. per half-litre; bread, generally in- 
different, 15 c. (pane francese of finer flour) ; gratuity 1 soldo for each franc 
of the bill. Most of the restaurants also give dinners at a fixed price 
(prezzo flsso) varying from 2>/2 to 5 fr. — Smoking universal; ladies, how- 
ever , may visit the better of these establishments. Most of them are 
situated in the Toledo, on the first-floor, the entrance being generally 
from a side-street. 

On the W. Side of the Toledo: "Gaffe del Pal. Reale, Largo S. Fer- 
dinando, handsome and expensive, table d'hote at 5, 5.30, or 6 according 
to the season, 4 fr. ; "Restaurant du Gafi de VEurope, above the cafe of 
that name, at the coiner of the Strada di Chiaja and the Toledo, dear, 
much frequented for dejeuner about noon (downstairs cheaper than first 
lloor); Restaurant de Naples, Toledo 236, entrance Vico Carminello a To- 
ledo 63. 

On the E. Side of the Toledo: "Giardim di Torino, entrance Vico delle 
Campanc 70, moderate. Then, corner of the Strada S. Brigida, Restaurant 
du Louvre, good cuisine, moderate charges; Villa di Torino, Via Paolo 
Emilio Imbriani, a side-street between the Toledo and the Piazza del 
Municipio, entrance by Vico del Fico 3, viands good, one of the oldest 
trattorie in Naples, formerly the chief resort of strangers ; Restaurant della 
Borsa, Strada Monte Oliveto 40. Farther up the Toledo, No. 143, Trattoria 
lV Italia, inexpensive. 

The following may also be mentioned : "Birreria Dreher (suitable for 
breakfast; 'plat du jour' 1 fr.), Largo S. Francesco di Paola 8-11 (see p. 
23); "Bacca's German Restaurant, Strada Guantai Nuovi 46 (PI. E, 5); 
Zepf-Weber (also a cafe's rooms to let), Str. del Molo; Cafi du Commerce, 



Cafes. NAPLES. 4. Route. 23 

near the last, in the Str. Medina, table d'hote at 6 o'clock 3 fr. ; Cafi 
Cavour, Str. Medina 64, well spoken of; "Al Vermouth di Torino, Piazza 
del Municipio, pleasant rooms, D. from 2 ! /2 fr. ; Best, des Etrangers, Str. 
di Chiaja 134; Grand Best, du Gladialeur, Str. di Chiaja 123; Benvenulo 
(also a cafe), Via Museo Nazionale 67-69 (continuation of the Toledo) ; 
Cafi al Museo , corner of the Piazza Cavour, opposite the museum , the 
last two convenient luncheon-rooms for visitors to the museum; Birreria 
di Strasburgo, corner of the Piazza del Municipio and the Str. del Molo; 
Cafi di Napoli, in the Villa Nazionale, etc. 

The Maccaroni of Naples is much esteemed, but is generally hard, and 
should therefore be ordered 'ben cotti'. It is usually flavoured with pomi 
d?oro (tomatas), of which the Neapolitans are very fond. Sea-fish and ra- 
gosta , a kind of lobster, excellent. Shell-fish-soup (zuppa di vongole), a 
good but indigestible dish. Oysters (ostriche) are least expensive at S. 
Lucia; the best are from the Lago Fusaro, 60 c. to 1 fr. per dozen. 
Those who care to witness a characteristic phase of Neapolitan life should 
visit one of the oyster-stalls , but many will prefer the more refined 
Bestaurant di S. Lucia, situated on the promontory mentioned p. 35. An 
Ostrichaio, or oyster-seller, generally visits the restaurants in the town 
about the dinner-hour. 

Good fish may also be procured at the Trattorie di Campagna, by the 
Posilipo, close to the sea; e. g. "Trattoria dello Scoglio delle Sirene, close 
to the ruins of the Palazzo di Donn' Anna (p. 86), I M. from the W. end 
of the town ; about 1 /t M. beyond it is the "Antica Trattoria dello Scoglio 
di Frisio ; both of these are much visited on summer evenings and com- 
mand superb views, especially by moonlight. Also several smaller trattorie. 

Wine. The wine of the environs is generally excellent, 50-80 c. per 
litre, such as Gragnano, Ischia, Vino di Procida, del Monte, di Posilipo, and 
Falerno (sweet); whereas Marsala, Capri, and Lacrima Christi are gene- 
rally adulterated. Wine-stores: Str. di Chiaja 136, 146; Vico Concezione 
a Toledo 42, etc. Good Neapolitan, Sicilian, and S. Italian wines may 
also be obtained at numerous small wine-stores, such as the Cava de' 
Gesuiti, Str. S. Sebastiano 19 (PI. E, 4), which is very primitively fitted up. 

Cafes. Smoking allowed everywhere. A dejeuner a la fourchette is 
more expeditious at a cafe than at the trattorie. On summer evenings 
the cafes are crowded with ice-eaters ; in the morning granita only. The 
average charges are : cup of 'caffe nero' 15-20 c. , 'caffe bianco' or 'caffe 
latte' 40 , 'granita di caffe' , or frozen coffee (refreshing in hot weather, 
and may be taken at breakfast) 40, chocolate 80, bread or coffee-cake 
{pasta) 15-20 c. , two fried eggs (due uova al piatto) 40-60 c. ; steak or 
cutlet 1 fr. to 1 fr. 20 c. The list of ices sometimes contains a great va- 
riety : granita 40-50 c, gelato 60c. and upwards; half-portions of the for- 
mer may be obtained. Gratuity 5 c. or more. 

The best cafe's are at the S. end of the Toledo, near the Piazza del 
Plebiscito. Here are situated the 'Gran Cafi del Palazzo Reale, in the 
Largo S. Ferdinando, opposite the palace. Adjacent, at the corner of the 
Str. di Chiaja, " Europa, with restaurant. There are also several smaller 
cafes in the Toledo: No. 236, Napoli; No. 316, Gran Cafi <T Italia; "Ben- 
venuto, Via Museo Nazionale 67-69 (see p. 22). — We may next mention: 
Italia Meridionale, Str. di Chiaja 85; Cafi del Corso, Str. di Chiaja 233; 
Fratelli Comito, Str. di Chiaja 140-141, corner of the Str. Alabardieri. — 
Commercio, Piazza Medina, and Zepf- Weber, Str. del Molo, see above. — 
At the Villa Nazionale: "Cafi di Napoli and Cafi Nazionale, adjoining the 
Aquarium, concerts in the afternoon or evening (according to the season). 

Beer. The best is obtained at the "Birreria Dreher, Largo S. Fran- 
cesco di Paola 8-11, near the Piazza del Plebiscito ; excellent Vienna beer, 
35c. for a small, 70c. for a large glass; this is also a good restaurant. 
Other birrerie at Str. S. Carlo 48, etc. — Munich beer at Bacca's German 
Bestaurant (see above). Strasburg beer at the Birreria di Strasburgo (see 
above). At other places the slightly effervescing beer of Caflisch's brew- 
ery at Capodimonte (50 c. per bottle) is usually drunk. 

Confectioners : Caflisch, Toledo 253-255 ; Van Bol & Feste, Toledo 256, 
with a branch at Toledo 246 ; Lombardi, Toledo 337 ; Ferroni, S. Brigida 3. 



24 Route 4. NAPLES. 



Carriages. 



— Boulangerie Francaise, Largo S. Ferdinando 51, 52. — Epicene Anglaise, 
Largo Vittoria. 

Cigars at the Spaccio Normale, Toledo 248, on the left when approached 
from the Piazza del Plebiscito. Imported Havannahs from 25 c. upwards. 

Money Changers, employed by the bank for public convenience, 
are stationed at several of the most frequented parts of the streets. Small 
notes under 10 fr. may be exchanged here for copper, either gratuitously, 
or at a charge of 2 c. per 5 fr. ; the change should of course be counted. 
In order to avoid imposition and many a trial of patience, the traveller 
should always be well provided with small coin as well as the smallest 
notes of the country. 

Bankers. A. Levy el Cornp. , Palazzo Cavalcante, Toledo 348; Turner 
<(■ Co., S. Lucia 64; Meuricoffre el Comp., Piazza del Municipio 52; Minasi 
A- Arlotta, Strada Montoliveto 37; Sorvillo , Sir. Maudella Gaelana 27. 
Hills of exchange must be stamped on presentation for payment with a 
'hollo slraordinario\ obtainable from the bankers. 

Consulates. American (Mr. Duncan), Strada della Pace 37 (11-3); 
Austrian, Strada Mandella Gaetana 27; British (Mr. Grant), Pal. Caprioli, 
Vico Colascione a Monte di Dio (10-3); banish and Swedish, Str. Cavallerizza 
a Chiaja 00; Butch, Piazza del Municipio 52; French, Via Poerio 34; 
Herman, Str. Guantai Nuovi69; Russian, Riviera di Chiaja 185; Spanish, 
Str. Pace 24 ; Swiss, Piazza del Municipio 52. 

Carriages. The distances in ^Naples are so great, carriage-fares are so 
moderate , and walking in the hot season is so fatiguing , that most tra- 
vellers will prefer driving to walking. A private two-horse carriage for 
excursions costs 20-25 fr. per day, or 12-15 fr. for half-a-day, besides a 
gratuity of 2-3 fr. — Carriages may be hired at the hotels , etc. The 
ordinary cabs are of course the cheapest conveyances. 

(a) Within the City , the boundaries of which are as follows (begin- 
ning on the W.) : From the Fontana del Lione on the Mergellina ami 
the small piazza in front of S. Maria di Piedigrotta (PI. A, 7) along the 
Corso Vittorio Emanuele to the Career! di S. Efremo Nuovo, in the Strada 
delle Fontanelle (PI. D, 2, 3); thence to S. Gennaro dei Poveri (catacombs; 
PI. D, 2) and the Tondo di Capodimonte with the stairs ; then to S. Efremo 
Vecchio, the Albergo dei Poveri in the Strada Foria (PI. F, G, 1, 2) and 
along the Strada delF Arenaccia to the sea, and the Ponte della Maddalena 
(PI. H, 4). 

With one horse ('carrozzella 1 , for two persons, By day Midnight 
or three at most): to sunrise 

Per drive — 70 c. 1 fr. 10 c. 

By time (generally disadvantageous), first hour 1 fr. 50 c. 2 fr. 10 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 10 c. 1 fr. 50 c. 

With two horses: per drive 1 fr. 40 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

First hour 2 fr. 20 c. 3 fr. 20 c. 

Each additional hour 1 fr. 70 c. 2 fr. 20 c. 

Each box from the station to the town 20 c, smaller articles free. In 
order to avoid imposition, the best course is to pay the exact fare, and not 
a single soldo more. Those who are disposed to pay liberally are sure to 
be victimised. In case of altercations , application should be made to the 
nearest policeman, or at the office of the Corso Pubblico on the first floor of 
the Municipio. 

(b) Outside the Citit : — One-horse Two-horse 

Villaggio di Posilipo 1. 50 2. 25 

Villaggio di Fuorigrolta 1. 20 1. 75 

Baguoli and Lago d'Agnano (Bog Grotto) . 2. — 3. — 

Arenella, Antignano , Vomero, S. Marlino, 

or Capodimonte t. 50 2. 25 

Campo di Marie or Cimeterio Nuovo ... 1. 50 2. 25 

Portici 1. 75 2. 50 

Miano, Mariane.lla 2. — 3. — 

Resina 2. — 3. — 

Torre del (,'rero 2. 50 3. 75 

S. (itorgio a Cremano or Barra .... 1. 75 2. 50 



Tramways. NAPLES. i. Route. 25 

These are the fares from the stands nearest to the respective points. Un- 
less a special bargain be made, the fares from other stands are 70 c. to 1 fr. 
20 c. in excess of the above. For longer excursions, an agreement should 
be made with the driver beforehand. On being informed of the distance 
of the intended drive , he generally makes an extravagant demand. In 
answer, the hirer oilers what he considers a fair sum, and quietly with- 
draws if the driver objects. This course seldom fails to produce the de- 
sired result. On Sundays and holidays the fares are somewhat higher. 

The tramways and omnibuses also afford a convenient opportunity, 
especially to a single traveller , of visiting the fll useum , and of making 
short excursions in the environs. 

Tramways. Fare on week-days till 5 p.m., 1st cl. 15-25 c, 2nd cl. 
10-20 c, according to the distance; after 5 p.m. and on Sundays 25 and 
20 c. for any distance. The principal line skirts the whole seaward side 
of the town, running from the Villa Cauonko by the Mergellina (¥\. A, 7), 
Riviera di Chiuja, Largo delta Vittoria, C/tiatatnone, S. Lucia, and the 
Piazza del Plebiscite (PI. E, G) 1o the Largo S. Ferdinando (omnibus, see 
below), whence it is continued across the Piazza del Municipio, and 
through the Slrada del Molo, Slrada Pilkro (along the harbour), and 
Strada Nuova (PI. G, H, 4, J, 4, 5) to Porlici, Resina, and Torre del Greco. 
— Two branch-lines diverge from the main route: (1) From the Piazza 
del Municipio to the Post Office (PI. 23; E. 4); (2) From the Castello del 
Carmine (PI. G, 4) through the Corso Garibaldi to the Railway Station 
(PI. G, 3) and to the Porta Capnana (PI. G, 3). The Porta Capuana is 
also the starting-point of (he three following lines: (1) Through the 
Strada Carbonara and the Sir. Foria to the Museum (PI. E, 3) ; (2) Through 
the Borgo di S. Antonio Abbate to the Reclusorio and to the Tiro Provin- 
ciate (PI. G, 2, 1); (3) Through the Strada Nuora di Poggioreale to the 
Camposanto Nuovo (PI. J, 1). 

Omnibuses. The vehicles of the various routes are distinguished by 
different colours. Fare on all the lines, 20 c. for a whole roule, 10 c. for 
half. The starting-point of several lines is the Largo S. Feedinando 
(PI. E, 6), a small piazza adjoining the Piazza del Plebiscito on the N. ; 
the omnibus station is in the corner, between the Palazzo Reale and the 
Teatro S. Carlo. The following lines diverge hence: (1) Up the Toledo 
to the Museum (PI. E, 3), and thence to Capodimonte (PI. E, 1). (2) Up 
the Toledo to the Piazza Dante (PI. E, 4), and then to the right through 
the Porta Alba (p. 42), and along the Strada de' Tribunali to Castel Ca- 
puano (generally known as / Tribunali; PI. F, G, 3). (3) Along the coast 
to S. M. del Carmine (PI. 59; G, 4) and to the Reclusorio (PI. G, 2, 1). — 
From the entrance to the Villa in the Largo Vittoria (PI. D , 6) an 
omnibus runs through the Strada di Chiaja, up the Toledo, across the 
Piazza della Carita (PI. E, 4, 5), and through the Via Bellini and Strada 
Foria to the Reclusorio (PI. G, 2, 1). — Other lines are: From the Mer- 
gellina (PI. A, 7) by the Largo della Vittoria (PI. D, 6) to the Post Office 
(PI. 23; E, 4). From the Strada Pasquale a Chiaja (PI. C, 6) across the 
Largo S. Ferdinando (PI. E, 6) to the Railway Station (PI. G, 3). The 
line from the Mergellina by Cariati to the Piazza Salvaior Rosa (p. 87; 
PI. D, 3) traverses the whole of tlie Corso Vittorio Emonuele (Cariati about 
halfway). — Omnibuses also ply from the Largo S. Ferdinando (see above) 
to Porlici. and S. Giorgio. — The elegant open carriages of the Societd 
Omnibus, a private company, ply in the streets along the coast, at fares 
similar to those of the omnibuses. 

Boats. Charges vary according to circumstances. A boat with four 
rowers about 15 fr. per day. A row in the harbour 1-1 '/a fr. for the first, 
1 fr. for each additional hour. A previous agreement should invariably be 
made. Boats to the steamers, 1 fr. 

Commissionnaires charge 6 fr. a day, or for a single walk 1 fr. ; but 
travellers who intend making purchases had better dispense with their ser- 
vices. Some of the best guides are Swiss and Germans. Johann Hnber, 
Zum Stein , Staub , and others organise excursions in the environs. Thus 
Huber generally escorts a party weekly to Amain, E,avello,' and Peestum, 
the excursion lasting from Monday morning to Tuesday evening, and the 



26 Route 4. NAPLES. Baths. 

charge, including quarters for the night, being 50 fr. for each person. 
Trustworthy information may be obtained at Detken's book-shop (see below). 

Baths. Warm: Bagni della Pace, entrance between Nos. 16 and 
18 Strada della Pace, near Chiatamone (bath in summer 1 fr. 15, in 
the evening 1 fr. 35 c; in winter 1 fr. 70 or 2 fr. 50 c; six baths in 
summer 5'/2 fr. , in winter 9 fr. ; gratuity for each bath 2 soldi). Others 
near the Hotel de Rome at S. Lucia; Vico Belle Donne a Chiaja 12; Ca- 
lata S. Marco a Fontana Medina 6; Stabilimentu Idroterapico Partenopeu 
of Dr. Paoni , Strada Cavallerizza a Chiaja 47 ; Bagni del Chialomone, 
opposite the Castel dell' Ovo. — Sea- Bathing in summer. The most fre- 
quented place is beyond the Villa Nazionale, but as the drains of the town 
empty themselves in the vicinity, the water is not very clean. A better 
place is at the Posilipo near the Villa Monplaisir, immediately beyond 
the precincts of the city; large cabinet 1 fr. with towels, small cabinet 
50 c. ; fee 5 c. — On entering the water, bathers should take care to 
observe the number of their cabinet, and to avoid touching the stakes, 
which are encrusted with very sharp shells. — The baths by S. Lucia and 
the Marinella cannot be recommended to strangers. 

Lieux d'Aisance (Latrine Pubbliche ; 10 c.) at the Villa, by the egress 
towards the sea; also by the promontory of S. Lucia, to which a flight 
of steps descends, to the left ; in the Toledo, to the left of the Museum ; 
at the Reclusorio. 

Physicians. Dr. Barringer, Str. Vittoria 41; Dr. Dempster, Riv. di 
Chiaja; Dr. Tweedie Stodart, Palazzo Beato, Corso Vittorio Emanuele 40; 
Mr. Wyatt, S. Caterina a Chiaja, Pal. Calabritta; Dr. Cantani, director 
of the Clinica Medica at. the university, Str. Fuoriporta Medina 23; Dr. 
Malbranc, physician to the International Hospital (see below); Dr. Schrbn, 
professor of anatomy at the university, Palazzo Montemiletto , Corso Vitt. 
Emanuele 152, hours of consultation 9-10 and 2-3 ; Dr. Obenaus, physician 
of the German hospital (see below) , Palazzo Cassano , Str. Monte di Dio 
14 a Pizzofalcone ; Dr. C. Viliorelli, Str. Nardones 8 (1-2). 

Chemists. English, Kernot, Strada S. Carlo 14. German, Berncastel, 
Largo S. Francesco di Paola 7, adjoining the Piazza del Plebiscito. Ho- 
meopathic Druggist, Toledo 388. Drug-dealers, Fratelli Hermann, Piazza 
del Municipio. 

Hospitals. In the event of serious illness travellers are strongly re- 
commended to procure admission to one or other of the following hospi- 
tals: (1) Osjn-dale Internazionale, Vico Stretto ai Miracoli (PI. E, 2), under 
the superintendence of Dr. Malbranc (1st cl. 15, 2nd cl. 6 fr. per day); 
(2) Ospedale Tedesco, Cappella Vecchia 18, under the superintendence of 
Dr. Obenaus. 

Teachers of Languages. Addresses may be obtained at the booksellers'. 

Shops. Gloves, coral, tortoise-shell, and lava ornaments may be men- 
tioned as specialities of Naples. Copies of ancient bronzes, Etruscan vases, 
etc. are also well executed here. Bargaining is absolutely necessary in 
order to prevent extortion. Those who know something of the language 
will of course buy to the best advantage. 

Antique Bronzes. Copies may be obtained in the photograph-shops 
of Summer, Scala, Amodio, etc. (Narcissus 100-150 fr. ; Dancing Faun 130- 
160 fr.). 

Antiquities. Barone, Str. Trinita Maggiore 6, first floor, nearly oppo- 
site S. Cliiara. 

Booksellers. Detken <(■ Rocholl, Piazza del Plebiscito, circulating li- 
brary, newspapers, etc.; Furchheim, Piazza dei Martiri 59, at both of 
these English and foreign books ; Marghieri, Toledo 140. Dorant, English 
reading-room, Riviera di Chiaja 267. 

Bookbinder, Str. di Chiaja 65. 

Bronzes, see Antique Bronzes. 

Chemists,' see above. 

Coral and Lava. "Achille Sauadrilli, Str. Pace 7 , in the Palazzo Nun- 



Shops. NAPLES. 4. Route. 27 

ziante, first floor, entrance by the court ; pretty brooches in lava 12'/2, 
earrings 10, bracelets 2'/2 fr. and upwards; fixed prices, but 5 per cent 
discount allowed. ~ Bolten , Piazza de 1 Martiri 58; Casalta, Piazza dei 
Martiri 60,61; Rocco Morabito, Piazza dei Martiri 32; Merlino, Strada del 
Gigante 18, 19 ; M. Piscione, Riviera di Chiaja 271 ; N. Piscione, Str. S. Ca- 
terina a Chiaja 35-36; Fralelli Errico, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 39-40; 
Cagliardi, Largo Vittoria 7; De Caro, S. Lucia 70; Stella, Str. Pace 9, 
cameos. — The so-called lava-ornaments are manufactured of a kind of 
calcareous tufa, a softer material also found on Mt. Vesuvius, having been 
probably thrown up by former eruptions, and presenting various tints 
of grey, brown, greenish, and reddish colours. 

Gloves. Budillon, Strada di Chiaja 202; Cuosta, Str. di Chiaja 137; 
Amendola, Str. di Chiaja 10; Piscicelli, Str. di Chiaja 248; Criscuolo, Strada 
S. Caterina a Chiaja 74-76. 

Hairdresser, see Perfumer. 

Hattek, Mammolino, Toledo 258. 

Marbles of Vitulano. These beautiful coloured marbles, from the 
quarries which furnished the adornments of the grand staircase at Caserta 
(p. 10), may be seen at Piazza Cavour 54, near the Museum. 

Millinery. Ricco, Piazza dei Martiri 301; Pszenny-Fass, Str. S. Cate- 
rina a Chiaja 38; Jourdan, Strada di Chiaja 209, first floor; Angelici & Co., 
Str. di Chiaja 185-187. 

Music, see Pianos. 

Opticians. Heinemann, Toledo 213; Tailor, Toledo 229. 

Perfumer, Zempt, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 33,34; the ple.asant, soft 
Neapolitan soap is sold here. 

Photographs are sold at the book-shops, and also by Sommer, Largo 
Vittoria, where views of every part of Italy, copies of bronzes, terra- 
cottas, etc. may be purchased; Scala , Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 42; 
Amodio, same street, Nos. 3,4; Oargiulo & Gomez, Strada S. Lucia 85, 
86 ; these three also sell bronzes, terracottas, etc. ; Kielmeier, Strada Chia- 
tamone 20; Rive, Strada Chiatamone 36. 

Pianos (also for hire). Eppler, Strada Nardones 95; Helzel, Strada 
di Chiaja 138; Mach, Str. Baglivo Uries a Toledo 61; Sievers, Palazzo 
Francavilla, Strada di Chiaja 149; Schmidt, Strada Nardones 51. — Ger- 
man Music at Detken's; Italian at Cottrau's, Largo S. Ferdinando 49, and 
Ricordfs, Strada S. Carlo 18. — Music Masters, very numerous; addresses 
obtained at the music-shops. 

Shoemakers. Finoja, Strada Gaetano Filangieri (Str. Alabardieri) 53, 
54; Baldelli, Strada di Chiaja 169; De Notaris , Str. di Chiaja 189; Cal- 
zuleria Reale di M. Forte, Str. di Chiaja 81. 

Stationers. Richter , Colonnade di S. Francesco di Paola 10-12 and 
Toledo 309; Steeger, Str. Gennaro Serra 22; Tipaldi, Str. Montoliveto 51 
(artists 1 requisites); also at Piazza dei Martiri 55. 

Tailors. Lennon (English), Str. S. Caterina a Chiaia 2; Mackenzie, 
Piazza de' Martiri 52, 53; Kieper, Str. Montoliveto 61. 

Tortoise Shell. Fratelli Labriola, Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 41-46 ; 
Tagliaferri, same street, 43; L. Labriola, Str. Chiatamone 23bis. Also at 
the small shops in the Strada S. Carlo and its prolongation towards the 
Piazza del Municipio. 

Umbrellas and Fans. Gilardini, Toledo 335, 336 ; De Martina, Strada 
di Chiaja 210. 

Vases, Majolica, Terracottas, and Statuettes (of Neapolitan fig- 
ures very characteristic): Gmstiniani, Str. del Gigante 10; Mollica, Strada 
S. Lucia 27. Also at several of the photograph-shops (see above). 

Watchmakers. Gutwenger , Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 66; Eberhard, 
Str. di Chiaja 207; Wyss, Str. S. Brigida 47. 

Wood Carvings from Sorrento: Gargiulo, Str. S. Caterina a Chiaja 
44 and 5. 

Goods Agents, C. Stein & Co., Strada Montoliveto. 



28 Route -i. NAPLES. Theatres. 

Theatres (comp. p. xxiv). The "Teatro S. Carlo (p. 37), one of the 
largest theatres in Europe, contains six tiers of boxes, 32 in each. Operas 
and ballet only. Parterre (pit) 3 fr. (arm-chair 6 fr.) ; boxes, 1st tier (par- 
terre) 40 fr., 2nd tier 50 fr., 3rd 32 fr., and so on. — Teatro Fiorentini, 
in the street of that name. Dramas. Pit 2 fr. ; boxes , 1st tier 11 fr. 
75 c, 2nd tier 12 fr. 75 c, etc. — Teatro del Fondo (or Mercadante), 
in the Str. del Molo, dramas and comedies, and in summer operas. Pit 
2 fr. (arm-chair 4 fr.) ; boxes, 1st tier 15 fr., 2nd tier 20 fr., etc. — Teatro 
Nuovu, in the Vico del Teatro rluovo, a side-street of the Toledo. Comic 
opera. — Teatro Bellini, Strada Bellini (PI. E, 3), entrance by the Via 
Conte di Ituvo. Pit 2 fr. ; boxes 6, 10, 14 fr., etc. — Teatro Sannazaro, 
Str. di Chiaja, a pleasing little theatre for operettas, etc. Pit 3 fr. — San 
Carlino, Piazza del Municipio, where the visitor may become acquainted 
with 'Pulcinella 1 , the 'Punch and Judy 1 of the Neapolitans, to whom the 
spectacle is an unfailing source of amusement. These performances (twice 
daily) are said to derive their origin from the ancient Oscan comedy of 
Atella. Those who have some knowledge of the Neapolitan dialect will 
find them not beneath their notice. Pit 85 c. ; boxes 6 fr. 40, or 5 fr. 
10 c. — Teatro Partenoi'e, similar to the last, Piazza Cavour. 



Post and Telegraph-Office in the Palazzo Gravina (PI. 23 ; E, 4), Strada 
Montoliveto. Branch Offices in the Largo S. Caterina a Chiaja, the rail- 
way station, Str. del Duomo 58, and at the Immacnlatella on the quay 
(p. 39). Letters should be posted at the branch-offices 2 hrs., and at the 
general post-office 1 hr. before the departure of the mail-train for which 
they are intended. — The chief Telegraph Office, on the first floor of the 
Palazzo Gravina, is open day and night. Branch Offices: Str. S. Giacomo 
42, 43, Str. del Duomo 136 (63), Corso Garibaldi 45, nearly opposite the 
station, and Largo Garofalo a Chiaja 12, Vico Concezione a Toledo 16, 
and Str. Foria 10S. 

Railways. The station is at the E. end of the town, in the Corso 
Garibaldi (PI. G, 3). Passengers should be at the station in good time 
(comp. p. xviii). Those who wish to go by an omnibus to the station 
should ask before getting into it whether it will reach the station in 
time, as the omnibuses do not run in connection with the trains. 

Steamboats. Most of the offices are on the quay. The chief steam- 
boat company for S. Italy and Sicily is the Societa J. <C V. Fiorio <(/ Co., 
Str. Piliero 30, the vessels of which ply to Palermo, to Messina and Reggio 
(see p. 222), to Marseilles via Leghorn and Genoa, etc. (comp. the time- 
tables). Some of this company's vessels are new and comfortable, while 
others are the reverse. Enquiry on this point should therefore be made 
beforehand. — Vessels of the French company Valery Freres et Fits, Str. 
Piliero 1, and of Fraissinet et Cie., Str. Piliero 3, start once weekly for 
Marseilles, those of the first-named company calling at Civita Vecchia, 
Leghorn, and Genoa. — The vessels of Rubattino d' Co., Str. Piliero 33, 
ply to Messina, Leghorn, Cagliari, Tunis, Alexandria, etc. — During the 
prevalence of cholera many of the steamers cease to ply. — Embarcation 
of each passenger 1 fr. inch luggage, comp. p. 21. 



Street Traffic. The stranger is beset and importuned in the principal 
streets by numbers of hawkers, who of course practise gross imposition on 
those who are unacquainted with the prices. As a rule one-third of the 
sum demanded should be offered, and all discussion avoided. 

Shoe-blacks, whose knocking is intended to attract passers-by, 10 c. 

Matches. A box of vestas (cerini, 10, or two boxes 15 c.) is a desirable 
acquisition, as matches are never provided at the hotels. 

Vendors of Iced Water (aequaivoli) carry on a very brisk traffic in 
summer. They are usually provided with two large tubs filled with snow, 
in which the water is cooled, and a supply of lemons, etc. Iced water 
2 c. per glass; with lemon, amarena, or anisette 5 c. ; with lemon, syrup, 
and anisette 10 c. — There are also several mineral springs in the town, 
containing sulphur, iron, and carbonic acid gas; the best known is at S. 



Festivals. NAPLES. 1. Route. 29 

Lucia. Women and girls offer a draught to passers-by (5 c). The water 
has a slightly medicinal effect, and the smell is disagreeable. 

Newspapers (5 c. each). The most important are: the Corrlerc del 
Mattino, and the Roma, both published about noon ; in the evening II 
Piccolo and the popular // Pungolo (il pungolo = a goad for driving 
cattle). 'E uscit 'o pung', or 'volit 'o pice' (the o being strongly emphas- 
ised), i. e. 'e uscito lo Pungolo', or 'volete lo Piccolo' (lo being the Neapol- 
itan form of the article il) are calls which resound everywhere between 
8 and 10 p. m.). 

National and Religious Festivals. These are inseparably connected with 
each other, and, though inferior in magnificence to the church-festivals which 
used to take place at Rome, they exhibit the most joyous and animated 
phase of Neapolitan life. The principal pilgrimages take place in summer. 
The carriages are decked with wreaths and banners ; tambourines and lungs 
are plied most lustily; the horses, especially in the Ohiaja, are driven at 
a furious pace. The political changes of late have deprived many of these 
festivals of their former significance, but the more important are still 
extremely interesting. 

The Festival of the Vergine di Piedigrotta (p. 86) was formerly the 
greatest of all, but under the present government has lost its importance. — 
A more interesting sight is now presented by the pilgrimages at Easter to 
the shrine of the Madonna di Monte Vekgine near Avellino (p. 176), 
which are prolonged for three days , when the surrounding population 
assembles from all quarters in carriages and on foot, tricked out in all the 
magnificence they can command. The Neapolitans then return to the town 
by Nola in a gay procession which vies with those of the Bacchanalians of old. 
On the following day they proceed to celebrate the festival of the Madonna 
dell' Akco, 6 M. from Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma, from which they 
again return in procession in the most exuberant spirits. — On Ascension 
Day the festival of the Madonna of the baths of Scaeati (p. 163) takes 
place near Pompeii. — On 15th Aug. is celebrated the festival of Capodi- 
monte. — Other festivities of a more strictly ecclesiastical character 
are celebrated at Christmas, Easter, on Ascension-day, on the festivals of 
Corpus Christi (Fete de Dicu), St. Antony, and above all on that of St. 
Januarius in May, September, and December. 

The Festival of the Constitution (la Festa dello Statuto), of more 
recent origin, is celebrated throughout Italy on the first Sunday of June. 
In the forenoon military parade in the Piazza del Plebiscite In front of 
S. Francesco mass is celebrated, accompanied by the thunder of the 
guns from the vessels of war and the harbour-batteries. Concerts are given 
at different places in the evening, and fireworks are displayed, especially 
at the Villa. The Garibaldi hymn invariably elicits enthusiastic applause. 

The Tombola, which is previously announced by placards, attracts a 
large concourse of spectators. 



English Church in the Str. S. Pasquale, at the back of the Str. di 
Chiaja, on the site presented to the English residents by Garibaldi when 
dictator in 1860 ; Service on Sundays at 11 a. in. and 3. 15 p. m. — Presbyterian 
Church (Chiesa Scozzese), S. Cappella Vecchia 2; Service on Sundays 
at 11 a. m. and 3. p. m., on Wednesdays at 3 p. m. — Italian Service of the 
Waldensian Church, Monte Calvario, also on Sunday evenings in the Scotch 
church. — French and German Protestant Church, Str. Carlo Poerio, Piazza 
dei Martiri (PI. D, 6). 

The Evangelical Schools for Italian children (supported by the Evan- 
gelical Aid Commitlee), in the building connected with the Presbyterian 
Church (see above) and at No. 66 Magno Cavallo , may be visited on 
Monday forenoons, 9-12. — A visit to the Kindergarten School in the Ex- 
Collegio Medico, Largo S. Aniello, may also be found interesting. 



Duration of Stay and Disposition of Time. 

With respect to the duration of the visitor's stay it is difficult to 
offer a suggestion; the taste and inclination of the individual must here 



30 Route 4. NAPLES. Disposition of Time. 

more than almost anywhere else decide the question. Suffice it to ob- 
serve that within a period of ten days all the most interesting points 
may he visited, whilst many months may be delightfully spent in explor- 
ing the incomparable beauties of the environs. Where time is limited, 
it should be devoted almost exclusively to the latter, as the town con- 
tains few objects of interest, with the exception of the Museum and one 
or two of the churches. Those to whom the town is unbearably distaste- 
ful should endeavour to obtain accommodation in the vicinity. Choice 
of season, see p. xxiii. 

The Chief Sights of the city may be seen hastily in 3-4 days. The 
mornings may be devoted to the churches , the middle of the day to the 
Museum, and the afternoons to walks or drives in the neighbourhood. 
The evening may then be spent at the Villa Nazionale. The following 
are specially worthy of mention: — 

Museums : "Museo Nazionale (p. 59) daily 9-3 o'clock, admission 1 fr., 
Sundays gratis ; museum and church of S. Martino (p. 88), with "'View, 9-4, 
admission 1 fr., Sundays gratis. — "Catacombs (p. 43) daily, admission 1 fr. 
— Palaces: Reale (p. 36), Capodimonte (p. 44), Fondi (p. 46), Santangelo 
(p. 52), Castel Nuovo (p. 3S). — Churches: "Cathedral, best seen about 
noon (p. 55), : Sta. Chiara (p. 48), S. Domenico 7-11 a. m. (p. 49), -Monto- 
liveto (p. 47) ; "L'Incoronata, early in the morning (p. 46) ; Cloisters of 
S. Severino (p. 52); S. Giovanni (p. 54); S. Maria del Carmine (p. 40); 
S. Lorenzo (p. 58), S. Paolo Maggiore (p. 57). — Views: "~ Camaldoli 
(p. 93), ,: 'Sant' Elmo (p. 89), "Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 90); "Villa Na- 
zionale, in the evening (p. 84). 

Most of the Excursions in the Environs (RR. 5-12) may be made 
from Naples in one day, but both time and money may often be econo- 
mised if the traveller combines several of them so as to avoid the ne- 
cessity of returning to Naples every evening. Those who intend to 
explore the surrounding scenery should therefore give up their rooms at 
Naples, but leave behind them all superfluous luggage, in order that 
they may start on their tour unfettered. In making these excursions it 
is generally advantageous to travel as a member of a party of three or 
four persons, by whom carriage and boat fares, fees, and other expenses 
are shared. In this case too 'pension 1 charges may often he stipulated 
for at the hotels for a stay of even one or two days (6-10 fr. for bed, 
breakfast, dinner, and supper). 

A week or a fortnight may be very pleasantly spent as follows : — 

Pozzuoli, Baiae, Capo Miseno (R. 5) l-l'/a days. 

Procida and Ischia (R. 6) 2 ,, 

Ascent of Mi. Vesuvius (R. 8), Herculaneum (p. 112). 1-1 ,, 

Pompeii (R. 9) '/W u 

Castellamare, Sorrento, Capri (R. 10) 2-3 ,, 

Amalfi, Salerno, Paestum (R. 11) 2-3 „ 

Caserta and Capua (pp. 7-10) ■_ 1 ;i 

6'/*-12'/ 2 days. 
A visit to the islands, especially those of Procida and Ischia, should 
not be undertaken in winter unless the weather be calm and settled. 

Small Change is even more frequently required in the environs of 
Naples than in the city itself. Contributions are levied on the traveller 
on every possible occasion, whether for admission to a point of view, 
or for leave to cross a field, or for services rendered. An abundant supply 
of small notes and copper should therefore be procured at a money- 
changer's (p. 24) before starting. 

' Vedi Napoli e poi mori ! ' 
Naples is the most populous town in Italy (450,800 inhab.f), 
and occupies one of the most beautiful situations in the world. The 

!■ According to the official returns of 31st Dec, 1876, the population 
including the suburbs was 449.301 souls. The official statistics are not 



History. NAPLES. d. Route. 31 

magnificent bay has from the most ancient times been the object 
of enthusiastic admiration, and it is annually visited by thousands 
of strangers in quest of enjoyment or health. In historical interest 
this part of the Italian peninsula is singularly deficient. Nature, it 
would appear, has so bountifully lavished her gifts on this favoured 
spot, that the energy and strength of the most powerful nations 
have invariably succumbed to its alluring influence. Greeks, Oscans, 
Romans, Goths, Byzantines, Normans, Germans, and Spaniards have 
in succession been masters of the place ; yet it has rarely attained 
even a transient reputation in the annals of politics, art, or lite- 
rature. Those who have recognised in Florence the focus of the 
Italian Renaissance, in Rome the metropolis of a bygone age, in 
Venice and Genoa, and even in Pisa and Siena, the splendour 
of mediaeval republics , cannot but experience a feeling of 
disappointment on beholding Naples. The dearth of handsome 
buildings and indigenous works of art creates a void, for which 
Herculaneum and Pompeii with their matchless treasures of 
antiquity alone in some measure compensate. The domestic 
architecture of Naples , the narrow, dingy streets , the high and 
narrow houses , with their balconies in front of every window, 
and their flat roofs, are far from attractive. The never-ceasing- 
noise , the interminable clatter of wheels at all hours of the day 
and night, the cracking of whips, braying of donkeys, and shrill 
shouting of hawkers, render Naples a most distasteful place, espe- 
cially to those whose stay is limited. To these annoyances 
are added the insolent importunities of drivers, guides, street- 
vendors , beggars , etc. , who often combine the most cringing 
manners with the grossest attempts at extortion. In justice, 
however, be it said, that of late years there has been some slight 
improvement in these matters. 

The History of the City of Naples extends back to a very remote age. The 
origin and name of the city are Greek. About the year B.C. 1056-^Eolians from 
Chalcis in Euboea founded the colony of Kyme, Lat. Cumae, on a rocky 
eminence in the bay of Puteoli, which soon became a powerful and pros- 
perous commercial town. From Cumse the colony of Phaleron or Partfie- 
nope (named after the tomb of a Syren of that name, Plin. H. N. iii. 5) 
appears to have emanated at a very early period, and to have been at va- 
rious times re-inforced by immigrants from Greece, who founded the Nea- 
polis (or new city), whilst Parthenope, the portion erected by the original 
colonists, was named Palaeopolis (old city), a distinction which was main- 
tained till the conquest of Palaeopolis by the Romans, B.C. 326. After 
that period Naples remained faithful to Rome, both in the wars against 
Pyrrhus and against Hannibal, and owing to the beauty of its situation 
it soon became a favourite residence of the Roman magnates. Lucullus 
possessed gardens here on the Posilipo and the hill of Pizzofalcone, where, 
in A. D. 476, Romulus Augustulus, the last feeble monarch of the Western 
Empire, breathed his last. Augustus frequently resided at Naples, and 
Virgil composed some of his most beautiful poetry here. The emperors 

framed on a topographical , but on a political and administrative basis. 
VComp. p. vi.) The province of Naples is about 420 sq. M. in area, and in 
1876 contained a population of 929,382, i.e. exclusive of the city, about 
1150 persons per English square mile. 



32 Route 4. NAPLES. Site. 

Tiberius, Claudius, Nero, Titus, and Hadrian were among the chief bene- 
factors of the city, which continued to enjoy its municipal freedom and 
its Greek constitution. It suffered fearfully during the wars of the bar- 
barian immigration. In 536 it was taken by storm by Belisarius, and 
again in 543 by the Goths under Totilas. The city soon threw off the 
Byzantine supremacy, and under its doge or 'duca 1 maintained its inde- 
pendence against the Lombard princes, until after a long siege in 1130 it 
at length succumbed to the Normans under Roger. Frederick II. founded 
the university, but seldom made Naples his residence. It was constituted 
the capital of the kingdom by Charles I. of Anjou, and was greatly ex- 
tended by subsequent princes , especially by Ferdinand I. of Arragon , the 
viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo, and Charles III. of Bourbon. In comparison 
with the other capitals of Europe, the population of Naples has increased 
but slowly. There were 358,550 inhab. in 1830, 400,813 in 1840, 416,475 
in 1850, 418,968 in 1860, and 415,549 only in 1871. Since the annexation 
the city has improved considerably, but the eradication of the more deeply 
rooted evils must necessarily progress slowly. 

The national characteristic is still, as it ever has been, love of the 
pleasure of the moment. The Neapolitans are at once the most joyous and 
the most careless, the most indolent and the most squalid of the human 
race. Nothing appears capable of permanently depressing the buoyancy of 
their spirits. If they ever indulge in melancholy, its duration is exceed- 
ingly brief; and accordingly at the present day not a trace is to be ob- 
served of the political tempest which so long cast a gloom over their city. 

Naples, situated in 40° 52' N. latitude, lies on the N. side of 
the bay, which extends for about 35 M. from the Capo di Mi- 
seno, its N.W. boundary, to the Punta della Campanella, its S.E. 
limit, and is separated from the open sea by the islands of 
Procida and Ischia towards the N., and Capri towards the S. The 
S.E. side of the bay is formed by the Monte Santangelo, a spur 
of the Apennines, 5000 ft. in height, which is connected with 
the island of Capri by a reef of rock. At its base lie the -vil- 
lages of Massa Lubrense, Sorrento, Vico Equense, and Castel- 
lamare, near the ancient Stabine which was overwhelmed by 
an eruption. The other sides of the bay are bounded by the 
Campanian plain, the surface of which has undergone numerous 
changes in consequence of volcanic agency. In the middle of the 
plain between the chain of Santangelo and the hilly district N. of 
Naples rises Mount Vesuvius , dividing it into two distinct dis- 
tricts, the southern of which is intersected by the river Sarno, and 
the northern by the Sebeto. The plain, as well as the slopes of 
Vesuvius itself, is luxuriantly fertile, and one of the most densely 
peopled districts in the world. In the direction of Castellamare 
and beyond the Sarno are situated the Ruins of Pompeii, and 
among numerous other villages, the populous Torre deli' An- 
nunziata, Torre del Greco, Resina on the site of the ruined Iler- 
culaneum, and Portici. The N.W. side of the bay lias for many 
ages been the scene of powerful volcanic agency. Naples, which 
stretches E. towards the plain, nearly to the Sebeto, is to a great 
extent situated on a slight volcanic eminence. This tract is iden- 
tical with the Cmnpi Phlegraei, so frequently mentioned by the 
ancients, which extended from Naples to Cumaj. They commence 
with the hills of the Madonna del Pianto, Capodichino, and 



Site. NAPLES. 1. Route. 33 

Mirwloix towards the E., and also embrace those of Capodimonte, 
Scutillo, and S. Eremo as far as Pizzofalcone and Castello delV Ovo, 
and beyond these extend to the Vomero and the eminence of Posilipo. 
Tufa, mingled with fragments of lava, trachyte, pumice-stone, etc., 
is observed in all directions. Mineral springs and gaseous exhal- 
ations testify to the volcanic nature of the district. The chain of 
Posilipo, separating the bay from that of Pozzuoli, is united by a 
subaqueous ridge with the small island of Nisida, an extinct crater. 
Farther inland are situated the craters of Lago d' Agnano, Astroni, 
and Solfatara. On a promontory lies the town of Pozzuoli; farther 
along the coast is the volcanic Monte Nuovo, then the Lago 
Lucrino with the ruins of Baiae, behind which is the crater of 
Lago Averno and the site of ancient Cumae. Lastly, towards the 
S., are the Lago Fusaro and the hill of Misenum, with the Mare 
Morto and Porto Miseno. This range is connected with the 
pre-eminently volcanic islands of Procida, Vivara, and the more 
important Ischia with the extinct volcano Epomeo. 

The City lies at the base and on the slopes of several slight 
hills, rising from the sea in amphitheatre-like form. It is divided 
into two unequal parts by the heights of Capodimonte, S. Elmo, and 
Pizzofalcone , which terminate in the narrow ridge surmounted by 
the Castello dell' Ovo. To the S. E. of Capodimonte, and eastwards as 
far as the Sebeto, lies the greater and most ancient part of Naples, 
now the business quarter, intersected from N. to S. by the Toledo 
(now Via di Roma'), the main street, which is continued towards 
the N. by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte. The most important 
streets in this quarter are the three which intersect the Toledo — 
the Strada S. Trinita Maggiore with its prolongation S. Bingio de' 
Librai, the Strada dei Tribunali, and the Strada Foria, the conti- 
nuation of the Piazza Cavour ; then the new Strada del Duorno, to 
the E. of the Toledo and nearly parallel with it, which is to be 
extended down to the coast; and lastly several broad new streets 
recently constructed on the E. side of the town. The only impor- 
ta7it open spaces are the Piazza del Plebiscito and the Piazza del 
Municipio , from which last diverges the broad Strada Medina. 
From the Piazza del Municipio the Strada del Molo leads us to the 
harbour, along which a handsome quay, oalled the Strada del Pi- 
liero and the Strada Nuova, runs eastwards as far as the Castel del 
Carmine. Near the castle is the Piazza del Mercnto. The popu- 
lation of the whole of this part of the town is densely crowded, and 
it is now the anxious endeavour of the authorities to remedy the 
consequent physical and social evils by the construction of new 
and commodious dwellings. — The western and more modern quar- 
ter of the city is much smaller than the eastern, and is preferred 
to it by visitors owing to the superiority of its situation, air, and 
views. At the base of the hill of Posilipo, and skirting the coast, 
runs the broad Riviera di Chiaja, connected with the Toledo by 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 7th Edition. 3 



34 Route 4. NAPLES. Site. 

means of the busy Strada di Chiaja, and bounded on the S. by 
the gardens of the Villa Nazionale. Adjoining the Chiaja on the 
W. are the Piedigrottn and Mergellina quarters , beyond which are 
situated numerous charming villas. To this western part of the 
city belongs also the new Corso Vittorio Emanuele, a street nearly 
2 l /a M. in length, which leads from the Strada Salvator Rosa (a 
street beginning opposite the museum), passes below the Castel S. 
Elmo, skirts the hill of Posilipo about halfway up, and gradually 
descends in windings to the W. end of the Riviera di Chiaja. 

The length of Naples from the Mergellina to the barracks at 
the mouth of the Sebeto is 3 M., the breadth from Capodimonte 
to the Castel dell' Ovo 2 M. It contains upwards of 1300 streets 
and lanes, provided with gas in 1840, and well paved, except 
as regards accommodation for foot-passengers. The squares are 
called Larghi, but the more modern name 'Piazza'' has recently 
been introduced ; the principal streets are called Strade, or now 
Vie ; the cross-streets Vichi ; the narrow lanes ascending the hills, 
and generally inaccessible to carriages, Calate or Salite, or when 
so precipitous as to require steps, Gradoni. 

The city itself can boast of but few Grseco-Roman antiquities, 
but (besides the churches) it possesses five forts CCastello S. Elmo, 
dell' Ovo, Nuovo, del Carmine, Capuano) and two gates (Porta del 
Carmine and Capuana) of mediaeval construction. The town has 
on the whole a modern appearance. 

Our description of the sights is arranged in topographical 
order, and is divided as follows : • — 

1. The Side of the City next the Sea, from the Largo della Vit- 
toria (PI. D, 6) eastwards, round the Pizzofalcone , by 
S. Lucia, the Piazza del Plebiscite, and the Piazza del Muni- 
cipio, and along the quay to the S. E. angle of the town. 

2. The Toledo, with its side-streets, and the Capodimonte. 

3. The Old Town , to the E. of the Toledo , and between that 
street and the harbour. 

4. The Museum. 

5. The Modern Quarters (Chiaja, Villa, and Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele) and the Castel S. Elmo. 

6. The Posilipo, with Camaldoli and other points in the im- 
mediate environs. 

The traveller may again be reminded here that, if his time is 
limited, he had better disregard most of the sights within the town. 

I. Side or the City next the Sea, to the E. of 
Pizzofalcone. 

The Largo della Vittoria (PI. D, G), an open space adorned 
with trees and a fountain, and recently enlarged on the side next 
the sea, in front of the Villa Nazionale, may be regarded as the 



Casiel dell' (ho. NAPLES. i. Route. 3'> 

central point of the strangers' quarter. A handsome quay con- 
structed within the last few years, and flanked by a number of new 
buildings, extends hence towards the B. along the coast. On our 
left rises the Fizzofalcoue, a spur of the hill of S. Elmo, entirely 
covered with buildings and walls, around the base of which runs 
the Strada Chiatamone, a street parallel with the quay and a little 
above it , with a number of handsome hotels and other buildings. 
From the S. end of the Pizzofalcone runs out an embankment 
and bridge, connecting it with a small rocky island, the MegarLi 
of Pliny. On this island rises the Castello dell' Ovo , which in its 
present form dates from the time of the viceroy Don Pedro de To- 
ledo (1532-53). The name is due to its oval shape. 

"William 1. began to erect the fort in 1154, but the completion of his 
design fell to Frederick II., who used the edifice as a place of safety for 
his wives and treasures. Charles I. enlarged the castle and frequently re- 
sided there. Robert the Wise (1309) caused the chapel to be adorned with 
frescoes by Giotto, and superintended the work in person, but of these 
no trace is left. Here Charles III. of Durasszo (1381) kept Queen Johanna I. 
prisoner, and was himself besieged. In 1495 Charles VIII. of France cap- 
tured the castle, and under Ferdinand II. it was dismantled. It is now 
chiefly used as a prison. 

Farther on we reach S. Lucia (PI. E, 7, 6), once a dirty street, 
but enlarged and converted into a broad and pleasant quay since 
1846. Scenes of Neapolitan life may be witnessed here in per- 
fection. The female members of the community are seen working 
in the open air, going through their toilette, and performing 
various unpleasing acts of attention to their children , regardless 
of the public gaze. In warm weather the children often run about 
quite naked. On the side next the sea the oyster-stalls are 
established, where sea-urchins, crabs, and other delicacies, so 
expressively called frutti di mare by the Neapolitans, are also 
sold. The focus of this animated scene, however, is on the 
Promontory below, which is reached by a flight of steps, and is 
adorned with a *Fountain with figures by Domenico d'Auria and 
Giovanni da Nola. On line summer evenings , especially on 
Sundays , this spot is densely crowded , and presents a highly 
characteristic picture of Neapolitan life. There is also a favourite 
sulphureous spring here (p. 29). Adjoining the promontory is 
the small harbour whence the steamers for Capri start (p. 157). 

At the N. end of S. Lucia is a handsome fountain, whence we 
ascend to the left by the Strada ijel Gigante, a street named 
after an ancient colossal statue of Jupiter once placed here. To 
the right, farther on, we look down on the stores of cannon and 
ammunition in the courts of the arsenal (p. 39). In a straight di- 
rection we observe Fort S. Elmo, rising above the town, and we 
soon reach the finest square in Naples. 

This is the Lnryo del Palazzo Reale , or the Piazza del Plebis- 
cite (PI. E, 6) as it has been called since 1SG0, which assumed its 
present form in 1810, after the demolition of four monasteries. On 



30 Routed. NAPLES. S. Francesco di Paola. 

the right is the Royal Palace, opposite to us is the Foresteria, now 
the Prefettura di Napoli (PL 17), with shops in part of the ground- 
floor; on the "W. side, which forms a semicircle, is the church 
of S. Francesco with its dome and arcades ; on the fourth side is 
the Commandant's Residence (PI. 77), formerly the palace of the 
prince of Salerno, where travellers obtain a permesso to visit the 
Castel S. Elmo on showing their passports or visiting-cards. (As- 
cend two flights of stairs on the left side of the court, and turn to 
the right at the top ; best hours between 10 and 11 or between 12 
and 2 o'clock. ) In front of the church of S. Francesco are two 
Equestrian Statues of Neapolitan kings: on the right Charles 111., 
on the left Ferdinand I. of Bourbon ; the two horses and the 
statue of Charles are by Canova, that of Ferdinand, in a Roman 
toga, by Call. 

S. Francesco di Paola (PI. 48; E, C), an imitation of the Pan- 
theon at Rome, was constructed by Ferdinand I. from designs of 
P. Bianchi in 1817-31. The Ionic vestibule is supported by six 
columns and two buttresses. 

The Interior (open early in the morning) contains thirty Corinthian 
columns of marble from Mondragone, which support the dome. The high 
altar, transferred hither from the church of the Apostles, is entirely inlaid 
with jasper and lapis lazuli ; the two pillars at the sides are of rare Egyptian 
breccia from S. Severino. The tribune above is for the use of the royal family. 
The statues and pictures are by modern masters. To the left of the entrance : 
St. Athanasius by Angelo ^alaro ; Death of Joseph, CamHlo Guevra of Naples ; 
St. Augustin, a statue by Tommaso Arnand of Naples; Madonna della Con- 
ce/.ione, Casparo Landi; St. Mark, a statue by Fabris of Venice; St. "Nicho- 
las, Natalt Carta of Sicily; St. John, a statue by Tenerani. In the choir: 
St. Francis di Paola resuscitating a youth, Camnccini ; St. Matthew, a statue 
by Fiiielli; Last Communion of St. Francis of Castile, Pietro Benvenuti of 
Florence; St. Luke, a statue by Antonio Cat) of Sicily ; St. Ambrose, by Tito 
Angelini of Naples; Death of St. Andrea da Avellino , Tommaso de Vivo; 
St. Chrysostom, a statue by Gennaro Call. 

The Palazzo Reale (PI. 21; E, 6), or royal palace, designed 
by the Roman Domenico Fontana, was begun in 1600 under the 
viceroy Count de Lemos , burned down in 1837, and restored 
between that year and 1841. The facade, 185 yds. ft. in length, 
exhibits in its three stories the Doric and Ionic styles combin- 
ed ; most of the arches of the basement , however , are built up 
for the sake of increasing the strength of the building. 

Interior. Visitors apply to the porter (50 <•.), who conducts them to 
the office of the Intendant in the palace (11-1). Here they receive (gratis) a 
permesso for six persons, which is available also for the palaces of Capodi- 
monte, Caserta, Favorita, Quisisana, and the garden of Astroni, and must 
be shown at each j^lace to the porter. Attendant's fee 1 fr. 

The visitor is first conducted to the -Garden Terrace, which affords 
a fine view of the harbour and the arsenal immediately below. In the 
centre is a handsome marble table. — The magnificent ''Grand Staircase, 
constructed entirely of white marble, and adorned with reliefs and sta- 
tues, dates from 1651. — On the side towards the piazza are situated a 
small Theatre and a superb Diminj Room, in the centre of which is placed 
an ornamental cradle presented by the city of Naples to the present queen 
Margaret in 1869. — Beyond these is the "Throne Room, gorgeously fur- 
nished with crimson velvet embroidered with gold, the embroidery hav- 



Piazza del Municipio. NAPLES. 4. Route. 37 

ing been executed at the extensive poor-hrmse in 1818. Above are gilded 
figures in relief, representing the different provinces of the kingdom. — 
The rooms also contain large porcelain vases from Sevres and from the 
former manufactory at Capodimonte, an antique bust of Bacchus, a small 
bust of Hercules , and a bust of Marcus Aurelius , all found at Hercula- 
neum, and lastly a number of pictures. Among the last are: "Titian, Pier 
Luigi Farnese (1547); Schidone, Carita; Lod. Carracci , John the Baptist; 
Guercino, St. Joseph; M. Caravaggio , Christ in the Temple, Betrothal of 
St. Catharine, Orpheus; L. Giordano, The archangel Gabriel. There are 
also several works by Netherlandish masters: Quintin Massy s (?), Usurer; 
"Van Dyck, Portrait; two good portraits, by unknown masters, etc. The 
Adoration of the Ma^i, sometimes ascribed to Jan van Eyck and sometimes 
to Donzelli, a supposed pupil of Zingaro, was once considered a very im- 
portant work, but has been treated slightingly by modern criticism. The 
pictures by modern Italian masters are of no great merit. 

On the N. side of the palace, which is connected here by a wing 
with the Theatre of S. Carlo, is a small garden enclosed by a 
railing, containing a Statue of Italia, erected in 1864 in comme- 
moration of the plebiscite of 21st Oct., 1860, which added the 
kingdom of Naples to the dominions of Victor Emmanuel. 

The small piazza which adjoins the Piazza del Plebiscito here 
is named Largo 8. Ferdinando after the opposite church. This is 
the starting point of several of the chief omnibus lines, and there 
is also a large cab-stand here. To the left diverge the Strada di 
Chiaja and the Toledo, the principal street in Naples (comp. p. 41). 

We now turn to the right into the Strada S. Carlo, in which 
rises the principal facade of the Teatro San Carlo (PI. 26; E, 6), 
founded by Charles III. in 1737, and erected by the Neapolitan 
architect Angela Carasale from designs by the Sicilian Oiovanni 
Medrano. The interior was destroyed by Are in 1816, but has 
been restored in harmony with the original plan. It is one of the 
largest opera-houses in Italy, and the choicest works of the best 
Italian composers are admirably performed here. Many of the cele- 
brated compositions of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, and Mercadante 
were performed in this theatre for the first time. The chief fa- 
fade , resting on an arcade , and surmounted by a series of co- 
lumns, and the side next the Largo S. Ferdinando are decorated 
with reliefs. The spaces under the arches are occupied by public 
writers, ready at a moment's notice to commit to paper the plead- 
ing of the lover or the expostulation of the creditor. 

Farther to the right is the small garden belonging to the palace, 
at the entrance of which are two Horse-tamers by Baron Clodt of 
St. Petersburg, presented by the Emp. Nicholas of Russia, and 
replicas of those in front of the palace at Berlin. 

We next reach the long Piazza del Municipio (PI. E , 5), 
adorned with pleasant grounds, formerly named Largo del Castello. 
At the end of it, to the left, is situated the handsome Muni- 
cipio (PI. 20) , or town hall , formerly the Palazzo de' Ministeri, 
erected in 1819-25 from designs by Luigi and Stefano Oasse. 
On the principal entrance are inscribed the names of the Neapoli- 
tans who were executed for sedition under the Bourbon re'gime. 



33 Route 4. NAPLES. Castel Nuovo. 

In the gateway are the statues of the kings Roger and Frederick II. 
— From this point a passage, occupied by stalls of various waTes, 
leads through, under the flight of steps, to the Toledo; within it, 
to the right, is the entrance to the Exchange. 

In the N.W. corner of the piazza, immediately adjoining the 
Municipio, rises the recently restored church of S. Giacomo degli 
Spagnuoli (PI. 52), erected in 1540 by Don Pedro de Toledo. 

Interior. We enter by a door adjacent to the gate of the Municipio 
and ascend the stairs. To the right of the entrance: '^Andrea del Sarto, 
Holy Family. 3rd Chapel on the left: Oian Bernardo Lama, descent 
from the Cross; also pictures by Bernardino Siciliano, Marco da Siena, 
and others. At the back of the high altar is the sumptuous Tomb of 
Don Pedro de Toledo (d. 1553), a work of little artistic merit by Giovanni 
da Nola, adorned with statues of the cardinal virtues, reliefs of the achieve- 
ments of the viceroy, and his statue in a kneeling posture , with that 
of his wife. Behind this tomb is the monument of Hans Walther von 
Hiernheim, counsellor and general of Charles V. and Philip II. (d. 1557), 
with an inscription in German and Latin. 

On the opposite side rises the Castel Nuovo (see below). 
As we turn round to the right towards the Strada del Molo, 
the broad Strada Medina (PL E, 5) opens to the left. At the be- 
ginning of it rises the Fontana Medina (PL 8), erected from the 
designs of Domenico d'Auria and Fansaga by the viceroy, Duke 
of Medina Oeli (1695) , and considered the finest fountain in 
Naples. It consists of a large basin, supported by four satyrs; in 
the centre Neptune with his trident, surrounded by jets of water; 
at the base four Tritons on sea-horses, with water-spouting lions 
and other animals. — The neighbouring church of the Incoronata, 
and a walk thence into the interior of the city, see p. 46 et seq. 

Following the Strada del Molo towards the harbour , we 
observe on the left the Teatro del Fondo (or Mercadante, PL 29) 
and various show-booths , with tempting representations on canvas 
of the charms of the interior. On the right is the Castel Nuovo. 

The Castel Nuovo (PI. E, 5, 6) was begun in 1283 by Charles I. 
of Anjou from a design attributed to Oiovanni da Pisa, and exe- 
cuted in the French fortification style of that period. The kings 
of the houses of Anjou and Arragon , and the Spanish viceroys 
successively resided here. Alphonso L (1442) added five round 
towers, and the castle was enlarged by Don Pedro de Toledo (1546) 
and Charles III. (1735). Part of the fortifications was condemned 
to demolition in 1862, as it held a threatening attitude towards 
the city. 

The Entrance is opposite the Strada del Castello. Passing the sentry, 
we tarn to the right . and then to the left. After a few hundred paces 
we reach the entrance to the fortifications strictly so called, which con- 
sists of a lofty "Triumphal Arch between two round towers (one of which 
partly fell in 1870), erected in 1470 to commemorate the entry of Alphonso 
of Arragon (2nd June, 1442), probably by Pietro di Mnrlino, a Milanese 
architect, assisted, according to Yasari, by Oiuliano da Maiano of Flo- 
rence. This is t e finest monument at Naples. It consists of an arch- 
way with Corinthian columns on each side, now partly built into the 
Willi, a frieze, and a cornice, above which is an attic with well exe- 



Harbours. NAPLES. 1. Route. 39 

cuted sculpture representing the entry of Alphonso, by Isaia da Pisa 
and Silvestro delV Aquila. Above are statues of St. Michael, St. An- 
tonius Abbas, and St. Sebastian (half destroyed), below which are the 
four cardinal virtues in niches. The bronze doors are adorned with re- 
presentations of the victories of Ferdinand I. , by Oiiglielmo Monaco. A 
cannon-ball imbedded in the masonry of the left wing is a reminiscence 
of the wars of the time of Gonsalvo da Cordova. 

In the inner barrack-yard rises the church of S. Barbara, or S. Se- 
bastiano (custodian to the right, outside the triumphal arch, No. 223; 
V-2 fr.), with a Corinthian facade by Givliano da Maiano, and a beautiful 
Uladonna in relief above the door. The Adoration of the Magi formerly 
preserved here is now in the palace (p. 37). — A dark spiral staircase 
of 25 steps adjoining the sacristy ascends to a Loggia, where we enjoy 
an excellent survey of the government docks and the harbour. 

A covered gallery connecting the fort with the palace is destined for 
use in case of any sudden emergency or rebellion. 

The continuation of the Strada del Molo is formed by the Molo, 
a pier 14 yds. in width, originally constructed by Charles of Anjou 
in 1302, adjoining which are the extensive Harbours (PI. F, 6, 5), 
the Porto Militare being on the right and the Porto Mercantile on 
the left. On the right, at the beginning of the Molo, is the royal 
Arsenate di Marina, erected in 1577 by the viceroy Mendoza , with 
a dockyard, arsenal, etc. The neighbouring Porto Militare, or go- 
vernment harbour, shut off by a railing, was begun by Francis I. 
in 1826. On the S. side it is protected by a strong breakwater, 
which extends 429 yds. into the sea in a S.E. direction, and it 
is 5 fathoms in depth. A number of men-of-war of the Italian navy 
are frequently stationed here. 

The mercantile harbour, the Porto Mercantile or Porto 
Grande, was constructed in 1302 by Charles II. of Anjou at the 
same time as the Molo, and enlarged by Charles III. in 1740. 
It presents an animated and busy scene, characteristic of a southern 
climate. An excursion on the bay, to which the boatmen invite 
foot-passengers, is very enjoyable in fine weather (bargaining 
necessary; comp. p. 25). 

Atthe angle formed by the Molo rises the Lighthouse (Lanterna; 
PI. F, 5) , originally erected in the 15th cent. , but rebuilt in 
1843. The ascent is strongly recommended, as it enables the vis- 
itor to form an accurate idea of the topography of the town 
(fee 1 fr.). An easy marble staircase of 142 steps ascends to 
the gallery. • — The Molo is terminated by a battery. 

The handsome quay called the Strada del Piliero skirts the 
mercantile harbour. Adjoining the latter , and connected with it 
by a channel under the street , is the Porto Piccolo , which is 
now almost entirely choked witli sand, and is accessible to small 
boats only. This once formed part of the most ancient harbour of 
Palsopolis. The Dogana Nuova is situated here. To the right, at 
the end of the Molo Piccolo is situated the Immacolatella with 
the offices of the custom-house and the Sanitd, (PI. 24). Straight 
before us, opposite the Strada del Piliero, rises a fountain, erected 
in 1870. Adjoining the Immacolatella is the quay at which tra- 



40 Route 4. NAPLES. .9. Marin del Carmine. 

vellers arriving at Naples by sea disembark. This is also the start- 
ing-point of the Iscliia steamers (see p. 106 ; hours of departure for 
Isohia and Capri to be learned at the office, Strada Nuova 14). 

The first side-street to the left leads straight to the church of /S. 
Pietro Martire (PI. 70; F, 4), which contains a few monuments and pic- 
tures (Legend of St. Vincent, a good work in the Flemish-Neapolitan style). 

The last street but one to the left before S. Pietro is reached leads 
into the Strada di Porto, a scene of the most motley hustle and confusion, 
especially towards evening. Vendors of fish, meat, maccaroni, and re- 
freshments of all kinds cook their delicacies in the open street, and 
attract numerous customers. As this moreover is the dirtiest quarter of 
the town, the fumes which arise are intensely 'ancient and fishlike''. 

We continue to follow the broad quay of the Strada Nuova 
(PI. F, G, 4), which is embellished with flower-beds and is always 
full of life.and bustle. The fishermen and boat-men, with their 
Phrygian caps and their sunburnt and often handsome features, are 
the modern representatives of the Lazzaroni, a class which has long 
been the especial favourite of novelists , but which may now be 
considered as extinct. The name, derived from the Lazarus of 
the Bible, dates from the time of the Spanish viceroys , and was 
applied to the homeless and half-naked Neapolitans who preferred 
begging to work. At the present day, however, the lower classes, 
setting aside the fraternity which preys on travellers, are remark- 
able for their industry and frugality. 

About 10 min. walk beyond the Porto Piccolo we reach the 
Porta del Carmine, adjoining which, and forming the E. extremity 
of the town, rises the Castel del Carmine, a vast structure erected 
by Ferdinand I. in 1484. In 1647 during the rebellion of Masa- 
niello (p. 171) it was occupied by the populace. It was afterwards 
fortified, and is now used as barracks and a military prison. 

The Porta del Carmine leads to a piazza, in which, on the 
right, is situated the church of *S. Maria del Carmine (PI. 59; 
G, 4) with its lofty tower. The edifice, which is of early origin, but 
was modernised in 1769, contains the tomb of Conradin , the last 
of the Hohenstaufen. 

The tomb was originally behind the high altar, to the right, bearing 
the simple inscription R. C. C. (Regis Conradini corpus). In 1847 Maxi- 
milian II. of Bavaria, when Crown-prince, caused a -Statue, by Schbpf of 
Munich, from a design by Thorvaldsen, to be erected in the nave of the 
church to the memory of Conradin (born in 1252). The pedestal bears a 
German inscription to the effect that — 'Maximilian, Crown-prince of 
Bavaria, erected this monument to a scion of his house, King Conradin, 
the last of the Hohenstaufen'. The two reliefs represent the parting of 
Conradin from his mother, the Princess Elizabeth, and his separation 
from Frederick of Baden at the place of execution. Beneath this monu- 
ment now lie the remains of the unfortunate prince. The whole is well 
executed, and, placed as it is, most impressive. — To the right of the 
entrance is a block of marble , beneath which the remains of Masaniello 
are said to repose; the monument which formerly marked the spot is 
now in the museum. 

We now turn to the left to the Piazza del Mercato (PI. G, 4), 
in the centre of which rises a new covered Market, constructed chief- 
ly of iron , where the traffic is busiest on Mondays and Fridays. 



Piazza de J Mnrtiri. NAPLES. 4. Route. 41 

The fish-market is interesting. On the N. side of the piazza, which 
forms a semicircle, is the church of S. Croce al Mercato. On the 
S. side are two fountains. On 29th Oct. 1268, Conradin, the last 
scion of his princely house, then in his 18th year, and his relation 
Frederick of Baden, were executed here by order of Charles I. of 
Anjou. The sacristy of the church of S. Croce contains a column 
of porphyry which formerly marked the spot where the young prince 
was beheaded. It bears a derisive inscription , alluding to Gio- 
vanni Frangipani, Count of Astura, with whom Conradin sought 
refuge after the battle of Tagliacozzo, and who betrayed him to 
Charles of Anjou: — 

Asturis ungue leo pullum rapiens aquilinum 

Hie deplumavit acephalumque dedit. 
This piazza was also one of the scenes of the insurrection of 
Masaniello. ■ — The traveller is recommeiided not to attempt to 
penetrate farther into the town from this point. — Returning to the 
church del Carmine, and following the street to the left, we may 
reach the Porta Capuana (p. 53) in 8 min. ; or we may pass the 
church and proceed in a straight direction to the small Piazza 
Oaribaldi, and turn to the left into the broad, new Corso Garibaldi, 
which begins near the coast, passes (5 min.) the Porta Nolana, the 
railway-station, and (5 min. ) the Porta Capuana , and terminates 
in the Strada ForTa (see p. 45). 

II. The Toledo. Capodimonte. 

Starting from the Largo della Vittoria (p. 34; PI. D, 6), the 
broad Strada S. Caterina, with its handsome shops, leads us 
towards the N. to the triangular Piazza db' Martiri, where the 
Colonna de' Martiri (PI. D, 6), a lofty column of marble decorated 
with trophies, and crowned with a Victory in bronze, was erected 
in 1864 to the memory of the patriots who have perished during the 
different Neapolitan revolutions. The four lions at the base, in 
different postures, represent the four principal revolutions at Naples 
during the Bourbon dynasty (1799, 1820, 1848, 1860). The monu- 
ment was designed by Alvino, the Victory executed by Caggiani. 

To the left in the piazza is the Palazzo Miranda (PL 19), 
erected in 1780 by Barba, now the property of the Princess of 
Ottajano, daughter of the Duchess of Miranda, containing pictures 
by Spagnoletto, Guido Reni, Rubens, and others. (Visitors ad- 
mitted daily, 12-2, on presenting their visiting-cards ; attendant 
1 fr., porter 50 c.) 

We next enter the busy Strada di Chiaja (PL D, E, 6). 
Where this street begins to ascend , it is crossed by the Ponte 
di Chiaja, a viaduct built in 1634, by which the Strada Monte 
di Dio leads from the quarter of Pizzofalcone to the higher 
gTound below S. Elmo. (The flight of steps on the right, between 
the buttresses of the bridge, ascends from the Strada di Chiaja to 



42 Route 4. NAPLES. Toledo. 

the Strada M. di Dio.) The Str. di Chiaja, which contains nothing 
noteworthy, leads into the Toledo opposite the Teatro S. Carlo. 

The Toledo , a street begun by the viceroy Don Pedro de 
Toledo in 1540, but since the autumn of 1870 officially known 
as the Via di Roma, gia Toledo, is the main artery of the traffic 
of Naples, and presents a busy scene at all hours. It intersects 
the city from S. to N. nearly in a straight line, ascending gradually 
from the sea. It extends from the Piazza del Plebiscito (p. 35) 
to the Museo Nazionale, beyond which its prolongation is formed 
by the Strada Nuova di Capodimonte, and is nearly H/ 2 M. in 
length, but contains no building worthy of note. On both sides 
extends a network of streets and lanes, many of which ascend to 
the left by means of steps to the Corso Vittorio Emanuel e and the 
Castel S. Elmo, while those to the right extend to the railway and 
the harbour, forming the centres of mercantile traffic. 

Ascending the Toledo from the Largo S. Ferdinando, we come 
in about 10 min. to the small Largo della Carita (PL E, 4, 5), 
where in 1877 was erected a Monument to Carlo Poerio (d. 1867), 
the dauntless Italian patriot whose unjust condemnation and im- 
prisonment in 1850 did so much to inflame the hate of the people 
for the Bourbon dynasty. To the right diverges a street to the 
Piazza Montoliveto (p. 47; post-office, see p. 47). 

Farther on, to the right, at the corner of the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore (p. 48), the only important side-street by which the To- 
ledo is crossed, rises the Palazzo Maddaloni (PI. 18; entrance in 
the Str. Maddaloni), now let to the Bank of Naples , a massive 
structure with a gateway and staircase from designs by Fansaga. 
The interior contains a hall of fine proportions. Adjacent, separated 
by a cross-street, at the corner of the Toledo and the Strada Anna 
de' Lombardi, is the Palazzo d'Angri (PL 12), erected about 1773 
by Luigi Vanvitelli , and occupied by Garibaldi when dictator in 
1860. The picture gallery it formerly contained has been sold. 

In 10 min. more we reach the recently enlarged Piazza Dante 
(PL E, 4), formerly the Largo del Mercatello, where a Monument 
of Dante in marble , by T. Angelini and Solari, was erected in 
1872. The crescent-shaped edifice, beyond the statue, which was 
converted into a Liceo Qinnasiale Vittorio Emanuele in 1861 , sur- 
mounted by a balustrade with twenty-six statues, was erected by 
the city of Naples in honour of Charles III. in 1757, the statues 
being emblems of the virtues of that monarch. • — ■ Adjacent, to the 
left, is the Porta Alba, erected in 1632, embellished with a bronze 
statue of S. Gaetano , whence the Strada de' Tribunali may be 
entered (see pp. 55-58). 

Leaving the Piazza Dante, and' passing a row of houses re- 
cently erected, we ascend gradually in 5 min. by the Salita del 
Museo to the Museo Nazionale, a large red building, the en- 
trance to which is in the broad side- street diverging to the 



Catimimhs. NAPLTCS. -I. Rmilr. V<> 

right to the Piazza Cavour (see p. 59). Opposite the entrance, 
on the right, are several large new buildings, now nearly com- 
pleted, and among them a Bazaar, with spacious show-rooms, de- 
signed by Alvino. 

The continuation of the Toledo beyond the Museum is formed 
by the Stkada Nuova di Capodimonte, which gradually ascends. 
From the beginning of this street, opposite the N.W. corner of 
the Museum, the Strada dell' Infrascata or Salvator Rosa diverges 
to the left, ascending to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele (p. 87) 
and the hill of Posilipo (p. 90). We follow the Strada di Capo- 
dimonte , and in about 10 min. cross the Ponte della Sanita, a 
viaduct constructed in 1809 across the quarter della Sanita which 
lies below. 

Descending to the left immediately beyond the bridge , and 
from the lower end of the street entering the winding Strada 
8. Oennaro de' Poveri to the right, we soon reach the large hospice 
or poor-house of that name, which contains several hundred in- 
mates. At the back of the building is the church of 8. Oennaro 
(St. Januarius) , with the entrance to the extensive Catacombs 
(PI. 4; D, 2) of Naples, admission to which is obtained by apply- 
ing to the porter of the hospice (1 fr. for each person, and trifling 
fee to the attendant). 

The church of S. Gennaro dei Poveri, founded in the 8th cent, on the 
site of a chapel where St. Januarius was interred, is now completely 
modernised. The vestibule of the inner court is embellished with 
::: Frescoes from the history of the saint by Andrea da Salerno (?), unfor- 
tunately in bad preservation. The only entrance to the Catacombs is 
now at t'ie back of this church. They consist of four main galleries, of 
which, however, two only are now connected by staircases and accessible 
to visitors, together with a long series of lateral passages and burial 
chambers (cubicula). Along the walls are excavated niches of three dif- 
ferent forms, ranged in rows one above another. A few of the chambers 
lie below the level of the galleries. The oldest part of the catacombs 
dates from the first century of our era. In point of architecture they far 
surpass the Roman, though inferior in every other respect. The two 
large ante-chambers were used for the religious services customary at an 
interment. 

Information as to the history and decorations of these early Christian 
burial-places will be found in the Handbook for Central Italy. The in- 
scriptions found here have been placed in the Museum. Among the 
paintings may be mentioned the pleasing decorations of the two ante- 
rooms, which recall the Pompeian style, a figure of the Good Shepherd 
in the first gallery, the portraits on the tomb of Theoctecnus (beginning 
of the 4th cent.) in the second gallery, and a figure of Christ of the 5th 
or 6th cent, (but frequently retouched) in the so-called Basilica di S. Gen- 
naro. The bones which fill many of the chambers and corridors are 
generally those of victims of the plagues which ravaged Naples in the 
16th century. The Priapus column with the Hebrew inscription is a 
medifeval hoax. 

There is another series of catacombs, of the 5th and 6th cent., beneath 
the church of S. Marja della Sanita, below the bridge of that name. 



41 Route 4. NAPLES. Pal. di Capodimonte. 

Beyond the Ponte della Sanita, the Strada di Capodimonte 
(passing a brewery with a garden on the right) leads in a few 
minutes to a circular space called the Tondo di Capodimonte 
(PI. E, 1 ; ordinary cab-fares thus far). The road now describes 
a long curve to the left. Walkers ascend the steps , and at the 
top follow the road to the right. (The road which here goes on 
to the left leads round the park of Capodimonte and unites with 
the Capua road near Secondigliano.) From the Tondo di Capo- 
dimonte to the palace is a walk of 7 minutes. 

The royal Palazzo di Capodimonte (PI. 14; permesso procured 
at the Pal. Reale ; attendant 1 fr. ; porter t/2 fr.), situated above 
the town to the N. on the eminence of that name, was begun 
in 1738 by Charles III., but not completed till 1834-39 in the 
reign of Ferdinand II. The edifice was designed by Medrano, 
the architect of the Teatro S. Carlo. The gardens, which are 
partly laid out in the English style, are unfortunately destitute 
of water. Beautiful views. 

The palace contains the so-called royal Museo di Capodimonte, an 
extensive, but not very valuable collection of pictures, chiefly by modern 
Neapolitan masters, and of modern sculptures, distributed throughout 
the different apartments (catalogue 1 fr.). The following are worthy of 
mention: Hackert , Wild- boar hunt in the Bosco di Persano ; Chase of 
wild fowl on the Lago Fusaro, by the same; Lemasle, Marriage of the 
Duchesse de Berry ; Camuccini, Death of Caesar ; Celentano, Benvenuto Cel- 
lini at the Castel S. Angelo ; Hayez, Ulysses and Alcinous ; a table with 
ancient mosaic from Pompeii; Marinelli, Cleopatra at her toilet; Virginia 
Lebrun, Portraits of the Duchess of Parma and Maria Theresa; Angelica 
Kaufmann, Ferdinand I. and his consort with their children. — The 
palace also contains a collection of porcelain from the former manufac- 
tory of Capodimonte and a valuable collection of armour (Armeria), for- 
merly preserved in the Pal. Reale. Among the objects of interest here 
are the ancient accoutrements of kings Roger and Ferdinand I., of 
Alexander Farnese, and of Victor Amadeus of Savoy ; also the sword 
presented by Ferdinand I. to the gallant Scanderbeg. 

Near Capodimonte are the villas Meuricoffre (PI. E, 1 ; generally 
open on presentation of the visitor's card), Ruffo, Avelli, and 
Forquet, commanding fine views in all directions. 

To the W., opposite Capodimonte, stands the Villa Regina 
Isabella, or Villa Gallo (PI. D, 1), founded in 1809 by the Duca 
di Gallo , afterwards the property of the queen from whom it 
derives its name, and now that of her second husband the Conte 
del Balzo. The summit commands a remarkably fine prospect of 
the city and bay. 

Pleasant walk from the Villa Gallo through the valley between Ca- 
maldoli and the Vomero to the Lago d'Agnano, or to the left to Fuori- 
grotta and to the Bagnoli road on the coast. Comp. Map, p. 96. — If on 
leaving the park of Capodimonte we turn to the left, we may proceed by 
the outskirts of the city to the Campo Santo outside the Porta Capuana, 
an excursion best made by carriage. A visit to the palace and grounds, 
and to the cemetery, will take about 5 hrs. in all. (Two-horse carr. 
5-6 fr.) 

Following the road opposite the entrance to the park of Capodi- 
monte, and after a few minutes turning to the left, we reach the 



Obsematory. NAPLES. 4. Route. 45 

Observatory (Ossermlorio Reale, PI. E, 1, 2), occupying the summit 
of the hill. It is popularly called LaSpeeola, or, after the villa of a 
Spanish marquis which once stood here, Miradois. The observatory 
was founded in 1812, and enlarged in 1820 from plans by the 
celebrated Piazzl (d. 1826), under whom it attained a European 
reputation. The present director, Comm. de Gasparis, has distin- 
guished himself by the discovery of several planetoids. — On the 
way to the observatory a path descends in steps past the church de' 
Miracoli to the Strada Foria (see below). 

Farther ofl', at the liase of Capodimonte, are visible the remains of 
the Aqua Julia , now called Ponti Rossi, the great aqueduct constructed 
by Augustus. One branch supplied the city of Naples, the other crossed 
the Vomero to the right, whence several ramifications diverged, some to 
the villas on the Posilipo, another by Monte Olibano to Baia; and Mise- 
nuin, where it terminated in the Piscina Ilirabilis (p. 103). 



The broad transverse street diverging from the Toledo to the 
right (E.) by the Museum (pp. 42, 43) leads first to the large 
Piazza Cavoub. (PL E, 3), formerly the Largo delle Pigne, em- 
bellished with gardens. Farther on, the street takes the name of 
Strada Foria. The first street diverging from it to the right is the 
new Via del Duomo, leading to the cathedral (4 min. ; p. 57); the 
Via Carbonara next diverges on the same side to S. Giovanni a 
Carbonara (p. 54) and the Porta Capuana; and the new Corso Gari- 
baldi farther on also leads to the right to the same gate (10 min. ; 
p. 53). 

On the left side of the Strada Foria we next reach the Botanic 
Garden, which was founded in 1809 and extended in 1818. It is 
open to the public daily, except from 12 to 2, and contains a line 
collection of tropical plants. — Adjacent is the extensive 'poor- 
house, the Albergo de' Poveri, or Rectusorio, begun by Charles III. 
in 1751 from a design by Fuga, and intended to contain four courts, 
still nearly half uncompleted. One side is appropriated to men, 
the other to women. In this establishment and its dependencies 
about 5000 persons are maintained. The city contains numerous 
other charitable institutions , about sixty in all , most of which 
are amply endowed. ■ — Tramway and omnibuses, see p. 25. 



III. The Old Town. E. Quarters between the 
Toledo and the Harbour. 

Naples contains about three hundred Churches, most of which are 
devoid of interest. The older of them have been disfigured by restora- 
tion in the degraded style of the 17th and 18th centuries, which appears 
to have attained its highest perfection here. But , as they contain nu- 
merous monuments, important in the history of sculpture, and are rich 
in historical and political associations, some of them are well deserving 
of a visit. The most important are described in the following pages. They 
are generally closed about noon, and not re-opened till evening. 

We begin our walk in the Strada Medina (PI. E, 5), by the 



46 Route 4. NAPLES. S. Maria la Nttovn. 

fountain mentioned at p. 38. To the left of this point, adjoining 
No. 49 , is a railing enclosing a flight of steps which descend to 
the church of the — 

*Incoronata (PI. 56 ; open in the morning), erected in 1352 by 
Johanna I. to commemorate her coronation and marriage with her 
cousin Louis of Taranto, and made to include the old chapel of 
the Palais de Justice in which the marriage had been solemnised. 

This chapel contains admirable "Frescoes , formerly attributed to Giotto, 
but probably by one of his pupils or imitators (much darkened and in- 
jured; best seen from a platform to the left near the entrance to the 
church; keys at the sacristy, 5-6 soldi). They represent the 'Seven Sacra- 
ments and the Church'. In the arch over the right window, on the right 
is the 'Triumph of the Church 1 , with portraits of King Robert and his 
son Charles, attired in purple, on the left the Extreme Unction. The next 
arch to the right comprises: (1.) Baptism, (r.) Confirmation; then (1.) the 
Eucharist, and (r.) Confession; and on the other side, (1.) Ordination, (r.) 
Matrimony. The last refers to the marriage above mentioned, which did 
nut take place till 1347, eleven years after Giotto's death. Two half- 
figures in 'Baptism', one of which is crowned with laurel, are said to re- 
present Petrarch and Laura, and in 'Matrimony' Dante's features are said to 
be recognisable. The Chapel of the Crucifix, at the end of the left aisle, 
also contains frescoes in Giotto's style , ascribed to Gennaro di Cola, a 
pupil of Maestro Simone : to the left are represented the Coronation of 
Johanna I., her nuptials, and other events in [her life; to the right St. 
Martin, St. George, battles, etc., all much damaged. 

The church contains numerous votive offerings for recovery from sick- 
ness and the perils of childbirth. 

Opposite the church is situated the Palazzo Fondi designed 
by Luigi Vanvitelli , and containing a picture-gallery (shown by 
special permission of the prince only). In front of it is a statue 
of Fr. Sav. Mercadante (d. 1870), the composer of several operas. 

At the end of the Strada Medina we enter the busy Stkada 
S. Giuseppe to the left. After a few minutes' walk, a broad street 
to the right leads to the church of S. Maria la Nuova (PI. 61 ; 
E, 5), which is approached by a flight of steps. It was erected in 
1268 by Oiovanni da Pisa, and restored in 1599 by Agnolo Franco. 

Interior. The ceiling is adorned with frescoes by Santafede and 
Simone Papa the youuger, and the dome with others by Corenzio (the four 
Franciscan teachers S. Bonaventura, Duns Scotus, Nicolaus de Lira, and 
Alexander ab Alexandro). 

In the 1st Chap, to the right, the 'Archangel Michael', formerly ascribed 
to Michael Angelo. 3rd Chap. : Crucifixion, Marco da Siena. In the Chap, 
del Crocefisso frescoes by Corenzio. — The right transept contains the monu- 
ment of Galeazzo Sanseverino (d. 14G7) , with sculptures of the 15th 
century. In the opposite chapel is a beautiful crucifix in wood by Gio- 
vanni da Nola. — At the high altar is a Madonna in wood by Tommaso 
de' Ste/ani, with saints by A. Borghetti. — The large Chapel to the left 
of the entrance to the church was erected in 1604 by Gonsalvo da Cor- 
dova, 'il gran capitano' , whose nephew Ferdinand placed on each side 
of the altar the monuments of his two most distinguished enemies: Pietro 
Navarro (who strangled himself when a prisoner in the Castcllo Nuovo) 
and Lautrec, a Frenchman, the general of Francis I. (who died of the 
plague in 1528, while besieging Naples). The monuments are attributed 
to l/iov. da Nola or his pupils. The inscriptions, composed by Paolo Giovio, 
testify to the chivalrous sentiments of that period. 

The adjoining Monastery possesses two sets of Cloisters with tomb- 
stones, and is adorned with frescoes by unknown masters. 



Monte Oliveto. NAPLES. 4. Route. 17 

We now return and pursue our route along the Str. Giuseppe, 
of which the Strada Montoliveto forms the continuation. Where 
the latter expands into a square, on the right stands the Palazzo 
Qravina, now the General Post and Telegraph Office (PI. 23; E, 4), 
erected about 1500 by Ferdinando Orsini, Duca di Gravina, from 
designs by Qabriele d'Agnolo. This building, formerly a truly clas- 
sical edifice, has unfortunately been greatly disfigured by modern 
improvements , especially since its injury by fire during the revo- 
lution of 1848. 

Ascending from this point to the left , past a Fountain with 
a bronze statue of Charles II. (1663), we traverse the Piazza iji 
Montoliveto to the church of *S. Anna de' Lombardi, or Monte 
Oliveto (PI. 66; E, 4), erected in 1414 by Guerello Origlia, the 
favourite of King Ladislaus, from designs by Andrea Ciccione. The 
church is a flat-roofed basilica without aisles, the favourite style of 
ecclesiastical architecture in the palmy days of Neapolitan art. It 
contains valuable sculptures ; the chapels are kept shut (sacristan 

In the Vestibule, on the left, is the monument of General Giuseppe 
Trivulzio (d. 1757) ; on the right that of the celebrated architect Do- 
menico Fontana (d. 1607) , who flourished in Rome under Sixtus V. — 
Cappella Piccolomini (1st on the left): the *Nativity, a relief by Donatello, 
or, according to others, by his pupil Antonio Rossellino. Above it, "Danc- 
ing Angels by Rossellino. The 'Monument of Maria of Arragon (d. 1470), 
natural daughter of Ferdinand I. , wife of Antonio Piccolomini , Duke of 
Amain, by Rossellino, is a copy of the monument of the Cardinal of Por- 
tugal in S. Miniato's at Florence. Crucifixion, also by Rossellino. The 
Ascension, a picture by Silvestro de" 1 Buoni (ascribed by Sig. Frizzoni to 
the school of Pinturicchio). — Opposite the sacristy in the Coko dei 
Fbati, containing fine intarsia work by Giovanni da Verona (d. 1525), 
restored in 1840 by Minchiotti. — Cappella Mastkogiudici (1st on the 
right): Annunciation, a relief by Benedetto da Maiano. Several monuments, 
including that of 'Marinus Curialis Surrentinus Terrenovse comes', 1490, 
who founded this chapel. — 5th Chapel on the left: John the Baptist, by 
Giovanni da Nola. — The Chapel of the Madonna (adjoining the right 
transept) contains the tombs of Cardinal Pompeo Colonna , viceroy of 
Naples (d. 1532), and of Charles de Lannoy (d. 1527), general of Charles V. 
— The adjacent Chapel of the Holt Sepulchre contains a coarsely real- 
istic ;:; Group in terracotta by Guido Mazzoni, surnamed Modanino (of Mo- 
dena ; d. 1518), representing Christ in the Sepulchre , surrounded by six 
life-size figures in a kneeling posture , all portraits of contemporaries of 
the artist : Sannazaro as Joseph of Arimathsea , Pontanus as Nicodemus, 
Alphonso II. as John, beside him his son Ferdinand. — The Choik con- 
tains frescoes by Simone Papa the younger. The Sacristy, behind the 
choir, is adorned with frescoes by Vasari. The monuments of Alphonso II. 
and Guerello Origlia are by Giovanni da Nola. 

The adjacent building, now occupied by public offices , was 
formerly a Benedictine monastery, where the poet Tasso was 
kindly received when ill and in distress in 1588. — The Via 
di Montoliveto Nuova leads hence to the Toledo (see p. 42). 

Returning to the fountain from which we started, we follow 
the Calata S. Trinita Maggiore to the Largo S. Trinita Maggiore 
(PI. E, 4), where a lofty Statue of the Madonna was erected in 1748 
in the tasteless style of the period. In this piazza is situated 



4S llnute J. NAPLES. Snntit Cluurtt. 

the church of Gesu Nuovo, or S. Trinith Maggiore (PI. 50j, 
in the form of a Greek cross, built in 1584, containing frescoes 
by Solimena ( History of Heliodorus , over the portal), Stanzioni, 
Spaynoletto, and Corenzio, and overladen with marble and de- 
corations. A carpet-warehouse opposite the church, Largo S. Trinita 
Maggiore 12, contains the old refectory of the former monastery 
of S. Chiara , where a fine , though damaged, *Fresco by Giotto 
and his pupils, representing the Miracle of the Loaves, is still pre- 
served (not very accessible, but admission readily granted, i j 2 fr.). 

Beyond the church of Gesu we reach the Strada S. Trinita 
Maggiore, one of the busiest streets crossing the Toledo (p. 
42), and turning immediately the right we pass through a gate 
to *Santa Chiara (PI. 42; E, 4), originally a Gothic church erected 
by Robert the Wise in 1310 , but almost entirely rebuilt by Ma- 
succio the Younger (?) in 1318, and richly but tastelessly decorated 
in 1752. At the same time Giotto's frescoes were whitewashed. 
The church contains handsome Gothic monuments of the Anjou 
dynasty, and other sculptures. 

The :: Intekiok, 92 yds. long and 35 yds. wide, is lofty and handsome, 
resembling a magnificent hall. To the left of the principal entrance is 
the monument of Onofrio di Penna, secretary of King Ladislaus (d. 1322), 
with a relief of the Madonna and hermits by Baboccio , converted into an 
altar. Above are a Madonna enthroned and the Trinity, by Francesco, 
son of Maestro Simone (about 1300). — In front of the organ, above, are 
tasteful reliefs from the life of St. Catharine, 14th cent., executed on a 
dark ground and resembling cameos. — Of the principal paintings on the 
ceiling, the first, the Queen of Sheba, and the second, David playing on 
the harp, are by Seb. Conca ; the third, David sacrificing, by Bonito; the 
fourth, S. Clara putting the Saracens to flight, by Francesco di Nura. 
The last-named master also painted the high altar-piece (the Sacrament) 
and the picture over the principal entrance (King Robert inspecting the 
church when building). 

The second chapel on the left contains two sarcophagi: on the right 
is the tomb of Gabriel Adurini (d. 1572), an admiral under the Emperor 
Charles V. ; on the left a tomb of the 14th century. — By the 3rd pillar 
to the left is the altar of the Madonna delle Grazie, with a fresco almost 
concealed by frippery, attributed to Giotto. 

Near the side-door which leads out of the church on the left side is 
the small but graceful monument, cy Oiov. da Nola, of Antonia Gaudino, 
who died in 1530 at the age of 14, on the day appointed for her marriage, 
with a beautiful epitaph by the poet Antonius Epicurus (d. 1555). The next 
chapel contains two tombstones of the 14th century. — The Cappella 
Sanfelice, adjoining the pulpit, which is borne by lions, is adorned with 
reliefs of the 13th cent, and contains a Crucifixion by Lanfranco, and an 
ancient sarcophagus with figures of Protcsilaus and Laodamia which forms 
the tomb of Cesare Sanfelice, Duca di Rodi (d. 1632). — The following 
Cappki.la Longobakdi de la Cruz Ahedo contains on the left side a mon- 
ument of 1520, and on the right a similar one of 1853. 

At the back of the high altar is the magnificent "Monument of Robert 
the Wise (d. 1343), 42 ft. in height, executed by Masuccio the Younger. In 
a niche above the king is represented seated on his throne, and below 
he appears again in a recumbent posture , in the garb of a Franciscan, on 
a sarcophagus embellished with relief's and supported by saints. At the 
top is the Madonna between SS. Francis and Clara. The inscription, 
'Cernite Robertum regem virtutc refertum' is ascribed to Petrarch. — In 
the adjacent N. Transept is the monument of his second daughb-r Mary, 
sister of Johanna I. , empress of Constantinople and Duchess of Durazzo, 



S. Domenico. NAPLES. 4. Route. 49 

attired in her imperial robes. By the wall to the left, the tomb of Agnese 
and Clementia, the two daughters of the empress, the former having also 
been the consort of a titular emperor of Constantinople , Giacomo del 
Balzo, Prince of Taranto. In the left lateral wall , the tomb of Mary, 
infant daughter of Charles the Illustrious, who died in 1344. — In the S. 
Tkansept, adjoining the monument of Robert the Wise , is that of his 
eldest son Charles, Duke of Calabria, who died in 1328, before his father, 
also by Masuccio the Younger. Farther on, to the right, is the monument 
of Mary of Valois, his queen, erroneously said to be that of her daughter 
Johanna I. — The Chapel adjoining the S. transept on the right is the burial- 
chapel of the Bourbons, in which six children of Charles III are interred. 

The handsome Clock-Tower (>l Campanile) of S. Chiara was 
formerly attributed to Masuccio the Younger or to his pupil Oiacomo 
de Sanctis (14th cent.), and hence was long considered to prove 
that Naples was one of the heralds of the Renaissance. In reality 
it was not built till after 1600. 

Farther on in the Str. S. Trinita Maggiore, we soon reach, on the 
left, the Lakgo S. Domenico (PI. E, F, 4"), containing the palaces 
of Casacalenda, Corigliano, S. Severo, and Caviati, and adorned with 
a tasteless Obelisk , surmounted by a bronze statue of the saint, 
executed by Vaccaro in 1737 from a design by Fansaga. The 
stairs to the left lead to a side-entrance of the church of S. 
Domenico , the principal entrance of which in the court of the 
Pretura, Vico S. Domenico, is generally closed. 

*S. Domenico Maggiore (PI. 45 ; open 7-11 a. m. only), erected 
by Charles II. in 1289 in the Gothic style from the design of Masuccio 
the Elder (f), is one of the finest churches in Naples, notwithstand- 
ing the subsequent alterations it has undergone (the last in 1850- 
53). The church is 83 yds. long, 36 yds. wide, and 84 ft. high. 
It contains twenty-seven chapels and twelve altars, and presents an 
imposing appearance with its handsome columns and rich gilding, 
but the flat ceiling of the 17th cent, does not harmonise well 
with the rest of the edifice. The most distinguished princes of 
Naples have for centuries possessed chapels here, with numerous 
monuments , which are as important examples of early Renais- 
sance sculpture as those in S. Chiara are of Gothic art. 

The 1st Chapel to the right (wall of the entrance), that of the Sa- 
luzzo, formerly of the Carafa family, contains an altar-piece (Madonna 
with SS. Martin and Dominions and several of the Carafas) by Andrea 
da Salerno^ freely repainted; also the rococo monument of General Filippo 
Saluzzo (d. 1852), and the chaste and simple monument of Galeotto Carafa 
(d. 1513) with medallion. — 2nd Chap.: altar-piece by Agnolo Franco; 
monument of Bishop Bartolommeo Brancaccio (d. 1341). — 3rd Chap. : the 
badly preserved frescoes of this chapel , which also belongs to the Bran- 
caccio family, represent the Crucifixion, Supper at Emmaus, Eesurrection, 
Mary Magdalene, and John the Baptist, by Agnolo Franco. — 4th Chap., 
that of the Capece: Crucifixion by Oirolamo Capece. 

The ,! Cappella del Ceocefisso (the 7th) contains handsome monu- 
ments of the 15th century. The altar is covered with Florentine mosaic 
designed by Cosimo Fansaga. On the lower part of the altar is a relief of the 
'Crucifix by Tommaso de' Stefani, which according to tradition, thus addressed 
Thomas Aquinas: 'Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma : quam ergo mercedem 
recipies?' To which the saint replied: 'Non aliam nisi te.' Pictures 
on each side of the altar: on the right Bearing the Cross, on the left 

Baedkkeb. Italy III. 7th Edition. 4 



50 Route 4. WA-fLKS. S. Domenico. 

Descent from the Cross by an imitator of the Flemish style. To the left 
of the altar the Monument of Francesco Carafa by Agnello del Fiore ; 
on the opposite side another by the same master, completed by Giovanni 
da Nola. The small side-chapel contains the tomb of Ettore Carafa, 
Conte di Ruvo (d. toll), with martial emblems and arabesques. The 
next chapel on the left contains the Madonna della Rosa, ascribed to 
Maestro Simone. On the opposite side is the beautiful Monument of 
Mariano d'Alagni, Count Bucchianico, and his wife Catarinella Ursino (d. 
1447J, by Agnello del Fiore. Adjacent to it is the monument of Niccolo 
di Sangro, Principe di Fondi, by Domenico d'Auria. — At the entrance to 
the sacristy, monuments of members of the family of Thomas Aquinas. 

The "Saciusty has a ceiling-painting by Solimena , and at the altar 
an Annunciation , attributed to Andrea da Salerno. Around the walls, 
above, are forty-five large wooden sarcophagi with scarlet covers, ten of 
which contain the remains of princes of the house of Arragon. Among these 
are Ferdinand I. (d. 1494) ; Ferdinand II. (d. 1496) ; his aunt , Queen 
Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand I. (d. 1518); Isabella (d. 1524), daughter 
of AlphonsoII. and wife of the Duke of Milan, etc. Also the coffin of Fernando 
Francesco d'Avalos, Marchese di Pescara, the hero of Ravenna and Pavia, 
who died of his wounds at Milan in 1525. The inscription is by Ariosto. 
Above the tomb are suspended his portrait, a banner, and a sword. His 
wife was the celebrated Vittoria Colonna, who after his death sang his 
praises in the island of Ischia (p. 108). 

In the S. Teansept the chapel of St. Hyacinth. Adjoining it is the 
Monument of GaleazzoPandone (d.1514) by Giovanni da Nola. — From the S. 
transept a door leads into a portion of the older church, which also con- 
tains some interesting monuments, particularly that of the Rota family, 
by Giovanni da Nola. 

The High Altar, adorned with Florentine mosaic, is by Fansaga, 1652. 
In the N. Teansf.pt, above the chapel of the Pignatelli, are the monu- 
ments of Giovanni di Durazzo (d. 1323) and Filippo di Taranto (d. 1335), 
sons of Charles III., with a long inscription in leonine verse. 

N. Aisle. The 8th Chapel (S. Maria della Neve.) contains above 
the altar a beautiful 'Haut-relief with a statue of the Virgin, attended by 
St. Matthew and St. John, the best work of Giovanni da Nola, executed in 
1536. Here is also the monument of the poet Giambattista Marini of Naples 
(d. 1625), well known for his bombastic style, with a bust by Bartolommeo 
VUeontini. — 7th Chapel , of the Rvffo Bagnara family : Martyrdom of 
St. Catherine, by Leonardo da Pistoja; tombs of Leonardo Tomacelli (d. 1529) 
and of Cardinal Fabricio Ruffo (d. 1829) who acted a prominent part in 
the events of 1799. — 6th Chapel: tombs of the Carafa. — 5th Chapel: of 
the Andrea. — 4th Chapel : tombs of the Rota family, with a 'Statue of 
John the Baptist by Giovanni da Nola, as a monument to the poet Bernar- 
dino Rota (d. 1575), with figures of the Arno and the Tiber by Domenico 
d'Auria (1600). — 3rd Chapel, to the left: Martyrdom of St. John by 
Scipione Gaetano; tomb of Antonio Carafa, surnamed Malizia (d. 1438). — 
2nd Chapel, in the bad taste of the 17th cent. : the miracle-working Ma- 
donna di S. Andrea. — 1st Chapel, to the left, by the entrance (S. Stefano): 
Christ crowning Joseph, by Lnca Giordano: on the lateral walls an Adora- 
tion of the Magi, by a Flemish master; Holy Family, ascribed to Andrea 
da Salerno. Tomb of 1636. 

In the adjacent monastery the celebrated Thomas Aquinas lived in 1272 
as professor of philosophy at the university which was then founded, 
and his lectures were attended by men of the highest rank, and even the 
king himself. His cell, now a chapel, and his lecture-room still exist. 
The monastery is now occupied by various public offices. The Accademia 
Pontaniana, founded in 1471 by the learned Giovanni Pontano , also 
meets here. 

Ascending the Via Mezzocannona, which leads to the S. from 
S. Domenico, and then following the third cross-street to the right, 
we reach the Piazza di S. Giovanni Maggiore, in which rises the 



University. NAPLES. 4. Route. 51 

church of S. Giovanni Maggiore, adorned with sculptures of the 
16th century. The adjacent chapel of S. Giovanni de' Pappacoda 
possesses a handsome Gothic portal dating from 1415. 

The Cappella S. Severo lies to the N.E. of S. Domenico. 
Ascending to the right past S. Domenico, and taking the first 
lane to the right, we reach the Calata di S. Severo, the first 
lane on the left, at the beginning of which, No. 15, is the small 
church of 8. Maria della Pietti de Sangri , commonly called La 
Cappella di San Severo (PL 74 ; the keys at a shop opposite ; 
fee '/2 fr-)) erected in 1590 by Francesco di Sangro, extended in 
1613 by Alessandro di Sangro, Patriarch of Alexandria and Arch- 
bishop of Benevento, as a burial-place for the Sangro family, and 
in 1759 lavishly decorated with gold and sculpture by Raimondo 
di Sangro, Principe di Sansevero. There is no building in Naples 
in which such bad taste is displayed as in this chapel with its 
exaggerated magnificence, and unnatural and laboured allegories. 
It does not fail , however , to attract gaping admirers , and is 
certainly remarkable for great skill of workmanship. 

The principal of these allegories, which was executed by Francesco 
Queirolo of Genoa, is the 'Man in the Net', from which with the 
aid of reason (a crowned genius) he disentangles himself, whence 
it is called il ditinganno. It contains an allusion to Antonio di Sangro, 
who renounced the world and became a monk, after having lost his beloved 
wife Cecilia Gaetani. The latter is represented as Pudicitia, nude, but 
slightly veiled, the work of Antonio Conradini of Venice (d. 1752). — The 
altar-piece is a Descent from the Cross, by Francesco Celebrano of Naples. — 
As another instance of extraordinary perversion of taste may be mentioned 
the figure of Christ enveloped in a winding sheet by Giuseppe Sammartino 
(1753) , laid out in a chapel fitted up for the purpose. 

From this point (or by S. Domenico to the right) we may as- 
cend the side-street leading to the Str. de' Tribunali, where the 
cathedral and other important churches (p. 55) are situated. 



We now return to the Largo S. Domenico (p. 49), in order 
to pursue our route along the Str. S. Trinita Maggiore, which is 
continued by the Str. Nilo and by the Str. S. Biagio de' Librai 
(p. 52) farther on. Immediately to the right is S. Augelo a Nilo 
(PI. 33 ; F, 4), erected in 1385 ; to the right of the high altar is the 
*Monument of the founder Cardinal Brancaccio (d. 1428), by Dona- 
tello and Michelozzo , who have here blended the Gothic mon- 
umental character with the new style of the Renaissance. 

The Strada Salvatore (the second street from the Largo 
S. Domenico to the right) descends hence to the right to the 
not far distant — 

University (PI. 32; Regia Universitd. degli Studf), founded in 
1224 by the Emp. Frederick II., reconstituted in 1780 and 
removed to the Jesuits' College. It is one of the most ancient 
in Europe, and possesses five faculties, fifty -two professorial 
chairs , a library , and natural history collections of which the 
mineralogical is the most valuable. The library, admirably arranged 

4* 



52 Route 4. NAPLES. S. Severino e Sosio. 

by Tommaso Gar, may be used by strangers from 9 to 3 daily 
(librarian Comm. Minervini). The Court contains the statues of 
Pietro della Vigna, chancellor of Frederick II., Thomas Aquinas, 
G. B. Vico , and Giordano Bruno, erected in 1863. 

Leaving the university and proceeding in a straight direction, 
we reach the richly decorated church of S. Severino e Sosio (PI. 73), 
in the Piazza S. Marcellino, built by Mormandi in 1490. 

The roof is adorned with frescoes by Corenzio, who is interred here, 
by the entrance to the sacristy. The choir-stalls, dating from the end of 
the 15th cent., are beautifully carved. Adjoining the choir to the right is 
the chapel of the Sanseverini, containing three monuments of three bro- 
thers, who were poisoned by their uncle in 1516, works of Giovanni da 
Nola. In a chapel near the choir, to the right, is the tomb of Carlo 
Troya (d. 1858). In the N. transept are the monuments of Admiral Vincenzo 
Carafa (d. 1611) and the Duca Francesco de Marmilis (d. 1649). The U. 
aisle contains an altar-piece by Andrea da Salerno, in six sections, re- 
presenting the Madonna with St. Justina and John the Baptist. By the 
entrance to the sacristy, in the last chapel of the right transept, the tomb 
of a child, Andrea Bonifacio, ascribed to Oiov. da Nola ; opposite to it is 
that of Giambattista Cicara, by the same master, both with inscriptions 
by Sannazaro. 

The monastery connected with this church has since 1818 been 
the depository of the Archives of the kingdom, which are among 
the most valuable in the world. Frescoes and paintings by Corenzio 
adorn the interior. The 40,000 parchment MSS. (the oldest of 
which are in Greek) date from 703 and include the Norman, 
Hohenstaufen, Anjou , Arragonian , and Spanish periods. The 
documents of the Anjou period, 380,000 in number, form no 
fewer than 378 volumes. (Permission to inspect them must be 
obtained from the director of the Archives.) — The entrance to 
the cloisters is by a gateway to the right in the street ascending 
to the left of the church. We then traverse the arcades of the 
first two courts , and in the next we shall find the custodian 
between 10 and 3 o J clock (!/ 2 -l fr.). The walls of the cloisters 
are adorned with nineteen *Frescoes, unfortunately much damaged 
and of late badly restored, representing scenes from the life of St. 
Benedict. They are generally ascribed to Zingaro and his two sup- 
posed pupils, Donzelli and Simone Papa, but Messrs. Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle assign them to a painter of Umbro-Florentine origin. 
The best of the series is that in grisaille representing the youthful 
saint on his way to Rome with his father and nurse. The others 
were probably carried out by assistants. (Best light in the fore- 
noon.) In the open space in the centre is a fine plane-tree which 
is said to have been planted by St. Benedict, and on which a fig- 
tree is grafted. 

Returning to the principal street (p. 51), the continuation 
of which is called the Stead a S. Biagio de' Librai, we pass 
the Monte di Pieta , or public loan-establishment, on the right, 
and several churches and palaces of little importance. One of these, 
No. 121, the Palazzo Santangelo (PI. 22; F, 4), formerly named 



Castel Capuano. NAPLES. 4. Route. 53 

Colobrano-Carafa, dating from 1466, once contained a valuable 
collection of antiquities which are now in the Museum (p. 80). 

The Picture Gallery is shown by permission of the Marchese Sant- 
angelo. The 1st Room contains modern Neapolitan pictures. — 2nd R. : 
Agnello Falcone, Battle-piece; Fabr. Santafede, Madonna with SS. John 
and Andrew ; Cav. Massimi, Infant Christ asleep ; Gent. Bellini, two Oriental 
portraits. — 4th R. : "Diirer, Garland-weaver, 1508; Van Dyck (?), Body of 
Christ. — 5th R. : "School of Van Eyck, Madonna ('a tempera') ; Rubens, Por- 
trait of himself and Van Dyck ; Giulio Romano (?), Madonna ; JSandro 
Botticelli, Madonna; Wohlgemuth, Death of Mary, painted in 1479 for the 
Volkamer family at Nuremberg. 

After a walk of 5 min. we observe the broad new Via del 
Duomo diverging to the left (see p. 55), and leading to the Via 
de' Tribunali, which leads straight to the Castel Capuano men- 
tioned below. 

We continue to follow the Str. S. Biagio, which after 5 min. 
divides : to the right the Str. S. Egeziaca aForcella leads to the Porta 
Nolana (p. 41); to the left is the Str. Annunziata with the Church 
of the Annunziata (PI. 35), erected in 1757-82 by L. Vanvitelli 
(frescoes by Corenzio ; tomb of the notorious Queen Johanna II.). 
This last street is continued by the Str. Maddalena, which leads 
us to the piazza immediately within the Porta Capuana. On our 
right here is the gate (see below), opposite us is the church of 8. 
Caterina a Formello, with a dome constructed in 1523, and on 
our left is the — 

Castel Capuano (PL F, G, 3), founded by William I., and 
completed by Frederick II. in 1231 from a design by Fuccio, 
once the principal residence of the Hohenstaufen kings, and occa- 
sionally that of the Anjous. In 1540 Don Pedro de Toledo (p. 42) 
transferred the different courts of justice to this palace, where they 
remain to this day. The building is therefore commonly known 
as / Tribunali. A visit to some of these courts affords the tra- 
veller a good opportunity of becoming acquainted with the Nea- 
politan national character. The prison of La Vicaria, of evil re- 
pute , is under the jurisdiction of the criminal court. The chief 
entrance of the building is on the other side, opposite the Strada 
de' Tribunali (p. 55). Omnibuses, see p. 25. 

The *Porta Capuana, built by Ferdinand I. of Arragon about 
1484, was designed by the Florentine Qiuliano da Maiano, and is 
one of the finest Renaissance gateways in existence. On the entry 
of Charles V. in 1535 it was restored and decorated with sculptures 
on the outside by Oiovanni da Nola. Like most of the other gate- 
ways at Naples, it is flanked by two handsome round towers. 

Past the outside of this gate runs the Corso Garibaldi, which 
extends from the sea to the Strada Foria (see p. 45). 



A little way beyond the Porta Capuana are situated the 
Cemeteries, the newest of which, the *Campo Santo Nuovo 
(PL I, 1), li/ 2 M. from the gate, deserves a visit. (One-horse 



54 Route i. NAPLES. S. Giovanni a Carbonara. 

carr. thither, see p. '24, from the gate and back, 2 fr.) It was 
laid out by the French, and extended in 1837 at the time of 
the cholera. The situation is very beautiful , commanding de- 
lightful *Vikws of Naples, the sea, and Vesuvius, on which 
the black lava stream which destroyed S. Sebastiano in 1872 is 
distinctly recognisable. The cemetery contains comparatively few 
monuments of individuals, but a great many erected by guilds 
and societies, most of which are in the form of chapels with 
niches resembling the Roman columbaria for the reception of 
the dead. Some of them present an imposing appearance , but 
few display much taste. — The cemetery presents a most animated 
and interesting spectacle on All Souls' Day (2nd Nov.). 

The old cemetery [Campo Santo Vecchio ; PL H, 1) is now used 
for the interment of the poor only, for which two extensive courts 
with 365 vaults, one for every day in the year, are set apart. 

The well-kept Protestant Cemetery (Cimitero Protestante ; 
PL G, 2) lies on the road to the Campo Santo Vecchio, about 
l / t M. from the Porta Capuana. (Visitors knock at the gate, 
l /% fr- ) A very large proportion of the names observed here are 
English, German, and American. 



Starting from the piazza within the Porta Capuana , and 
passing in front of the dome-covered church of S. Caterina, vvc 
now follow the Strada Carbonara, which leads in 8 min. to 
the Strada Foria (p. 45). Above us, on the right, at the point 
where the street narrows, rises the church of — 

*S. Giovanni a Carbonara (PI . 54; F, 3; side-entrance reached 
by ascending the stairs and turning to the right), erected in 1344 
from a design of Masuccio the Younger (?), and enlarged by King 
Ladislaus. 

The 'Monument of King Ladislaus (d. 1414), considered the master- 
piece of Andrea Ciccione, erected by Johanna II., the king's sister, stands at 
the hack of the high-altar, and is of very imposing general effect, as well 
as carefully executed in the details. Above is the equestrian statue of 
Ladislaus; in a recess below, a sarcophagus with the king in a recumbent 
posture, receiving the benediction of a bishop (in reference to the removal 
of the excommunication under which the king lay at his death); under- 
neath , Ladislaus and Johanna ; and the whole is supported by statues 
which represent the virtues of the deceased. The altar was restored in 1746. 

The Chapel del Sole, behind this monument, contains the "Tomb of 
the Grand Seneschal Sergianni Caracciolo , the favourite of Johanna I]., 
murdered in 1432, also by Ciccione. It was erected by his son Tmjano, 
and reveals traces of the dawn of the Renaissance. Inscription by Lorenzo 
Valla. The frescoes , scenes from the life of Mary, are by Leonardo di 
Bisuccio of Milan fd. about 1450), one of the last pupils of Giotto. — The 
Chapel of the Caraccioli Kossi, to the left of the high-altar, a circular 
temple erected and ornamented in 1510-57 from the designs of Girolamo 
Santacroce, contains statues hy Giov. da Nola, Girol. Hantacroce , and 
Pielro delta Plata (altar-reliefs), and the monuments of Galeazzo to the left, 
and Colantonio Caracciolo opposite, by Bcilla and Doni. d'Ain-ia resi>ectively. 
— The Sacristy contains fifteen scenes from the history of Christ by 
Vasari, 1546. — Adjoining the entrance to the sacristy from the church 



Cathedral. NAPLTCS. 4. Route. 55 

is a Madonna delle Grazie, a handsome statue executed in 1571. — On 
the same side, farther on, is a large altar in the form of a chapel, called 
the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, with good Renaissance sculptures 
of the 15th century, renewed in 1G19 Ivy Al. Mirabollo. — The above list 
by no means exhausts the interesting monuments in the church. 

The Congkegazione di S. Monica, with a separate entrance at the top 
of the flight of steps leading to the church , contains the monument of 
Prince Ferdinando di Sanseverino by Andreas de Florentia. 

Near S. Giovanni a Carbonara was once the arena for gladiator- 
combats, of which, in the time of Johanna I. and King Andreas, 
Petrarch was a horror-stricken spectator. 

From S. Giovanni to the Museum is a walk of 10 min. (see 
p. 45). — We now return to the Castel Capuano (p. 53). 



From the Piazza de' Tribunali, opposite the principal entrance 
to the Castel Capuano, the busy Strada de' Tribunali (PI. F, E, 
3, 4) leads in a nearly W. direction towards the Toledo. Follow- 
ing this street, we soon reach the small piazza of S. Gennaro 
on the right, the column in which was erected after the appalling 
eruption of Vesuvius in 1631 (p. 119) to commemorate the suc- 
cour rendered by St. Januarius. On the summit is the bronze 
figure of the saint by Fiuelli. 

We next ascend the flight of steps to the cathedral (principal 
entrance in the new Via del Duomo, see p. 57). 

The *Cathedral (PI. 4C ; F, 3), which is dedicated to St. Jamia- 
rius (S. Gennaro), was begun in 1272 by Charles I. of Anjou on 
the site of a temple of Neptune, continued by Charles II. after 121)4, 
and completed by Robert, grandson of the founder, in 1314. It is 
in the French-Gothic stylo, with lofty towers and pointed arches. 
The portal of the principal facade dates from 1407. In 1450 the 
church was nearly destroyed by an earthquake, but was afterwards 
rebuilt by Alphouso I. During the 17th and 18th centuries it 
underwent frequent alterations and restorations, but it still retains 
many of its original characteristics. The edifice is a basilica, the 
aisles of which have a Gothic vaulting. 

The ceiling-paintings of the Nave are by Santafede (the square ones) and 
Vincenzio da Forti (oval); the frescoes on the upper part of the lateral walls 
are by Luca Giordano and his pupils. St. Cyril and St. Chrysostom are by 
Soliwei/a. Over the principal entrance are the tombs of (1.) Charles I. of 
Anjou and (r.) Charles Martel, King of Hungary, eldest son of Charles II. 
and his wife Clementia, a daughter of Rudolph of Hapsburg, erected by the 
viceroy Olivarez in 1599. Above the side-doors are paintings by Vasari 
(1546), representing David playing the harp, and the patron-saints of 
Naples; the heads are portraits of Pope Paul III. and other members of 
the Farnese family. 

In the 8. Aisle is the 'Chapel of St. Januarius (the 3rd), commonly 
known as the Cappella del Tesoro , adorned with 'a marble facade and 
magnificent large brazen doors. On the right and left are two lofty 
columns of greenish marble, and above is the inscription: 'Divo Janua- 
rio, e fame bello, pcste, ac Vesuvi igne miri ope sanguinis erepta Kea- 
polis, civi patrono vindici. 1 The chapel was erected in consequence of a 
vow made during the plague in 15'27. The work was begun in 1G(JS and 
was completed in 29 years at a cost of a million ducats (about 225,000 I. 



56 Route 4. sxArL&S. Cathedral. 

sterling). The best time for seeing it is shortly before 12, the hour when 
the church closes. 

The interior of the chapel, which is in the form of a Greek cross, is 
richly decorated with gold and marble, and contains eight altars, forty-two 
columns of broccatello, magnificent doors, five oil-paintings on copper by 
Domenichino, and several frescoes from the life of St. Januarius. The first 
four representations, however, alone (tomb of the saint ; his martyrdom ; re- 
suscitation of a youth ; sick persons healed by oil from a lamp which had 
hung before the tomb of the saint) are entirely by Domenichino, who along 
with Guido Rent and Lanfranco, intimidated by the threats of their jealous 
Neapolitan rivals, Spagnoletto and Corenzio , abandoned the task of paint- 
ing the dome. — The Sacristy of the Tesoro contains pictures by Stan- 
zioni and Luca Giordano; a costly collection of ecclesiastical vestments 
and sacred vessels; the silver bust of St. Januarius, executed for Charles II. 
in 1306; forty-five other busts in silver of the patron saints of the city, 
and other valuable relics. — In the tabernacle of the high-altar, which is 
adorned with a carefully covered relief in silver representing the arrival 
of the saint's remains, are preserved two vessels containing the Blood 
of St. Januarius, Bishop of Benevento , who suffered martyrdom under 
Diocletian in 305 (comp. p. 99). The liquefaction of the blood, which 
according to the legend took place for the first time when the body was 
brought to Naples by Bishop St. Severus in the time of Constantine, is 
the occasion of the greatest festival of Naples and takes place three times 
annually during several successive days (1st Saturday in May, in the 
evening, 19th Sept., and 16th Dec, between 9 and 10 a. in.). 

In the S. aisle, farther on, is the Cappella Bkancia (the 5th), which 
contains the tomb of Cardinal Carbone I'd. 1405) by Ant. ISaboccio. — In 
the S. Transept is the chapel of the Caraccioli, with the monument of 
Cardinal Bernardino Caraccioli (d. 1268). 

At the back of the transept, to the right, is the entrance to the 
Cappella Minutoli (open 6-8 a. m. only), in the Gothic style, constructed 
by Ma&uccio the Elder(1), the upper part adorned with paintings by Tom- 
maso degli Stefani in the 13th cent, (frequently retouched), the lower part 
by an unknown master; monument of Card. Arrigo Minutoli (d. 1301), and 
other tombs of the 14th and 15th cent.; triptych of the Trinity on the 
altar, a good early Sienese work. — The adjoining Cappella Tocca con- 
tains the tomb of St, Asprenas , one of the first bishops of Naples. 

Beneath the high-altar (staircase to the right, with brazen doors) is 
the richly decorated :: Confessio, or Shrine of St. Januarius, with ancient 
columns and beautiful marble covering, containing the tomb of the saint. 
The tasteful ornamentation, by Totnaso Malvito of Como (1504), should be 
remarked. Facing the shrine, to the left, is the kneeling figure of Car- 
dinal Oliviero Carafa, who erected the chapel in 1492-1506, probably also 
by Malvito. — Fresco on the ceiling of the choir by Domenichino, the 
Adoration of the Angels. 

The Gothic chapel of the Capece Galeota, to the left of the high-altar, 
contains a painting of Christ between St. Januarius and St. Athanasius, 
15th century. 

In the N. Transept, by the door of the sacristy, are the tombs 
of (r.): Innocent IV. (d. 1254 at Naples), erected by the Archbishop 
Umberto di Montorio in 1318 , restored in the 16th cent. ; Andreas, 
King of Hungary, who was murdered by his queen Johanna I. at Aversa, 
as the inscription records : 'Andrese Caroli Uberti Pannonise regis f. 
Neapolitanorum regi Joannse uxoris dolo laqueo necato Ursi Minutili 
pietate hie recondite' ; (1.1: Pope Innocent XII. (Pignatelli of Naples; 
d. 1696). 

In the N. Aisle, near the transept, is the Cappella de' Seripandi, 
adorned with an "Assumption of the Virgin, by l'ietro Perugino (1460). — 
We next reach the entrance to Santa Itestituta (see below). — In the 
2nd chapel: Entombment, a relief by Giovanni da Nola; above it 
St. Thomas , by Marco da Siena. — In the vicinity (in the nave) is the 
Font, an ancient basin of green hasalt, witli Bacchanalian thyrsi and masks. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the left, and entered from it by a door 



S. Filippo Neri. NAPLES. 4. Route. 57 

in the left aisle (when closed, fee V2 fr.), is the church of "Santa Resti- 
tuta (PI. 71; F, 3), a basilica with pointed arches, occupying the site of a 
temple of Apollo, to which it is probably indebted for the ancient 
Corinthian columns in the nave. This was the cathedral of Naples prior 
to the erection of the larger church. 

The foundation, erroneously attributed to Constantine the Great, dates 
from the 7th century. When the cathedral was built this church was 
shortened, and in the 17th cent, it was restored. In the Chapel S. Maria 
del Principio, at the farther extremity, to the left, is an ancient 'Mosaic 
of the Virgin with St. Januarius and Sta. Restituta ,' restored in 1322, 
and considered the earliest in Naples; whence the name 'del Principio\ 
On the lateral walls two remarkable bas-reliefs from an altar-screen, sup- 
posed to date from the 8th cent., each in fifteen compartments ; to the left the 
history of Joseph ; to the right above, St. Januarius, then Samson ; beneath, 
St. George. — At the back of the high-altar the Virgin with St. Michael 
and Sta. Restituta, by Silvestro Buono (?), a good work of a mixed Um- 
brian and Neapolitan style (forged inscription; painted after 1500). — 
The small dome of the chapel S. Giovanni in Fonte (closed) to the right, 
said to have been erected by Constantine in 333, formerly the baptistery 
of the church, is adorned with old, but frequently restored mosaics of 
Christ, the Virgin, etc. — The altar-piece, the Baptism of Christ, by 
Siluesiro Buono (V). — On the ceiling of the nave a fresco by Luca Gior- 
dano: the body of Sta. Restituta being conveyed by angels in a boat to 
Ischia. 

The principal facade of the cathedral (portal, see p. 55), which 
is approached by a flight of steps, looks towards the new and broad 
Via del Duomo (PI. F, 3), a street diverging from the Strada 
Foria (p. 45) and running nearly parallel with the Toledo. Many 
of the densely packed houses of the old town have been demo- 
lished to make way for this street, and it is to be extended down 
to the sea, but for the present it terminates at the Via S. Biagio 
de' Librai (see p. 52). 

Adjoining the cathedral , on the right as we leave the church , 
is the extensive Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. 13 ; F, 3), erected in 
the 13th cent. , and entirely restored by Cardinal Filomarino in 
1647. The principal facade looks to the Piazza Donna Regina. 

In the Str. Anticaglia (PI. F, 3) are the remains of an ancient 
Theatre, once apparently of considerable extent, of which two arches 
still exist. 



We now return to the Strada de' Tribunali. After a few 
paces, we observe the small Largo Gerolomini on the right, with 
the church of S. Filippo Neri (PI. 47; F, 3), or de' Gerolomini, 
erected in 1592-1619, and overladen with ornament. 

Over the principal entrance: Christ and the money-changers, a large 
fresco by Luca Giordano; high-altar-piece by Giovanni Bernardino Siciliano; 
lateral paintings by Corenzio. The sumptuous chapel of S. Filippo Neri, 
to the left of the high-altar, contains a ceiling- fresco by Solimena; and that 
of St. Francis of Assisi (4th chap, to the left) a painting by Guido Reni. 
Near the latter, at the base of a pillar in the nave, is the tombstone of 
the learned Giambattista Vico, b. at Naples 1670, d. 1744. The sacristy 
(entrance to the left) contains paintings by Andrea da Salerno, Corrado, 
Domenichino, Salimbeni, Guido Reni, and others. 

To the right, farther on, is situated S. Paolo Maggiore (PI. 67; 
F, 3), approached by a lofty flight of steps, and built in 1590 by 



58 Route 4. NAPLES. S. Lorenzo. 

the Theatine Orimaldi on the site of an ancient temple of Castor 
and Pollux. The beautiful portico of the temple remained in situ 
till it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1088, and two Corinthian 
columns with part of the architrave are still to be seen. The 
church contains numerous decorations in marble, and paintings by 
Corenzio, Stanzioni, Marco da Siena, and Solimena. 

In the 2nd chapel on the left is the monument of the minister Donato 
Tommasi (d. 1831). In the 4th chapel to the left is the monument of 
Cardinal Zurlo (d. 1801), with a statue. The 5th chapel contains cabinets 
in which fifty-two relics of saints are preserved in velvet and gold cases. 
— In the passage to the sacristy (S. transept) is an old copy of Ra- 
phael's Madonna del Pesce. — The Cloistees are said to occupy the site of 
the ancient theatre in which Nero performed as an actor. They are 
borne by twenty-four ancient granite columns. During the Roman period 
this was the central point of the city. 

In the small piazza in front of S. Paolo, on the other side 
of the Strada de' Tribunali, to the left, is situated the church of 
*S. Lorenzo (PI. 57; F, 3), begun in the Gothic style by Charles I. 
of Anjou in 1266 , to commemorate his victory over King Manfred 
at Benevento (p. 187), and completed by Robert I. in 1324. The 
site is that of the ancient Basilica Augustalis. The plan of 
the church, according to Vasari , was designed by Maglione, a 
pupil of NiccolS Pisano, but was altered by Masuccio the Younger 
in his peculiar style. The portal and the choir only are of the 
Gothic period, the nave having been almost entirely rebuilt in the 
16th century. 

Interior. The large picture over Ihe chief entrance, Jesus and St. 
Francis, is by Vincenzo Corso. — The Coronation of King Robert by Si. 
Louis of Toulouse, with a predella (signed), in the 7th chapel to the right 
is by Simone di Marfino of Siena. The same chapel contains the relics 
of some frescoes in the Sienese style. — St. Anthony of Padua, in the 
chapel of that saint in the N. transept, on a gold ground, and St. Francis 
as the founder of his Order, in the chapel of St. Francis in the S. tran- 
sept, both show traces of Flemish inlluence. The three statues of St. 
Francis, St. Lawrence, and St. Antony, and the 'Reliefs on the high-altar 
are by Giovanni da Nola ( 1478). — In the retro-choir behind the high- 
altar , entering to the right, are the monuments of: (1) Catherine of 
Austria , first wife of Charles, Duke of Calabria (d. 1323) , with a pyra- 
midal canopy and adorned with mosaics, by Masuccio the younger (?); (2l 
Johanna di Durazzo , daughter of Charles of Durazzo , and her husband 
Robert of Artois, both of whom died of poison on the same day, 20th July, 
1387; below are three Virtues, above them two angels drawing aside the 
curtain. Then, in a closed space: (3) Mary, the young daughter of Charles 
of Durazzo, killed at Aversa in 1347. The two last monuments are also by 
Masuccio the Younger(7). By the entrance of the church, on the right, is the 
tombstone of the naturalist Giambattista della Porta (1550-1616). 

The monastery connected with the church is now used as barracks. 
The Cloisters, which we reach by entering a gate to the right of the 
church and then turning to the left in the entrance passage, contain 
the tomb of Ludovico Aldemoresco , by Bahoccio (1414). The Chapteu- 
IIouse, which opens off the cloisters, is adorned with frescoes represent- 
ing all the saints of the Franciscan order. In 1343 Petrarch resided in 
this monastery; and Boccaccio, when in the church of S. Lori-nzo, beheld 
the beautiful princess whom he praises under the name of F'iamim-tta. 

In the direction of the Toledo, to the left, is situated S. Pietro 
a Maiella (PI. 69 ; E, 4), in the Gothic style, erected by Giovanni 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 59 

Pipino di Barletta, the favourite of Charles II. (d. 1316; his tomb 
is in the left transept), but afterwards altered. In the adjacent 
monastery is established the Conservatory of Music (R. Collegio 
di Musica; PI. 6), founded in 1537, which has sent forth a 
number of celebrated composers (e. g. Bellini) , and was long 
presided over by Mercadante. A number of valuable M(SS. of 
Paesiello, Jomelli, Pergolese, and other eminent masters are pre- 
served here. From this point we reach the Piazza Dante on the 
Toledo (see p. 42). 

IV. The Museum. 

In the upper part of the town , in the prolongation of the 
Toledo , at the point where the street takes the name of Strada 
di Capodimonte, and where a street leading to the Piazza Cavour 
diverges to the right, rises the **Museo Nazionale (PI. 9; E, 3), 
formerly called Museo Beale Borbonico, or yli Studj. It was 
erected in 1586 by the viceroy Duke of Ossuna as a cavalry-bar- 
rack, and in 1615 ceded to the university, which was established 
there until 1780, when it was transferred to the Gesu Vecchio. 
Since 1790 it has been fitted up for the reception of the royal 
collection of antiquities and pictures , to which in 1816 Fer- 
dinand I. gave the name of Museo Reale Borbonico. The history 
of the edifice is recorded on twelve marble slabs recently built 
into the wall of the vestibule. 

Here are united the older and more recent collections belong- 
ing to the crown, the Farnese collection from Rome and 
Parma, those of the palaces of Portici and Capodimonte, and the 
excavated treasures of Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabise, and Cunue. 
These united collections now form one of the finest in the world ; 
the Pompeian antiquities and objects of art in particular, as well 
as the bronzes from Herculaneum, are unrivalled, j 

The Museum is open daily, except on national holidays (see 
p. xxi), May to Oct. 9-3, Nov. to April 10-4 o'clock; on Sundays 
( 10-1) gratis, on other days admission 1 fr. ; gratuities forbidden. 

The present director is (fiulio de Petra, to whose predecessor 
Giuseppe Fiorelli (now in Rome) is due the general arrangement of 
the museum as it now stands. Unimportant alterations are, however, 
still occasionally made, so that it is impossible to give here an ab- 
solutely accurate enumeration of the contents. No Catalogue has 
yet been published except for the coins, the weapons, and the in- 
scriptions; but we may mention the 'Guide General du Music 
National' which has been published by Dom. Monaco, the con- 



t The following letters indicate the origin of the different objects . 
B. Borgia collection, C. Capua, C. A. Amphitheatre of Capua, Cu. Cumfle, 
F. Farnese collection, H. Herculaneum, L. Lucera, M. Minturna;, N. Naples, 
P. Pompeii, Pz. Pozzuoli, S. Stabise. 



60 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

servator of the museum, and which will be found useful in several 
respects (sold at the book-shops, price 5 fr.). 

The Entrance is in the street leading from the Toledo to 
the Piazza Cavour. Sticks and umbrellas must be given up at 
the Garderobe, to the left in the gateway. Tickets are obtained 
at the second door to the left. Custodians stationed at different 
parts of the building readily give information when applied to ; 
most of them speak French. 

Permission to copy or study, which is always accorded to artists and 
scientific men, is obtained by strangers on showing their passports at the 
Segreteria (entered by the second door , on the second floor ; public 
entrance to the library on the first floor, p. 77), where a similar per- 
mission may be procured for Pompeii and Pcestum. Free tickets for 
Pompeii (p. 124) are also to be had here. 

(A room on the right, opposite the Garderobe, contains casts, 
models, photographs, and copies of the objects in the museum, 
which are sold at fixed, but high prices. Discount is allowed on 
large purchases.) 

The following is a sketch of the general arrangements : — 

A. Ground Floor (comp. Plan, p. 72). 
Right Side: Ancient Frescoes (p. 61) ; beyond them, Inscriptions 

and several large sculptures (p. 63) ; then Egyptian 

Antiquities (p. 64). 
Left Side: Ancient Marble Statues (p. 65); beyond them, the 

Large Bronzes (p. 70). 

B. Entresol. 
Right Side: Mediaeval Works of Art (p. 72); Ancient Crystal 

(p. 73); Ancient Terracottas (p. 73). 
Left Side : Oumaean Antiquities (p. 73). 

C. Upper Floor (comp. Plan, p. 73). 
Right Side: Copies of Pompeian Pictures (p. 74); Articles of 

Food from Pompeii (p. 74); Papyri (p. 74); 

Pictures (p. 74; Italian); Engravings (p. 76). 
Immediately opposite: Library (p. 77). 
Left Side: Gold and Silver Ornaments and Gems (p. 77); Coins 

(p. 78); Pictures (p. 79; Neapolitan and foreign); 

Museum Santangelo (p. 80) and Vases (p. 81); 

Small Bronzes (p. 82). 

A. Ground Floor. 

Leaving the entrance gateway, we pass through a glass-door, 
where tickets are given up, into a large Vestibule with sev- 
eral ancient statues from the Farnese collection. At the end 
of the vestibule are the stairs ascending to the upper floors. 

The following are the most interesting statues in the vestibule: 

On the right, by the entrance, Alexander Severus; left, a Melpomene 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 61 

from the theatre of Pompey at Rome, erroneously restored as Urania. 
By the staircase, right, Flora; left, Genius of the city of Rome. At each 
of the two doors leading to the court are two figures with the toga; by 
the staircase two river-gods. In the staircase above, two Venuses from 
the theatre at Herculaneum. 

The ** Collection of Ancient Frescoes (Affreschi Pom- 
peiani) from Herculaneum, Pompeii, Stabise, etc., which we 
first visit, occupies the right half of the ground -floor. These 
paintings occupy seven rooms and a corridor , being grouped 
in accordance with their subjects , and each group is furnished 
with a Roman numeral. These works are, with the exception of 
painted vases and mosaics, almost the only specimens of ancient 
painting which have come down to us, and are therefore of extreme 
value. They are our sole informants with regard to the ancient style, 
colouring, and treatment of light and shade. Many of them are 
beautifully conceived, and executed with an easy, masterly touch, 
and they include landscapes, historical and mythological subjects, 
genre-paintings, architectural drawings, and animal and fruit-pieces. 
Although mere decorative paintings of a small provincial Roman 
town, they suffice to show how thoroughly the profession was im- 
bued with artistic principles. Some of the representations may be 
copies from celebrated or favourite pictures, but the style is such as 
entirely to preclude the idea that they were mechanically copied 
or stencilled. The rapid, easy execution and absence of minute 
detail prove that they were intended for effect, and not for close 
inspection. Their state of preservation of course varies greatly 
(comp. Introd., pp. xxxviii-xl). 

I. Room (immediately to the right of the place where tickets are 
given up ; 1st door), a long corridor : Architectural mural decorations. 
Those on the right wall, in the centre, group vii, are from the villa 
of Diomedes (p. 139); those on the left side, the further end, and 
the farther part of the wall on the right are nearly all from the 
Temple of Isis at Pompeii. 

II. Room : Animals, fruit, still-life, attributes of gods, etc. — 
The gallery of inscriptions (p. 63) has an entrance here. We now 
return through the 1st Room to the principal collection. — The fol- 
lowing rooms contain the mythological and genre representations. 
Their enumeration is in the order denoted by the Roman numerals. 

III. Room : xv. *Girl gathering flowers. Two heads of Medusa, 
xvi-xviii. Sea-gods. In the corner a *Nereid on a sea-panther. On 
the window-wall Phryxus and Helle. Two glazed tables exhibit a 
well-arranged collection of colours found at Pompeii, xx. Sacrifice 
to the Lares. — xxi, xxii. Sacrifice to Isis and scenes in the 
Egyptian style, from Herculaneum. — In the passage to the follow- 
ing room : xxiv. Ulysses carrying off the Palladium from Troy ; 
under it, Scipio and the dying Sophonisbe. — In the second pas- 
sage: *xxvi. Medea brooding over the murder of her children. 
Opposite : xxvii. Meleager and Atalante. 



62 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

TV. Room : (1. ) xxviii Hercules supported by Priapus and 
Omphale. xxviii, xxix. Perseus releasing Andromeda, xxx. (be- 
low) Hercules, Dejanira, and the Centaur Nessus. xxxi. *Finding 
of the young Telephus suckled by the hind (from Herculaneum). 
Wounded iEneas. — In the passage to the room of the mosaics : 
xxxii. The infant Hercules strangling the snakes sent by Juno. — 
xxxiii. *Four important scenes from Herculaneum : Triumphant 
actor, with his mask exhibited as a votive offering ; Achilles and 
Antilochus (or Patroclus) ; Concert; Attiring of a bride. Also genre- 
scenes from Pompeii (paintress, etc.). — xxxi v. Admetus and Al- 
cestis receiving the answer of the oracle. — In the passage : xxxv. 
Comedy scenes, xxxvi. Chastisement of Dirce by Amphion and 
Zethus (same subject as the Farnese Bull, p. 64). Phaedra and Hip- 
polytus. Cimon nourished from the breast of his daughter Pero (a 
favourite subject with modern artists, known as 'Caritas Romana'). — 
xxxvii. Theseus after the slaughter of the Minotaur, xxxviii. Scenes 
from the forum of Pompeii : in the centre, a school (chastisement 
of a pupil), baker's shop ; small caricature of JEneas, Anchises, 
and Ascanias, represented with dogs' heads ; pensive maiden, with 
pencil. Several admirable busts of youthful subjects, two of which 
(to the left) have been restored as a Pompeian baker and his wife, 
xxxix. *Abduction of Brise'is from the tent of Achilles. *Achilles 
being taught the lyre by Chiron. Ulysses unrecognised by Penelope. 
Achilles recognised at Scyros. — xl. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (from the 
'House of the Tragic Poet'). *Orestes and Pylades in presence of 
Iphigenia at Tauris. — Adjacent to this room is the — 

V. Room. *Mosaics. In the centre, on the floor : Fettered lion 
amid Cupids and Bacchanalian figures. — On the entrance-wall, 
by the pillar: Theseus killing the Minotaur, three copies. Farther 
on, towards the window: in the centre, actor trained by a poet; 
above, skull, and other symbols, found on a table in a triclinium 
at Pompeii ; on the left and right comedy scenes (by Dioscurides of 
Samos, according to the inscription) ; partridges ; two cocks after 
the' fight. — Under the window : Animals of Egypt. — Farther on : 
*Acratus (companion of Bacchus) riding on a lion ; below, a *Gar- 
land with masks ; on the left, parrots ; on the right, a wild cat with 
a partridge, and fish, all excellent mosaics from the house of the 
Faun (p. 141). — Farther on, a chained dog with the warning 'Cave 
Canem' (from the threshold of the 'House of the Tragic Poet', p. 1 35). 
— Right wall : a large niche , probably intended for a fountain ; 
above it, Phryxus and Helle ; on the left, the three Graces, the 
marriage of Neptune and Amphi trite; on the right, quarrel of Achilles 
and Agamemnon. — We now retrace our steps, and follow the ar- 
rangement of the pictures which is continued through the passages 
from the 3rd Room to the 6th, which adjoins it on the other side. 

VI. Room: In the two passages, beginning next the window: 
xli-xliv. Rope-dancing Satyrs, *ITovering Centaurs, *Dancing Sa- 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 63 

tyrs and Bacchantes, etc. — Farther on : *xlv. Representations of 
Cupid ('Cupids for sale !'"). xlvi. Marriage of Zephyrus and Chloris 
(Lat. Flora), xlvii. The Ihree Graces, xlviii. Diana and Endymion 
(repeated several times) ; *Diana with a how, in a pensive attitude 
(pendant to the 'Girl gathering flowers' in Room III). — By the 
window to the left : xllx. Venus and Mars, several representations. 
Venus and Cupids, lii. Triumphal procession of Bacchus. Bacchus 
and Ariadne. — *liii. Dancers. 

VII. Room : lviii-lix. More ancient paintings from the tomhs of 
Ruvo, Gnatia, Piestum, Capua : lviii. Mercury as conductor of the 
dead. Funeral dance, lix. Samnite warriors in full armour, from 
Psestum. Gorgon head with Mussapian inscription. — lx. Narcissus 
in different attitudes, lxi-lxiii and lxv-lxvii. Landscapes from 
Pompeii , Herculaneum , and Stabise. *lxviii. Vulcan showing- 
Thetis the arms of Achilles (twice), lxx. Jupiter crowned by 
Victoria, lxxi. Io's arrival in Egypt. *Jupiter and Juno on Mount 
Ida. Io watched by Argus. Mercury giving the Syrinx to Argus. 
lxxii. Five * Drawings on Marble (monochromic) from Herculaneum : 
Achilles ('.') in a quadriga; (Edipus with Antigone and Ismene(?); 
Latona with Niobe and other women of Cadmus playing at dice 
(purporting to be by Alexandres of Athens); Scene from a tragedy. 
Theseus rescuing the bride of Pirithous from a Centaur (?). Similar 
drawing from Pompeii. Fragment of a representation of the fate of 
Niobe and her children. 

To the above collection belongs a corridor (entered from the 
vestibule of the Galleria Lapidaria, or by the 3rd door in the great 
vestibule) containing * Ornamental Paintings (Affreschi Orna- 
mentali) from Pompeii and Herculaneum, being mural decorations, 
some of them with raised stucco designs and reliefs. They aTe 
executed with taste and precision and deserve careful inspection. 

In the semicircular space, lxxxi. Valuable collection of deco- 
rative masks, lxxxii. Pillar with paintings from the 'Fullonica' 
at Pompeii (p. 141), showing the different processes of the handi- 
craft. The owl is the symbol of Minerva , the tutelary goddess of 
fullers, lxxxiv. *Fragments of a wall from Herculaneum. 

The two large central glass-doors of the vestibule on the right 
and left lead into Courts, filled with reliefs, statues, and archi- 
tectural fragments , many of which deserve the notice of connois- 
seurs. 

The wing connecting the W. part of the Museum with the 
E. (right) half contains the * Gallery of Inscriptions (Galleria 
Lapidaria, or Sala del Toro) , which has other entrances both 
from the collection of the ornamental paintings and from the sec- 
ond room of the ancient pictures (p. 61). 

The collection comprises upwards of 2000 Latin inscriptions, 
others in Oscan, and engraved (graffiti) and painted (dipinti) mural 
inscriptions from Pompeii. The collection, which is arranged in 



64 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

accordance with the geographical situation of the different localities 
of discovery, consists chiefly of epitaphs, but also includes lauda- 
tory and other inscriptions. Among the hronze tables are the cele- 
brated Tables of Heraelea (p. 217; no. 82), bearing on one side 
regulations as to temple lands in the ancient Greek language, and 
on the other (inscribed at a later date) the Italian municipal laws 
promulgated by Caesar in B. 0. 40. A cabinet contains leaden pipes 
with inscriptions from aqueducts, etc. 

The following large sculptures are also placed here : to the left 
at the entrance a statue of Tiberius, to the right Atreus with the 
son of Thyestes ('?), sometimes taken for Hector with the body of 
Troilus (comp. Introd., p. xxxiii). 

In the Principal Room, on the left, is the celebrated group of 
the **Farnese Bull, a work of the Rhodian sculptors Apollonius and 
Tauriscus, once in possession of Asinius Pollio, and found in 1546 
in the Thermae of Caracalla at Rome in a sadly mutilated condition. 
The restoration of the group was superintended by Michael Angelo. 
The two sons of Antiope, Amphion and Zethus, avenge the wrongs 
of their mother by binding Dirce, who had treated her with the 
greatest cruelty for many years, to the horns of a wild bull. An- 
tiope in the background exhorts them to forgiveness. The boldness 
and life of the group , originally hewn out of a single block of 
marble, is unrivalled in any other work of the same character 
(comp. Introd., pp. xxxi-xxxiii). The new parts are the head of 
the bull , the Antiope , with the exception of the feet , the upper 
parts of Dirce and considerable portions of Amphion and Zethus. 

Opposite, on the right side of the room, stands the so-called 
**Farnese Hercules, also from the Thermae of Caracalla, where it 
was found in 1540. The legs were at first wanting, but were re- 
stored by Delia Porta; twenty years later the genuine missing por- 
tions were discovered, and having been presented by Prince Borghese 
to the King of Naples, were restored to the statue. The end of the 
nose, the left hand, and part of the left arm are new. 

The hero holds in his right hand the golden apples of the Hesperides, 
the sign of his successful accomplishment of the eleventh of the labours 
imposed on him by King Eurystheus, and leans, faint and weary, on his 
i-luli. The conception differs wholly from the triumphant victor of the 
early legend, and would alone stamp the work as one of a comparatively 
recent period. This conclusion is strengthened by the mannerism appa- 
rent in the over-strained effort to express great muscular strength. Ac- 
cording to the inscription , it is the work of the Athenian Glycon, and 
was probably executed under the early emperors, possibly on the model 
of a statue by Lysippus. 

Descending a staircase in this hall , and passing through a 
room containing Christian Inscriptions from the catacombs of Rome 
and Naples built into the walls , we reach the Egyptian Anti- 
quities, a considerable number of which were purchased from Car- 
dinal Horgia's collection at Velletri. The arrangement is complete, 
with the exception of the numbering. 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 65 

1st Room. In the centre Serapis , found in the vestibule of the 
Serapeum at Pozzuoli. Isis, a marble statuette from the temple of Isis 
at Pompeii, holding a sistrum and the keys of the Nile, with interesting 
traces of gilding and painting. On the short wall, Horus with a dog's head. 
The cabinets contain a vahiable collection of small statuettes. 

2nd Room. In the centre: by the window, a granite tombstone with twenty- 
two figures in relief and hieroglyphics. Egyptian priest, a so-called 'Pasto- 
phorus' , in black basalt. By the walls six glass cabinets with all kinds of 
trinkets, etc. To the right of the entrance, the second immured tablet is the so- 
called 'Table of Isis\ from the temple of Isis at Pompeii. By the window- 
wall a papyrus with Greek writing, dating from the 2nd or 3rd cent. , which 
with forty others was found at .Memphis in a chest of sycamore wood, 
and contains names of the canal labourers on the Nile. Opposite the 
entrance a, number of mummies of men, women, and children , some of 
them divested of their cerements and admirably preserved (the skull of 
a female mummy still retains the hair). Also the mummy of a crocodile. 

The left (W.") half of the ground-floor contains the valuable 
collection of marble sculptures and the bronzes. 

The **Collection of Marble Sculptures occupies the great 
corridor with three branches, and the rooms situated beyond the 
second branch. The new arrangement in accordance with the 
local and historical position of the works is practically complete. 
It is best to begin with the N. corridor (third door on the left from 
the vestibule), the — 

Corridor of the Masterpieces (Portico de* Capolavori), 
which contains the finest works in the collection , affording a 
review of the development of the ancient plastic art from the 
5th cent. B.C. down to the reign of Hadrian and his successors. 
This part of the collection in particular supplies the visitor with 
an admirable illustration of the history of ancient art, and includes 
moreover several works of the highest merit. 

*897. Hera (Farnese Juno), in the early style, austere in ex- 
pression and the clearest representation extant of the ideal of Poly- 
cletus (Introd. , p. xxix) ; it is a replica of a bronze original, in which 
the eyes were of some other material, and was intended to be joined 
to a statue. — *896. Orestes and Electra, a group which has given 
rise to much discussion, probably belonging to the revived archaic 
style introduced by Pasiteles towards the end of the republic (In- 
trod., p. xxxiii). — *895. Pallas, archaic style, from Herculaneum. 
— 894. Artemis, an archaic statuette found at Pompeii, with nu- 
merous traces of painting (gold on the rosettes of the head-dress, 
red on the edges of the robe, the quiver-band, and the sandals"). 

*892, 893. Harmodius and Aristogeiton (head of Aristogeiton 
ancient, but originally belonging to some other statue). 

After the expulsion of Hippias in 510 B. C. the Athenians erected in 
the Agora statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, the slayers of the tyrant 
Hipparchus. This group, the work of Antenor , was carried away by 
Xerxes in 480 and replaced in 478 by another executed by Kritios and 
Nesiotes. The original statues were afterwards restored to Athens by 
Alexander the Great or one of his successors, and the two groups stood 
side by side in the market-place, where they were seen by Pausanias the 
historian (2nd cent, of our era). The statues in the museum are a copy 
Baedeker. Italy III. 7th Edition. 5 



66 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

of one op other of these groups, both of which were in bronze and pro- 
bably alike in all essential details. — Comp. Introd., p. xxx. 

887. Athlete, from the palaestra of Pompeii, the left hand missing, 
as in other examples of the same statue ; it is supposed to be a 
replica of the Doryphorus of Polycletus ; comp. Introd., p. xxix. 

888. Dying Amazon, Dead Persian, Dead Giant (or Gaul ?), and 
Wounded Gaul, of the Pergamenian school. 

King Attalus I. of Pergamus, having in 239 B. C. gained a decisive 
victory over the Uauls who had invaded Jlysia, erected on the Acropolis 
at Athens four groups of marble statues as a votive offering for his deliver- 
ance. These represented the triumph of civilisation and culture over brute 
force, as typified in the contests of the Gods and the Giants, the Athenians 
and the Amazons, the Athenians and Persians at Marathon, and lastly of 
Attalus himself and the Celts. They have been described by Pausanias 
(see above). The statues in this museum are undoubtedly parts of the 
original monument, and there are other figures from it at Home and Venice. 
The time when they were brought to Italy is unknown, but cannot have 
been sooner than the capture of Athens by the Crusaders in 1205. (The 
exquisite reliefs recently discovered at Pergamus and now at Berlin were 
erected by Attalus in his own capital in commemoration of the same victory.) 

886. Adonis, freely restored. — *885. Venus of Capua, so called 
from having been found at Capua in the middle of the 18th century. 

It is uncertain how this statue, which greatly resembles the Venus 
of Milo in the Louvre, ought to be restored. The arms, the nose, and 
part of the mantle are modern. On Corinthian coins Venus, the tutelary 
goddess of the city, is represented in a similar attitude, in the act of 
using a shield as a mirror, but it is possible that the Capuan statue had 
a iigure of Mars standing beside her, from whom she was taking his sword. 
It was at one time imagined that a iigure of Cupid at the feet of his mother 
formed part of the original group, but this idea has been given up. The 
statue is held to be a work of the Iionian period (as the representation of 
the pupil of the eye indicates), but was probably a copy of a Greek original. 

*884. Aeschines , the Athenian orator (389-314 B. C.) and 
champion of Philip of Macedon against Demosthenes , a statue 
found in the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. 

Though the drapery is inferior to that of the admirable statue of 
Sophocles in the Lateran Collection at Rome, there is little doubt that 
this is a copy of an old Greek original. It was once erroneously called 
Aristides, but its resemblance to the henries of Aeschines with his name 
attached at the Vatican proves its identity. 

*882. Psyche of Capua, sadly mutilated; she was probably 
represented with her hands bound behind her, being tortured by 
Cupid, but the state in which the figure now is makes certainty on 
this point impossible. — *881. Venus Callipygus, so called from 
that part of her body towards which she is looking, found in the 
imperial palaces at Rome ; the head, breast, right leg, right hand, 
and left arm are modern. 

The adjacent room to the right contains a large basin in por- 
phyry, valuable columns, a marble basin, etc. — *879. Homer, a 
beautiful bust, the finest of all the ideal representations of the 
great poet. 

'I must own that nothing has ever given me a higher idea of Grecian 
sculpture, than the fact that it. has been able to conceive and represent these 
features. A blind poet and minstrel — nothing more — was given. And 
starling with (his simple theme Hie artist has made the nged brow and 
cheek instinct with supernatural mental effort and prophetic inspiration, 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 67 

combined with that perfect serenity which ever characterises the Mind. Each 
stroke of the chisel is full of genius and marvellous vitality'. — Burckhardl . 

*880. Satyr , carrying the child Bacchus on his shoulder ; 
878. Pallas, archaic, from Velletri ; 874, 876. Brutus and Pompey, 
two busts found in a house in Pompeii in 1869 ; 875. Juno; 877. 
Nereid, on a sea-monster. — *873. Agrippina the Younger, mother 
of Nero, a sitting portrait-statue, made at an advanced age. 

The artist has almost entirely suppressed the individuality of the 
notorious wife of Claudius, and has created a figure of great nobility. 
The face expresses mournful reflection and resignation. The attitude and 
mien, like those of the well-known statue of the elder Agrippina in the 
Roman Capitol, are an admirable example of the way in which noble 
Roman matrons liked to be represented. The hands are modern. 

*872. Antinous, the favourite of Hadrian. Busts of (870) An- 
toninus Pius, (869) Plotina, and (868) Caracalla. *867. Torso of 
Venus, *871. Torso of Bacchus, two genuine Greek works, the 
Venus probably not much more recent than the Venus of Cnidus 
by Praxiteles (4th cent. B.C.). 

The Corridor of Portrait Statues and Busts, which we 
next enter , is sometimes called the Portico dei Balbi, from the 
noble family of that name, the most distinguished at Herculaneum. 

To the right, at the N. end of the corridor, torsi, dogs, leopards, 
boar sacrifices, small equestrian statue of a 'warrior (freely restored). 
*88. Equestrian Statue of M. Nonius Balbus, found , like that of 
his son at the opposite end of the passage (No. 68, below), in the 
basilica of Herculaneum. Farther on, the fourth statue on the left, 
84. Statue of the Priestess Eumachia of Pompeii , erected by the 
fullers in her honour (p. 132); 83. Statue of Marcus Holconius 
Rufus, a Roman military tribune, and five times mayor of Pom- 
peii ; 82, 85. Two orators from Pompeii. — Then Roman Portrait 
Busts, with pedestals in the Roman style, in two rows, one above 
the other: in the lower, 109, 110, 111. Three examples of a so- 
called Seneca ; Attilius Regulus ; Brutus the younger; Brutus the 
elder ; in the upper row, Cicero. — Farther on, in the centre, 80. 
Double hermes of an unknown Greek and Roman, and 77. Double 
hermes of Herodotus and Thucydides. Between these, two sitting 
statuettes, one of them, 78, representing the poet Moschion. The 
room containing the Battle of Alexander here opens to the right 
(see p. 69), in the entrance to which, on the left, is 160. Socrates, 
a hermes with a Greek inscription. Near the entrance, to the left : 
*159. M. Nonius Balbus, the father; *158. Viciria Archas, the 
wife of Balbus, a stately matron. Farther on, to the left, 71-75, 
a son and four daughters, on the same pedestal (a fifth daughter of 
the group is in the Dresden Museum). All of these are honorary 
statues which the municipal council of Herculaneum erected to the 
family in the theatre. — Next come two rows of Greek Busts, 
one above the other, in the Greek hcrmal form. Below, 166, 168, 
169. Euripides; 170. Socrates; 171. Aratus, the astronomer; 172. 
Zeno ; 174. Poseidonius ; 176. Sophocles; 178. Carneades; 179. 

5* 



68 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

Herodotus; 180. Lysias ; 182. Agathocles. Above, 185. Themisto- 
cles ; 186. Periander ; 187. Solon; 200. Demosthenes. (Many of 
the busts, both Greek and Roman, are either unknown or errone- 
ously named.) — *68. Equestrian Statue of Balbus the Younger, 
'praetor and proconsul'. — Genre figures of children ; a hunter. 
Several Dacians from the Forum of Trajan at Rome ; two barbarians 
as supporters, in pavonazetto, the head and hands in basalt. 

We now pass by the statue of the younger Balbus into the — 
Corridor op the Roman Kmperors (Portico degli Imperadori), 
the arrangement of which begins at the farther end, by the en- 
trance from the passage. It contains statues and busts in chrono- 
logical order, of a more or less ideal character. Left, *67. Cae- 
sar, a bust. Right, 1. Statue of Caesar. L. 66. Augustus, a statue, 
sitting; 65. Livia; 63. Tiberius, a bust; 62. Drusus, a statue from 
Pompeii; 60. Caligula, with reliefs on his armour; 59. Claudius, 
a sitting statue ; 57. Nero, a bust ; 56. Vitellius, a statue ; 55. 
Claudius, 54. Otho, busts ; 53. Titus, a colosssal bust. R. 15. 
Vespasian, a colossal bust. L. 50. Trajan, a statue ; 49. Plotina, 
a bust. R. 14, 16. Hadrian, busts. L. 48. Hadrian, bust; 46. 
Antoninus Pius, 45. Marcus Aurelius, 44. Faustina, busts ; 43. 
Lucius Verus, a statue. Then, 38. Septimius Severus, 32. Probus, etc. 
The Seven Rooms beyond the Portico dei Balbi also have 
their contents arranged according to subjects. Among much that 
is mediocre there are a few works of great excellence. The ar- 
rangement begins with the gods , in the room opposite the en- 
trance to the collection of bronzes (p. 70). 

I. Room: Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana, Ceres. In the centre, 
225. Apollo, in a sitting posture, in porphyry, the head and hands 
in marble; a work of the decline of art during the imperial period, 
when a taste prevailed for rare kinds of stone which were difficult 
to work. Right: 228. Diana of Ephesus, in yellow alabaster, the 
head, hands, and feet in bronze ; her symbols indicate the fecundity 
of the goddess of nature. Left: 244. Apollo, in basalt. Posterior 
wall: *240. Jupiter, a bust from the temple of Pompeii (p. 133); 
239. Jupiter, colossal half-statue from Cumse; on the right, 232. 
Hermes of the ram-horned Jupiter Ammon. 

II. Room : Venus, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Bacchus. Among 
the numerous Statues of Venus (eight from Pompeii, including 276, 
a statuette found in 1873, interesting from its being painted) are 
several with portrait-heads. In the centre, 254. Mars, sitting. 275. 
Mercury. 

III. Room: Satyrs, Ganymede, Cupid, Cybele, etc. — Left: 
Satyr with a bunch of grapes; *343. Pan teaching the flute; 317, 
322. Ganymede with the eagle ; *320. Winged Cupid, supposed 
to be a replica of an original by Praxiteles. In the centre : 298. 
Cupid encircled by a dolphin, fountain-figure; 297. Atlas, bearing 
the globe; 314. Paris; *312. /Esculapius, from Rome. On the 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 69 

short wall : Masks of river-gods, once used as water-spouts. 307. 
Nymph before the bath. Three Priestesses of Jsis. 301. Cybele, 
the mother of the gods, enthroned. 

IV. Room : Statues of Muses from Herculaneum and Rome ; 
several figures of Hercules. By the window, 366. Head of Ajax. 
In the centre, 349. Amazon, falling from her horse ; *350. Hercules 
and Omphale, a group in the genre style ; 351. Roman Soldier, an 
equestrian statue. 

V. Hall of the Flora. By the principal wall : *384. The 
Farnese Flora, found in the Baths of Caracalla at Rome, at the 
same time as the Hercules and the Bull (p. 64). It is probably a 
work of the early Roman empire, when the dubious taste for repro- 
ducing smaller Greek originals on a colossal scale had already 
manifested itself. The figure, however, is charming in spite of its 
huge proportions. As the head, arms, and feet were missing when 
the statue was found, and were restored by Giacomo della Porta, 
and afterwards by Albaccini and Taglioni, it is not improbable that 
the figure once represented a Venus instead of a Flora. It has also 
been suggested that it may be a 'Hora', a 'Dancing Muse', or a 
'Hebe'. — In front of it is the ** Mosaic of the Battle of Alexander, 
found in 1831 in the house of the Faun at Pompeii. This work, 
which is almost the only ancient historical composition in existence, 
represents the battle at the moment when Alexander, whose helmet 
has fallen from his head , charges Darius with his cavalry, and 
transfixes the general of the Persians who has fallen from his 
wounded horse. The chariot of the Persian monarch is prepared 
for retreat, whils in the foreground a Persian of rank, in order to 
ensure the more speedy escape of the king, who is absorbed in 
thought at the sight of his expiring general, oilers him his horse 
(Introd. p. xli). ■ — Also four statues of gladiators. 

VI. Room : Reliefs. In the centre, *3S7. a beautiful * Marble 
Vase with a relief : Mercury, followed by dancing Bacchanalian 
figures, gives the young Bacchus to a nymph to be brought up. 
According to the inscription it is the work of a certain Salpion of 
Athens; it was found atFormia, and was long used as a font in 
the cathedral of Gaeta(comp. Introd., p. xxxiii). The traditions 
of a more archaic style have been applied here with great adroit- 
ness. — To the left of the entrance, also on a pedestal, 390. a 
fountain enclosure with seven gods: Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, -<Escu- 
lapius, Bacchus, Hercules, and Mercury. There are also three other 
fountain enclosures in the centre. — By the wall, to the left of the 
entrance, 657. an early Attic Cippus, of the middle of the 5th 
century. Then a beautiful Trapezophorus (pedestal of a table), with 
Centaur and Nereid; also sarcophagi, fountain-masks, and numer- 
ous oscilla, or reversible marble discs and masks, which used to 
be hung up by way of ornament between the columns of peristyles. 

VII. Room : Reliefs. Left: *673. Aphrodite, seconded by Peitho 



70 Routed. NAPLES. Museum. 

(persuasion), endeavouring to induce Helen to follow Paris (Alexan- 
dras), who with Cupid stands before her, a Greek work ; 676. 
Bacchanal ; *679. Youth with three maidens, usually termed Apollo 
with the Graces (or Alcibiades with three hetserse) ; 669. Sarcopha- 
gus : Bacchanalian procession. — On the pillar between the win- 
dows : 695. Gladiator contests from the monument of Scaurus at 
Pompeii (p. 138); 694. Sarcophagus with Prometheus and man as 
yet uninspired with life, surrounded by beneficent gods. — Third 
wall : 704. Tropaeum, framed with Caryatides. Above : Banchetto 
d'feario, or Bacchus feasting with the Attic prince Icarius , the 
legendary founder of the Satyric drama ('Drama Satyrikon') ; the 
train of the god includes the muse Melpomene , Silenus , and 
several Satyrs. Above: Cupids in the circus. — 710. Nymph defend- 
ing herself against a satyr. 713. Serpen Nymphs, with names at- 
tached : Euphrosyne, Aglaia, Thalia, Ismcne, Cycais, Eranno, and 
Telonnesus. Below, a Bacchanalian procession. *714. Orpheus and 
Eurydice, v/iihHermes, in the infernal regions (see Introd., p. xxx). 
— Fourth wall : Sarcophagi. 733, 742, 755. Three representations 
of Asiatic provinces. — In the centre : 664. Honorary Pedestal 
from Pozzuoli , with figures representing fourteen towns of Asia 
Minor which the Emp. Tiberius rebuilt after an earthquake, each 
figure being furnished with its name. In the middle, two large 
Candelabra, with herons, and two Bacchic * Vases. 

In the adjoining Passage are handsome ornamental works in 
marble: *Tables with basins for fountains; candelabra, among 
which is a*Stooping Sphinx from Pompeii ; feet of tables ; tables. — 
From this passage we again enter the Portico dei Balbi (see p. 67). 

At the S. end of the Portico dei Balbi is the entrance to the 
**Collection of Bronzes, most of which are from Herculaneum, and 
a few only from Pompeii. Their respective origins are distinguished 
by their different colours. The bronzes of Herculaneum are of a 
dark, black-green hue, while those of Pompeii, which were much 
more exposed to moisture, are oxydised, and of a light, bluish green 
colour. This collection is unrivalled, and deserves careful and re- 
peated inspection. The number and magnitude of the works, the 
delicate treatment adapted to the material, and the skilful mastery 
of every kind of difficulty in casting and chiselling afford an ex- 
cellent insight into the high development of this branch of art 
in ancient times. 

1. Room : Animals. 2. Colossal horse's head, found at Naples, 
formerly in the Pal. Colobrano (S. Angelo), and long supposed to 
be the cognisance of the city. It belonged to a horse which is said 
to have stood in the vestibule of the temple of Neptune (S. Gen- 
naro), and to have been destroyed by the clergy on account of the 
veneration with which it was regarded. *1. Horse from Hercula- 
neum, belonging to a quadriga, and reconstructed from minute 
fragments. 3, 4. Two deer. 14, 15, 16. Boar attacked by two dogs. 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 71 

Several animals once used as fountain-figures. — In the corners 
of the room : by the entrance, to the left, and by the opposite exit, 
two Greek Hermes, perhaps intended for a palaestra, the projecting 
props being for the support of wreaths. The first bears the name 
of the sculptor, Apollonius, son of Archias of Athens. At the 
entrance, on the right, 19. So-called Sappho ; opposite, *20. Diana 
Shooting, a half-figure. 

II. Room: Statuettes. In the centre: 61. Bacchus with a Satyr 
(eyes inserted, as In many of the others). Two equestrian statuettes. 
58. Amazon ; 57. Alexander the Great. *59. Venus arranging her 
hair, originally with a mirror in her left hand. 60. Flying Victory, 
on a globe. 62. Angling Fisherman, a fountain-figure. 63. Boy with 
goose. — Beyond the last, **51. Dancing Faun, marking the time 
by snapping his fingers, found in 1853 in the large house at Pom- 
peii called the 'Gasa del Fauno' (p. 141). — In front of it, **55. 
So-called **Narcissus , perhaps a Pan listening to Echo, one of 
the most charming antique statues extant, both in conception and 
execution, found at Pompeii in 1862. *56. Silenus, used as the 
bearer of a vase (with handle very unsuitably made in imitation of 
the body of a serpent), found at Pompeii in 1864; the air of 
exertion is admirably lifelike. — To the right of the right entrance 
to the following room : 54. Hermes of L. Caecilius Jucundus, a 
Pompeian banker (see p. 143), erected by his freedman Felix. — 
The window-cabinet contains a number of Boys with pipes or masks, 
once used as fountain-figures. Silenus with a panther. Youthful 
Bacchus. In the middle, bust of Galba, in silver. — In the cabinet 
to the right beyond the window are all kinds of Fancy Figures, 
chiefly gladiators. Small Busts: Demosthenes, Epicurus, Zeno, 
Augustus. Hands with quaint emblems, used as amulets to avert 
the danger of the 'evil eye'. Above these, Lares (household gods), 
youths adorned with wreaths and bearing drinking-horns and vase?. 
— Opposite the window : Statuettes of Gods : Hercules, Victoria, 
Fortuna, Bacchus, Mercury, Minerva, Jupiter, etc. — Wall of the 
entrance : Etruscan Mirrors, the backs adorned with engraved scenes. 

III. Principal Room. In the centre : *48. Drunken Faun. On 
each side (Nos. 42, 45) a copy of the statue of a Runner, or, more 
probably, two Wrestlers about to engage. To the right beyond 
those : *40. Apollo playing the lyre, from Pompeii, a work of the 
archaistic school of Pasiteles, about the beginning of the Empire. 
To the left beyond it, 41. Apollo Shooting. On the right before 
the latter, *46. Head of Apollo in the archaic style. **44. Mercury 
Reposing, a beautiful picture of elastic youth at a moment of 
relaxation ; the wings attached to the feet and the remains of the 
caduceus in the hand identify the messenger of the gods. To the 
left before the last: *47. Head of Seneca, so called, but probably 
the head of a bearded barbarian. *43. Sleeping Satyr. — Along 
the walls, beginning on the right by the entrance near the window : 



72 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

26. Statue of Nero Drusus, sacrificing; 27. Bust of the youthful 
Hercules (formerly called Marcellus) ; 28. Apollo, a statuette ; 29. 
Female Portrait-statue ; *30. Sacrificing Boy (caniillus). — Farther 
on: 31. Bust of Sulla (?); 32. Female Portrait-statue (Livia, con- 
sort of Augustus). Between the doors, on a truncated column, 33. 
So-called Archytas of Tarentum, with a fillet round his head ; above 
it, on a bracket, 34. Ptolemy Philadelphus. *35-d7. Three Dancing 
Women, from the theatre of Herculaneum (three corresponding 
figures on the opposite side). On a short column, 30. Heraclitus{^!) 
the philosopher. On a bracket above it, 39. Male Portrait-head. — N. 
Wall: 6. Male Portrait-head ; 7. So-called Antonia, wife of Drusus, 
a statue ; *ti. Female Head with hair restored (erroneously called 
Ptolemy Apion) ; 9. Statue of a Roman Magistrate. — 10. Portrait- 
head ; 11. Statue of Augustus as Jupiter; 12. Portrait-head; 13. 
Statue of Claudius. *14. So-called Head of Berenice, admirably 
modelled (eyes and lips lined with silver when discovered). 15. 
Roman Magistrate ; 16. Portrait head; 17. Female Portrait-statue 
as a 'Pieta', from Herculaneum (mother of BalbusV). 18. Portrait- 
head. — Farther on, on a short column between the doors, *19. De- 
mocritus(l). On a console, 20. Lepidus. 21, 22, 23. Three Dancing 
Women from Herculaneum (see above). On a short column, *24. 
Head of Dionysus, probably the finest embodiment of the ideal of 
the older, bearded, or Indian Bacchus (comp. the relief, 'Banchetto 
d'Icario', p. 70), as already accepted in the 6th cent. B.C.; this 
head was formerly called Plato, from its resemblance to the genuine 
busts of that philosopher. Above it :*25. Young Tiberius. 

IV. Room: "Weapons. In the centre, *5. Equestrian Statue of 
Nero, found at Pompeii (p. 135). By the window : 3. Bust of Scipio 
Africanus. Opposite, 4. Lust ofC. Caesar. — The cabinets contain a 
choice Collection of Weapons (detailed descriptions hung up at the 
entrance). — E. Wall : Greek armour, helmets, and weapons, found 
at Paestum, Ruvo, and Canosa. — N. Wall : Helmets of gladiators 
and richly decorated armour from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Above 
these, 283. Helmet with the Taking of Troy ; 288. Shield with head 
of the Medusa. — W. Wall : Italian weapons ; among them a cock, 
a Samnite boundary figure from Pietrabbondante (Bovianum). — 
S. Wall. Catapult balls, etc. 

B. Entresol. 

The Entresol (Ital. Mezzanino) contains on the right the Re- 
naissance objects, and beyond them the ancient crystals and 
terracottas, on the left the Cumaean collection and the 'Oontrolleria' 
or inspector's office. 

The Collection of Renaissance Works (Raccolta dtgli Oygetti 
del Cinijuecento) is arranged in two rooms, which were restored in 
lr>80. — 1. Room. In the centre: a large bronze tabernacle the 
design ascribed to Michael Anyelo, executed by Jttcopo Sicdin.no 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 73 

Left : bust in bronze of Ferdinand of Arragon. Busts in marble of 
Paul III. and Charles V. Right : Medusa after Canova. An altar 
with reliefs in marble of the German school, representing the 
Passion in seven sections. — II. Room : Indian and Chinese 
paintings, and other Asiatic curiosities. The cabinets contain 
weapons, seals, carved amber and ivory, etc. — To the right of the 
entrance into the following room are mural paintings from Pompeii, 
representing the fight between the Pompeians and Nucerines in 
the amphitheatre (p. 125). 

The next room contains the Collection of Ancient Crystal 
( Vetri), the most extensive of the kind in existence , showing the 
numerous ways in which it was used by the ancients. Several panes 
of glass from the villa of Diomedes should be inspected ; also a 
beautifully cut-glass *Vase with white Cupids and foliage on a 
blue ground, discovered in 1837 in a tomb in the Street of the 
Tombs at Pompeii , when it was filled with ashes. By the wall 
facing the window , to the right , are some medicine-phials from 
Pompeii. 

Adjacent is the Collection of Ancient Terracottas. — I. Room : 
Common earthenware articles for household use. Among them 
are vessels with beans, wheat, almonds, egg-shells, plums, 
olives , etc. from Pompeii. In the middle, *Statuette in a sit- 
ting posture of a bearded man with a tragic aspect, from Pom- 
peii. In the passage to the second room, on the left Artemis, right 
Medusa. — II. Room. Several Etruscan sarcophagi with recumbent 
figures on the lids. Numerous lamps. In the cabinets figures of 
small animals : horses, pigs, birds, also hands and other votive- 
offerings, such as are still to be seen in Roman Catholic churches : 
infant in swaddling-clothes, legs, right half of a human figure. 
By the window, to the right, a colossal Juno ; left, Jupiter from 
the small temple of ^Esculapius at Pompeii (p. 148). By the door 
of egress, to the right, the fragments of the celebrated Volscian 
relief from Velletri , in the ancient Italian style, with traces of 
colouring: warriors on horseback and in chariots. — III. Room: 
Lamps, goblets, votive limbs ; in the cabinets opposite the door 
interesting heads, detached, and in relief, also statuettes. By the 
window two comic figures, in front of them a small painted statu- 
ette. By the window-wall, to the right, Etruscan cists ; to the 
left, Brinking-vessels. By the wall of egress, fine reliefs and 
statuettes in terracotta; also moulds employed in their execution. 

The central story contains , on the left , the Cumaean Col- 
lection, which was purchased by the Prince of Carignano from 
the heirs of the Count of (Syracuse and presented to the Museum. 
It consists chiefly of vases, terracottas, and bronzes found at Cumai 
(see p. 105). By the window of the First Room an elegant jewel- 
casket in wood, with several gold ornaments. In the Skuond Room 
tables with small objects in bronze, gold, and crystal ; an interest- 



74 Routed. NAPLES. Museum. 

iiig head in wax from a Roman tomb. Among the vases at the 
window is a fine specimen of the later Attic style, under glass, 
representing a battle between Amazons and Greeks. 

C. Upper Floor. 

From the top of the stairs we first turn to the left to the 
E. wing. On opposite sides of the passage which wo enter are 
two rooms containing Copies of Pompeian Pictures, Remains of 
Food, and other objects from Pompeii. 

The copies of Pompeian pictures merit careful inspection, as they 
serve to convey an idea, of the brilliant colouring of these ancient walls 
when they were first discovered. The Room on the Left also contains 
several glass cabinets with "Articles of Food and Objects in Common Use 
ut Pompeii. In the centre a handsome bottle with oil. In the round 
glass cabinet by tie window: below, a double pan with meat; in the 
centre a glass vessel with barley; above, glass tubes with olives. — In 
the glass cases to the right, beyond the window: net-work and netting- 
needles, bones, eggs, remains of fish, almonds, onions, dates, nuts, pears, 
etc. ; also fifteen round loaves, one of which bears the baker's name, Q. 
Craning, stamped upon it. In the glass cases to the right of the en- 
trance: snails 1 and other shells, tortoises, clothing materials, straw 
sandals, purse with three coins (from the Villa ofDiomedes), corks, net- 
work, etc. 

In the Room on the Right: a glass cabinet containing the skull, 
arm, and impression of the breast in compressed ashes , of a girl, found 
in the Villa of Diomedes. "Model in wood of the 'House of the Tragic 
Poet' at Pompeii (p. 135). Models of the amphitheatres of Pompeii and 
Capua. Models of the temples of Peestum. 

Next, on the right, is the Library of the Papyri. 

This collection was discovered in a villa near Ilereulaneum in 175?. 
The rolls were completely encrusted with carbonaceous matter, and it 
was only by slow degrees that the real value of the discovery was 
appreciated. About 3000 were discovered, of which 1800 only have been 
preserved. The thin layers of the bark (libri) of the papyrus plant, each 
of the breadth of one column of writing, are pasted together and rolled 
on rods, and the difficulties encountered in disengaging them may be 
imagined. The task was long attempted in vain , until the Padre Piaggi 
invented an ingenious machine by which the difficulty was removed. 
Several of these may be seen at work in the second room. About six 
hundred of these libri have been by degrees unrolled, and whatever of 
their contents has escaped obliteration has been published in the Volumina 
Heracloensia. The library belonged to a follower of the Epicurean school, 
and the recovered MSS. are by no means of general interest. They con- 
tain treatises in Greek by the Epicurean Philodemus, a contemporary of 
Cicero, on nature, music, rhetoric, etc. — Here, in a separate room, are 
also preserved the triptych 8 (about 300) found in a carbonised box at Pom- 
mpeii in June 1875, containing receipts for money advanced by L. Cse- 
cilius .Tucundus, a Pompeian banker (comp. p. 143). 

In the room oppos te copies of paintings are kept for sale. 

Following the passage in a straight direction , we next enter 
the *First Section of the Picture Gallery, containing paintings 
of the Italian schools (the Neapolitan excepted) , and including 
several of the finest works in the collection. Catalogues at the en- 
trance of each room. 

I. Room (Roman School"). *•). Claude, Ouay at sunset; 12. 
School of Raphael^'), Female Portrait; 27. Sassofcrrato, Adoration 



■Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 75 

of the Shepherds; 28. School of Raphael, Madonna delle Grazic; 
47. Pannini, Charles III. entering St. Peter's at Rome; 51. R. 
Mengs, Ferdinand IV. at the age of twelve ; 53. Pannini, Charles III. 
visiting Benedict XIV. 

II. Room (Schools of Parma and Genoa). 2. Bernardo Strozzi, 
Portrait of a Capuchin; 10. Parmigianino , Holy Family; 11. 
School of Correggio (?), Study of a head ; 12. Parmigianino, Ma- 
donna and Child; 15, 20, 35, 37. Other examples of Parmigianino. 

III. Room (Schools of Lombardy and Parma). School of Leo- 
nardo, 11. John the Baptist, 15. Madonna with two donors of the 
picture; 16. Parmigianino, SS. Clara and Cihorius ; 17. Cesare 
da Sesto , Adoration of the Magi , one of the master's chief works 
(from Messina); *18. Leonardo's School (not Boltrafflo), The young 
Christ and John kissing each other; 19. Same School, Madonna. 

IV. Room (Venetian School). 1. Ahvise Vivarini , Madonna 
with two saints (1485); *5. Bartol. Vivarini, Madonna enthroned 
with saints (1465) ; 7. Ascribed to Oiorgione (erroneously, accord- 
ing to Mr. Crowe), Portrait of a Prince Antonello of Salerno (?) ; 10, 
13, 17, 25. Bern. Belotto, Architectural pieces ; 11. Jac. Bassano, 
Venetian lady; *15. Sebastian del Piombo , Pope Clement VII., 
sketch on slate ; 19. After Titian, Pope Paul III. (Farnese), possibly 
an original, but much damaged; *20. Titian, Pope Paul III. with 
Cardinal Alessandro and Ottavio Farnese, full of life, although 
somewhat sketchily handled; 23. Titian, Portrait of Alessandro 
Farnese, damaged; 24. In the style of Titian, Charles V. ; *32. 
Moretto, Christ scourged, a fine and carefully modelled little 
picture; 40. School of Mantegna, Suffering of Christ; *46. Man- 
tegna, St. Euphemia; 56. Lor. Lotto, Madonna with St. Peter 
Martyr. — Proceeding hence in a straight direction we reach the 
7th and 8th, and, turning to the right, the 5th and 6th rooms. 

V. Room. 1. Salvator Rosa, Christ and the Doctors in the 
Temple ; 2. Seb. del Piombo, Holy Family, executed under the in- 
fluence of Michael Angelo and Raphael (unfinished); *3. Correggio, 
Madonna, named la Zingarella (gipsy, from the headgear) or del 
Coniglio (rabbit), a charming idyllic composition, painted about 
1520; 4. Ant. van Dyck, Portrait; *5. Titian, Danae, painted at 
Rome in 1545, a voluptuous work, showing the master — at sixty- 
eight — ' still triumphing over every difficulty of art and possessed 
of all his youthful vigour; 6. Correggio ('.'), The Child Christ asleep. 

*7. Correggio, Betrothal of St. Catharine with the Infant Christ. 

This work, painted in 1517-18, is known as fc Il piccolo Sposalizio' in 
contra-distinction to the picture at the Louvre. 'The religious meaning 
of the legend has sunk onlirely into the background; the idea of the 
ecstatic vision of the Virgin saint, in which the betrothal symbolises the 
renunciation of the present and consecration for eternity, is lost in a 
cheerful scene of natural life'. — ^Correggio 1 , by Dr. Julius Mfyr. 

*8. Titian, Pope Paul III., painted in 1543, and in excellent 
preservation. 



76 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

'The pontiff's likeness is that of 'a strong man , gaunt and dry from 
age .... A forehead high and endless, a nose both long and slender, 
expanding to a tlat drooping bulb with flabby nostrils overhanging the 
mouth, an eye peculiarly small and bleary, a large and thin-lipped 
mouth, display the character of Paul Farnese as that of a fox whose 
wariness could seldom be at fault. The height of his frame, its size 
and sinew, still give him an imposing air, to which Titian has added 
by drapery admirable in its account of the under forms, splendid in 
the contrasts of its reds in velvet chair and silken stole and rochet, 
and subtle in the delicacy of its lawn whites.... The quality of life 
and pulsation so often conveyed in Titian's pictures is here in its highest 
development.... Both face and hands are models of execution, models 
of balance of light and shade and harmonious broken tones'. — ' Tllian\ 
by Crow & Caralcaselle. 

Ascribed to Correggio (erroneously), 9. Sketch of a Descent 
from the Cross; 10. Madonna and Child. 

*11. Titian, Philip II., probably painted in 1552-3 from a 
sketch made at Augsburg in 1550 by order of Charles V. 

The tirst painting from this sketch was sent to England to assist 
Philip in his suit for the hand of Mary Tudor, and is now at Madrid; the 
Naples picture is the second version, and is hardly inferior to the first. 

Riberu, 12. St. Sebastian, 13. St. Jerome listening to the 
trumpet of judgment, 14. St. Jerome; 15. Ouercino, Magdalene; 
16. Rubens, Monk. 

VI. Room is devoted to the Collection of Engravings 
(formed of the Firmian collection), consisting of 19,300 examples 
in 227 portfolios, which are exhibited by the custodian on appli- 
cation. This room also contains an admirable *Bust of Dante in 
bronze, said to have been modelled from a cast taken from the 
poet's features after death, and three busts of Pope Paul IV. (Ca- 
rafia) by Giuliano della Porta. On the walls are hung several 
*Drawings and sketches by great masters, among which may be 
mentioned: Michael Angelo, Group from the frescoes in the Cappella 
Paolina at Rome ; Raphael, Madonna col divino amore (see below); 
Michael Angelo, Venus and Cupid ; Raphael, Moses at the burning 
bush. 

VII. Room. 1. Ann. Carracci, Pieta(copy); 2. Schidone, St. 
Sebastian ; 3. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus ; *5. Oiulio Ro- 
mano, Holy Family, called Madonna del Gatto ; 0. Parinigianino, 
Madonna ('a tempera'); *7. Giov. Bellini, Transfiguration, with 
beautiful landscape ; 10. Marcello Venusti, Copy of Michael An- 
gelo's Last Judgment, before its disfigurement ; *11. I'erugino, 
Madonna; 12. Andrea del Sarto (?), Pope Clement VII.; 15. Luini, 
Madonna; *16. Giov. Bellini, Portrait; *17. Raphael^), Portrait 
of the Cavaliere Tihaldeo. 

*19. Andrea del Sarto, Copy of Raphael's portrait of Leo X., 
with Cardinals Giulio do' Medici and Rossi (1524). 

This admirable copy was sent by Clement VII. to the Marchese 
Federigo Gon/.aga of Mantua instead of the original he had promised fnow 
in the Pitti at Flnreiiee), and afterwards came lo Naples. Even Giulio 
lioni;ino was ibceived, till his atlenlion was directed lo a sign made on 
the copy liy Andre;i del .Sarto to distinguish the two works. Messrs. 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 77 

Crowe and Cavalcaselle miss in (his work 'the perfect keeping, ease 
grandeur, modelling, and relief of form', which characterise the ori-inal 

•21. Raphael (?), Portrait of Cardinal Passerini ; *22. Raphael, 
Holy Family (Madonna col diviiio amorc), of the master's Roman 
period; 24. Pietro Novelli, surnamed Monrealese, Trinity; 26. 
Garofalo, Descent from the Cross; *28. Palma Vecchio, Madonna 
with St. Jerome, John the Baptist, and donors, the most successful 
of the master's 'holy conversations', a noble composition sparkling 
with light in the dresses and landscape (C. & C); 30. Domeni- 
chino, Guardian angel; 31. Bronzino, Holy Family ; *32. Claude, 
Landscape, with accessories by Lauri; 34. Pinturicchio , As- 
sumption; 36. Titian, Repentant Magdalene; iO.LeandroBas.iano, 
Portrait of a Farnese ; 41. Parmigianino, Portrait; 43. Ouercino, 
St. Francis of Assisi ; 44. Andrea da Salerno, St. Benedict enthroned 
between SS. Placidus and Maurus, below the four great Church 
Fathers ; 47. Quido Rent, Race between Atalanta and Hippomencs ; 
49. Bourguignon, Battle; 51. Jac. Bassano, Raising of Lazarus; 
52. Mignard, Portrait of a prelate ; 53. School of Andrea del Sarto, 
Architect (Bramante?) showing a design to a nobleman; 55. Sain. 
Rosa, Battle ; 57. Seb. del Piombo, Portrait of Pope Hadrian VI. of 
Utrecht (1522-23) ; 58. Tintoretto, Don John of Austria ; 59. Ribera, 
Silenus and satyrs; 61. Fra Bartolommeo, Assumption (1516). 

VIII. Room. 4. Crayon copy of Velazquez s 'Drinkers', at Ma- 
drid; 11. Guido Reni, The Seasons; 24. Bronzino, Cupid and 
Bacchante. 

Returning to the exit, we may obtain, to the left, in passing, 
a glimpse through the central staircase at the principal hall of the 
Library. 

The collection embraces about 200,000 printed volumes and 4000 MSS. 
Catalogues for the use of visitors, by Cirillo and .Tannelli. Besides numerous 
ancient Italian works there are several valuable Greek and Latin MSS. 
(C.reek, Lycophron's Alexandra, Quintus Smyrneeus, date 1311, etc.; Latin, 
Charisius, Ars grammatica, the half burned MS. of Festus, a mass-book 
with beautiful miniatures of fruit and flowers , called la Flora, etc.). In 
the principal hall the custodian awakens a remarkably fine echo. Books 
are not lent out, but within the library three may be used at a time 
(9-3 o'clock). Readers enter from the street fnot through the museum) \>y 
the last door in the building, and ascend by the staircase to the right. 

The W. half of the Upper Floor, reached from the Grand Stair- 
case by ascending to the right, contains the precious relics, coins, 
half of the pictures, vases, and small bronzes. 

From the passage at the head of the staircase we turn to the 
right into a room containing the collection of Gold and Silver 
Ornaments and Gems. 

By thb Window, the celebrated *Tazza Farnese, a vessel of 
onyx with beautiful reliefs, the largest of its kind. On the out- 
side a large Medusa's head in relief; in the inside a group of seven 
persons, referred by some to the occasion of an inundation of the 
Nile, by others to a festival in spring, instituted by Alexander at 
the foundation of Alexandria. 



78 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

Tables in the Centre. The first near the window contains 
the Cameos, or stones out in relief, many of which are very inter- 
esting : *16. Zeus in conflict with the Titans, by Anthemion ; 32. 
Head of Medusa ; 44. A fine head of Augustus ; 05. Part of the 
group of the Farnese hull, said to have been used as a model at its 
restoration; below it, 1857. Head of a Vestal. — Adjacent are the 
Intagli , or stones on which the designs recede (so placed that the 
designs are seen through the stone) : 209. Ajax and Cassandra ; 
213. Apollo and Marsyas; *392. Bacchante. — A table in the next 
row also contains cameos and intaglios. — There is also an in- 
teresting table containing ancient Rings, including a gold ring 
with a male portrait, possibly of Brutus, with the artist's name 
Anaxilas. 

Three Cabinets by the wall to the right of the entrance contain 
well-executed Objects in Silver: Vases, goblets, tablets, spoons, 
buckles; also objects in ivory, medallion reliefs, etc. In the 1st 
Cabinet, six fine large vases. In the 2nd Cabinet, in the second 
compartment, six goblets with foliage, and a small sun-dial. In 
the 3rd Cabinet, in the upper compartment, vase in the shape 
of a mortar, with the apotheosis of Homer; three handsome 
tripods ; rings from Greek tombs at Armento in the Basilicata ; 
silver plate from the house of Meleager at Pompeii, including two 
handsome goblets with centaurs. 

Along the opposite wall, Objects in Gold. 1st Cabinet by the 
window, above, on the right: Nos. 1-4. Chain, bracelet, and a 
pair of earrings which were found with a female skeleton in the 
house of Diomedes at Pompeii ; then, 18G, 187. Two cloak-clasps ; 
two massive buckles in the form of serpents; diadem from Venosa; 
handsome necklaces, etc. Adjacent, on a column, under glass : 
large gold lamp from Pompeii, admirably executed and well pre- 
served. On a second column , also under glass : *Gold trinkets 
from a tomb at Taranto. Between the columns, gold ornaments 
from Pompeii, some of them embellished with pearls and precious 
stones. In the 2nd Cabinet, numerous gold rings, earrings, objects 
in crystal, etc. 

The next door to the right leads to the Reserved Cabinet (Rac- 
colta Pornografica), to which men only are admitted ; it contains 
mural and other paintings not adapted for public exhibition, and 
numerous bronzes, some of them of considerable artistic merit. 

Opposite the collection of Precious Relics , on the left side 
of the passage, is the Collection of Coins (Medagliere), which is 
of almost unrivalled value and extent. 

The First Room contains the Greek, the Skcond and Third the Ro- 
man, the Fourth the mediaeval coins, and the Fifth the dies of the 
Neapolitan mint, together with a numismatic library. Catalogues are 
placed over the glass-cases for the use of visitors. In the corners: 
Busts of distinguished numismatists. — The Mtiseo Santangelo (p. 80) 
adjoins the f>th room, hut is not accessible thence. 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 79 

We next proceed in a straight direction from the above-named 
passage to the comparatively uninteresting Second Section of the 
Picture Gallery, containing works of the Neapolitan, later Italian, 
and foreign schools. 

Room I. (Bolognese School). 1. Lavinia Fontana, Christ and 
the Samaritan woman ; 3. Ann. Carracci, Madonna and Child with 
St. Francis, painted on Oriental agate ; 9. Ouido Reni, Ulysses 
and Nausicaa; 15. Lionello Spada, Cain and Abel ; 38. Francesco 
Romanelli, Sibyl; 43. Ann. Carracci, Caricature of Caravaggio as 
a savage with a parrot and a dwarf, in the corner Carracci himself; 
47. Ouercino, Peter weeping ; 55. Ann. Carracci, Rinaldo and Ar- 
mida; 69. M. Caravaggio, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Ann. Car- 
racci, Landscape with St. Eustachius. 

Room II. (Tuscan School). 2. Jac. Pontormo, Copy of a Ma- 
donna by Andrea del Sarto; 5. Sodoma, Resurrection of Christ ; 
23. Filippo Mazzuola (of Parma), Pieta, and saints; 27. Lor. di 
Credi, Nativity; 31. Matteo da Siena, Massacre of the Innocents 
(dated 1482); 32. Florentine School, Madonna enthroned ; 34. Flo- 
rentine School, Pope Liberius founding S. Maria Maggiore (ad 
nives) at Rome ; Ang. Bronzino, 42. Young nobleman, 55. Female 
portrait. 

Room III. (Neapolitan School of the 14th, 15th, and 16th cent- 
uries). Pietro delDonzello, 1. Christ crucified between the two male- 
factors, 3. St. Martin ; 7. Antonio Solario, surnamed Lo Zingaro, 
Madonna and Child under a canopy, surrounded by eight saints ; 
21, 25, 32. Simone Papa, Crucifixion and Saints; 24. Andrea 
(Sabbatini) da Salerno, Miracles of St. Nicholas of Bari, sadly da- 
maged; *33. Andrea da Salerno, Adoration of the Magi, marked by 
all the freshness and grace of the S. Italian school, but also by the 
characteristically slight attention paid by it to correct handling. — 
Adjoining the third room are two rooms containing Byzantine and 
early Tuscan works, most of them badly preserved and freely 
restored, and Neapolitan paintings of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

Room IV. (Neapolitan School of the 16-18th centuries). 1. Do- 
menico Oargiulo, surnamed Micco Spadaro, Revolt of Masaniello 
in the Piazza del Mercato at Naples in 1647; 5. Gian Filippo 
Criscuolo, Adoration of the Magi ; 22, 27, 28, 30. "Works by Luca 
Giordano ; 37. Massimo Stanzioni, Adoration of the Shepherds ; 
54. L. Giordano, St. Francis Xavier baptizing the Indians (painted 
in three days); 56. Traversa, Girl with doves; 63. Pacecco di 
Rosa, Madonna delle Grazie ; 64. Jose Ribera, surnamed Spayno- 
letto, St. Bruno adoring the Holy Child, on copper; 66. Pietro 
Novelli, surnamed Monrealese, Judith and Holophernes ; 71. Luca 
Giordano, Madonna del Rosario, and saints ; 72. Dom. Garyiulo, 
The smoker; 75. Giordano, Pope Alexander II. consecrating the 
church of Monte Casino ; 76. Giordano, Christ shown to the people 
(after Diirer). — The large walnut cabinet in the centre of the 



80 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

room, adorned with carved reliefs from the life of St. Augustine, 
dates from the 16th cent, and was formerly in the sacristy of the 
monastery of S. Agostino degli Scalzi. It contains mediaeval and 
Renaissance ivory carvings, engraved rock-crystals, miniatures, 
and the like, most of which were once in possession of the Farnese 
family. A cabinet by the wall of the exit, from the same church, 
contains majolicas from Urbino and elsewhere. By the window : 
the *('assetta Farnese in gilded silver, executed by Giovanni de' 
Bernardi da Castelbolognese , a goldsmith of Bologna (d. 1555), 
with six large and beautifully cut stones representing Meleagcr 
and Atalanta , Procession of the Indian Bacchus, Circus game?, 
Battle of Amazons, Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithse, Battle of 
Salamis. — By the other window: Small Diana on the stag, in 
gilded silver, with clock-work, probably the toy of some juvenile 
prince. 

Room V. (German and Flemish Schools). *3. Low German 
Master (catalogued as Lucas van Leyden), Adoration of the Magi ; 
31. Alb. Dwrer(?), Nativity; 40. Lucas Cranach, Christ and the 
adulteress ; 42. Amberyer (?), Portrait ; *44. Hubert van Eyck ('?), 
St. Jerome extracting a thorn from the paw of a lion, one of the 
finest early Flemish paintings in Italy , but not to be ascribed to 
Hubert with absolute certainty ; 51. Ascribed to Holbein, A cardi- 
nal ; *53. Low German Master, Crucifixion ; 54. Pieter Brueghel the 
Elder, Parable of the seven blind men. 

Room VI. (Netherlands Schools): *1. Style of Rembrandt, Por- 
trait; 12. Ascribed to Van Dyck, Portrait of a nobleman ; 17. Rem- 
brandt (?), Portrait of himself; 19. Frans Snyders, Hunting scene ; 
36. School of Van Dyck, Crucifix; 61. Collection of miniatures of 
the House of Farnese; *73. Mich. Miererelt, Portrait; 78. Ferd. 
Bol, Portrait ; 83. Ascribed to Van Dyck , Portrait of a Princess 
Egmont ; 89. Villa Medici at Rome in 1615. — Entrance hence 
into the collection of bronzes, see p. 82. 

From the 5th Room of the paintings we enter a circular room, 
the first of the collection of vases ( see below), and pass thence 
to the left into the Museo Santangelo , which occupies three 
rooms. This museum was formerly in the Pal. Santangelo, but 
was purchased by the city of Naples in 1865 and placed under the 
care of the Museo Nazionale. 

1st Room: Vanes. In the cabinet in the centre, a vase with Baccha- 
nalian scene. In tin 1 middle of the cabinet on the lel't, Bacchanalian least 
with an armed dancing woman. To the right by the window a H'abinet 
with drinking-horns (rhyta). 

2nd Room : Ten-nrotias and Small JJron:es. On the left, by the 
entrance, a vase from Nola, with the return of Heplnestus to Olympus. 

3rd Room: Collection of Coins, one of the must extensive in Italy 
(about 43,000 in number), particularly valuable on account of its ancient Ita- 
lian specimens. Catalogue by Fiorelli. On the table in the middle of 
the room an interesting selection of Vec.s- gran''' and other Italian coins. 
Also several large vases: by the window a vase with Pelops and flino- 
maus. In the centre a vase with Orpheus in the infernal regions. Oppo- 



Museum. NAPLES. 4. Route. 81 

site the entrance, to the right, Mercury and Spes, relief- mosaics from 
Metapontum, unique of their kind. Cock-tight. 

We now return to the ** Collection of Vases, which begins 
with the circular room mentioned above , and occupies seven 
rooms. It is very extensive and valuable , and is particularly 
rich in specimens of the handsome vases of Lower Italy. 
The specimens placed by themselves on short columns are the 
finest in the collection. — As Greek vase-painting was adopted 
by the Etruscans and modified according to the national taste, 
so this branch of art was strongly influenced in Lower Italy, 
and especially in Apulia , by the peculiar character of its inhab- 
itants. The vases here are of large and imposing dimensions, 
and the artists , not satisfied with the decoration of paint- 
ing alone, have frequently superadded reliefs to adorn the necks 
and handles. Their aim appears to have been to cover, if pos- 
sible , the entire surface of the vase with the colours. The 
different series of representations, one above another, which they 
bear, are often without connection ; or the centre is occupied by 
an architectural design and surrounded irregularly with groups. 
The figures are generally of a somewhat effeminate mould, and 
great care appears to have been bestowed on the delineation of 
rich but scantily folded garments. The representations are for 
the most part borrowed from the ancient Greek tragedy, but in 
some cases scenes of a more Italian character are observed. The 
period of their manufacture is believed to have been shortly after 
the reign of Alexander the Great. 

The floors of the rooms are paved with ancient, but freely 
restored Mosaics. — The numbers given in the following enumer- 
ation are those on yellow paper affixed to the vases. 

1st Room. The vases in the 2nd and 3rd cabinets (to the right, 
counting from the entrance from the picture-gallery), and the 
three placed on columns in front of them are specimens of the 
earliest stage of this art. They are of a yellowish colour, orna- 
mented with two rows of plants or animals of brownish or black 
colour, and are round or oval in form. The 1st and 4th cabinets 
contain Etruscan, the others Greek vases, some of them beautifully 
shaped, but nearly all black and unpainted. 

2nd Room. Pavement from the house of Diomedes at Pompeii. 
By the window two models of tombs , which illustrate the manner 
in which the vases were discovered. As the ornaments, weapons, 
etc., of the deceased were deposited with his remains in the tomb, 
so also were these vases which had adorned his home ; in some 
cases, however, the nature of the subjects leads to the conclusion 
that they were manufactured for this express purpose. By the 
entrance , to the right , 1587. Electra and Orestes mourning at 
the tomb of Agamemnon. 2711. Hunt of Mcleager. On the left, 
3231. Condemnation of Marsyas. On the right, 2034. Orestes 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 7th Edition. 6 



82 Route 4. NAPLES. Museum. 

seeking refuge from the Furies at the statue of Artemis ; to the 
right , on a tripod , *2718. Vase from Ruvo, the largest yet dis- 
covered , adorned with a battle of Amazons and Greeks ; on the 
right, 2258. Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne (from Ruvo) ; to the 
left of the exit, 2028. Hercules carrying off the tripod, pursued by 
Apollo. 

3rd Room. On the right, 1183. Beautiful vase, partly ribbed, 
but little painted; on the left, 2716. Large vase with the death of 
Archemorus ; 2717. Large vase, with Artemis in a chariot drawn 
by stags. 

4th Room. On the right, in the corner, 2709. Ajax and Cas- 
sandra; on the second column, on the right, 2883. Perseus releas- 
ing Andromeda; 2021. Tereus on horseback pursuing Procne and 
Philomela ; 2033. Marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne. In the corner, 
2710. Achilles with the body of Hector. Farther on, to the left, 
2882. The celebrated large vase of Darius from Canosa : Darius 
planning the conquest of Greece; above is Hellas, at whose side 
Athene and Zeus are standing ; beneath are the Persian provinces 
on which subsidies are levied for the war, with accompanying 
names. On the left, one of the largest vases in the collection ; to 
the left of the last, 2774. Funeral sacrifice of Patroclus. 

5th Room. On the right, by the entrance, 2347. Apotheosis of 
Hercules. On the second column , to the right, 2027. Orestes in 
the temple of Artemis; 2350. Large vase with Bacchanalian sacri- 
fice and battle of Centaurs. 2712. Rape of the golden fleece (from 
Psestum). To the left, farther on, *2357 (under glass), Vase with 
lid, Bacchanalian sacrifice; *2359. Battle of Amazons; *2360 (un- 
der glass), Destruction of Troy ; the last three being from Nola. 

6th Room. Several vases and large basins from Nola, Bari, and 
other places. By the window, under a glass shade, *Lecythus (vase 
for ointment) with reliefs of Marsyas and Apollo. 

7th Room : In the centre a large vase from Altamura, with Or- 
pheus in the infernal regions. In the corners, vases from Ruvo. — 
The entrance hence to the small bronzes is closed. "We therefore 
proceed to the principal entrance in the 6th room of the picture- 
gallery (p. 80). 

The collection of the ** Small Bronzes, the finest of its kind 
in existence , consists chiefly of household utensils , lamps, 
candelabra, tools of all kinds, musical and surgical instruments, 
weapons, etc., most of them found at, Pompeii, and is admirably 
adapted to convey an idea of the life and habits of the ancient 
Italians. The use of most of the objects is too obvious to require 
explanation. 

1st Room: The most valuable objects are in the centre. On a 
marble table, a "Candelabrum from the villa of Diomedes, consist- 
ing of a small Bacchus riding on a panther and a pilaster adorn- 
ed with a mask and bucranium (skull of an ox), on a square pede- 



Riviera di Chiaja. NAPLES. 4. Route. 83 

stal; the lamps hang from four branches ; those at present placed 
there are not the original. In the central group, near the entrance, 
a large chair. At the adjoining corner : Table-support, with Vic- 
toria bearing a trophy. Farther on, parallel with the window-wall 
and by the windows : Bisellia (seats of honour) decorated with 
heads of horses and swans, and a large shallow Dish with inlaid 
silver ornaments. At the third corner of the central group, a *Tri- 
pod for sacrifices, richly decorated, from the temple of Isis at Pom- 
peii. Then iron Stocks from the gladiators' barracks at Pompeii, 
near which three skeletons were found. At the next corner : Por- 
table Cooking-stove ; Baths. Large Brazier from the Tepidarium 
of the small Thermae at Pompeii (p. 135), ornamented with a cow's 
head, the armorial bearings of the founder M. Nigidius Vaccula. — 
In the cabinets to the right of the entrance, handsome lamps, and 
candelabra above. 

2nd Room : A *Model of Pompeii, faithfully representing the 
ruins, on a scale of 1 : 100, but still unfinished. — Along the 
walls numerous bronze vessels and candelabra. 

3rd Room : A Triclinium, or three dining-sofas , each for three 
persons (the table was placed, in the middle). Three Money -chests, 
which were once used in the atrium of an ancient house, from 
Pompeii. 

V. Modern Quarters : Chiaja, Villa Nazionale, 
Corso Vittorio Emantjele. — Castel S. Elmo. 

The modern quarters of Naples, which form the chief resort 
of foreign visitors , extend to the W. of the heights of Pizzo- 
falcone and S. Elmo, along the base and on the slope of the 
Posilipo (p. 90), and are bounded on the S. by the sea. Nearest 
the coast runs the Chiaja, and on the hill farther back is the Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele. 

The *Biviera di Chiaja (PI. D-B, 6), generally known simply 
as La Chiaja (i. e. 'plaga'; so too in Sicily 'chiazza' for 'piazza'), 
begins at the Largo della Vittoria (PI. D, 6 ; p. 34), at the point 
where the piazza is entered by the Strada S. Caterina a Chiaja 
coming from the Toledo (p. 42). From this point it extends 
westwards along the coast for upwards of 1 M., being flanked on 
one side by handsome hotels and other buildings, and on the 
other by the pleasure-grounds of the Villa Nazionale. The Chiaja, 
the Rotten Row of Naples , is one of the liveliest streets in the 
city, particularly on Sunday and holiday evenings in fine weather, 
when it is thronged with carriages of every description, from the 
light two-wheeled 'corricolo' to the elegant barouche and the 
lumbering omnibus, while numerous riders prance along the course 
set apart for them, and the neighbouring grounds of the Villa are 
crowded with foot-passengers. 

G* 



84 Roure 4. NAPLES. Aquarium. 

The * Villa Nazionale, formerly Villa Reale, generally called 
La Villa, formerly situated close to the sea , but now separated 
from it by a wide quay, is a beautiful pleasure-ground, affording 
the principal promenade at Naples. It was laid out in 1780, ex- 
tended in 1807 and 1834, and again considerably enlarged since 
1875. The grounds are arranged chiefly in the Italian style, and 
are embellished with trees of the most various descriptions, among 
which a few handsome palms are particularly noticeable. The 
sculptures intended for the decoration of the grounds, being in- 
different imitations of ancient and modern works , do not deserve 
inspection. The Villa is comparatively deserted during the day, 
but presents a busy and gay scene at hours when the daily con- 
certs (gratis) take place: viz., in the colder season 2-4, in summer 
9-11 p.m. In the evening, when lighted with gas, enlivened by 
the music, and fanned by the cool sea-breeze, these grounds afford 
a good idea of the charms of an Italian summer night (chairs 10 c. ; 
cafes, see p. 22). 

Entering the grounds by the principal approach in the Largo 
della Vittoria, and walking up the broad central path, we first come 
to a large Antique Granite Basin from Peestum, brought from Salerno, 
and deposited here in 1825 to replace the celebrated group of 
the Farnese Bull, which was then removed from this spot to the 
Museum (p. 64). To the right, farther on, is the studio of Signor 
Maldarelli, the painter. We next pass the Aquarium on the left 
(see below). In the centre of the promenade, the most frequented 
spot, where the band plays, are several cafes. Here also rises a 
statue of the historian Oiambattista Vico (d. 1744), recently erected. 
We next observe a mediocre statue of P. Colletta, the liberal- 
minded Neapolitan general, minister-oi'-war, and historian (1775- 
1831 ), erected in 1866. 

Farther on, to the right, is a small temple in honour of Virgil 
(p. 86), and another to the left dedicated to the memory of Tasso. 
At the end of the gardens is a statue of Thalberg, the pianist, who 
died at Naples in 1871. 

The white building in the middle of the Villa contains a large 
*Aquarium, opened in 1874, and belonging to the 'Zoological Sta- 
tion'. The aquarium (opened at 9 a.m.) is on the ground-floor of 
the building, and is entered from the side next to the Castel dell' 
Ovo (admission 2 fr. from 1st Sept. to 30th June ; 1 fr. from 1st 
July to 31st Aug. ; season-tickets sold at the office). 

The Neapolitan Aquarium contains such an abundant stock of curious 
marine animals of every description, that it is perhaps the most inter- 
esting establishment of the kind in the world ; and the wonderful variety 
of animate existence in the Mediterranean gives it a great advantage over 
aquaria drawing their main supplies from more northern waters. Among 
the contents are 6-8 varieties of cuttle-fish (the feeding of the large Oc- 
topus is interesting) , a number of electric rays (which visitors are per- 
mitted to touch so as to experience the shock from which the fish derives 
its name), numerous beautifully coloured fish of the Mediterranean, a 



Chiesa del Sannazaro. NAPLES. 4. Route. 85 

great many different kinds of living coral, beautiful Medusae and crested 
blubbers, many extraordinary -looking crabs and crayfish, pipe-fish, etc. 

The Zoological Station was established by the German naturalist 
Dr. Dohrn in 1872-74 for the purpose of facilitating a thorough scientific 
investigation of the animal and vegetable world of the Mediterranean Sea. 
The greater part of the expense was borne by Dr. Dohrn himself, but the 
German government has repeatedly contributed large subsidies, and the 
naturalists of Great Britain presented the institution with a sum of 1000 I. 
A yearly income of about 1500Z. is now derived from the stipends paid by 
most of the European governments, Cambridge University, etc., for the 
privilege of sending naturalists to make use of the advantages of the in- 
stitution. 

The resident staff of the establishment consists of Dr. Dohrn himself, 
seven permanent naturalists, and upwards of twenty assistants of various 
kinds. A small steam-yacht and a flotilla of sailing and rowing-boats are 
maintained for dredging, and the other equipments are also on a scale of 
great completeness. About 150 foreign naturalists have already prosecuted 
their investigations here. The institution publishes exteusive periodical 
proceedings, sends microscopic and other preparations to all the leading 
museums and laboratories in Europe, and in various ways has fairly 
asserted itself as the central point for the study of marine biology. 

From the point where the Villa ends to the extremity of the 
Chiaja is about '/4 M. The street divides here : the Strada di Pie- 
digrotta , in a straight direction , leads to the Grotta di Posilipo 
(see p. 87) ; and to the left diverges the Mergellina, forming a 
continuation of the Chiaja, and consisting of a long row of houses 
and villas on the slopes of the Posilipo and on the coast. This 
forms the beginning of the Strada Nuova di Posilipo (p. 90), which 
commands a succession of delightful views. 

Nearly */ 4 M. from the above-mentioned bifurcation of 
the streets , the Oorso Vittorio Emanuele diverges to the right 
(p. 87; ordinary cab-fares thus far; also omnibuses). About 
'/ 4 M. farther, on the right, before the street turns a corner, we 
observe above us the small Chiesa del Sannazaro, or S. Maria 
del Parto. (We ascend the approach to the church and mount 
the steps to the left, which lead in three flights to the terrace 
above the houses Nos. 10-17.) The church stands on the site of 
a small estate which King Frederick II. of Arragon presented in 
1496 to the poet Jacopo Sannazaro (b. at Naples, 1458), for whom 
he entertained the highest regard. After his villa had been de- 
stroyed by the French , the aged poet caused the church to be 
erected by monks of the Servite order in 1529. It derives its 
name from his Latin poem, 'De partu Virginis' (Naples, 1526). 

The church contains a high-altar and six chapels. In the 1st chapel 
to the right, St. Michael overcoming Satan, by Leonardo da Pisloja. The 
devil is represented with the features of a woman of whom Diomedes 
Carafa, Bishop of Ariano, was once passionately enamoured, and is popularly 
known as 'il diavolo di Mergellina'. Behind the high-altar is the monu- 
ment of the poet (d. 1530), executed by Fra Giovanni da Montorsoli from 
a design by Girolamo Santacroce. At the sides Apollo and Minerva, pop- 
ularly believed to be David and Judith ; on a bas-relief between them 
Neptune and Pan, with Fauns, satyrs, and nymphs singing and playing, an 
allusion to Sannazaro's poem 'Arcadia' ; above is the richly decorated sarco- 
phagus with the bust of the poet, which bears his academic name : Aclii/s 
Sincerus. The inscription at the base of the monument by Bembo 'Maroni 



86 Route 4. NAPLES. Tomb of Virgil. 

. ■ . Musa proximus ut tumulo' alludes to the poet's having imitated 
Virgil. His principal works are idyls, elegies, and epigrams in Latin. 

To the right, farther on, rises the Villa Angri. On the left 
C/2 M. from the Chiesa del Sannazaro) , we next observe near 
the sea the picturesque ruins of the Palazzo di Dorm Anna (erro- 
neously called that of the Regina Giovanna), begun in the 17th 
cent, by Fansaga for Donna Anna Carafa, wife of the viceroy Duke 
of Medina, on the site of a former palace of the princes of 
Stigliano, but never completed. To the left, on the coast, just be- 
fore reaching the Palazzo di Donn' Anna , we pass the Trattoria 
dello Scoglio delle Sirene, and just beyond it is the Trattoria de.Uo 
Scoglio di Frisio, both mentioned at p. 23. 

Boats for returning are generally to be found below the restaurants : 
to the Villa l'/z, to the town 2-3 fr. ; Cab from the Piazza del Plebiscito 
to the Frisio 1 fr. (bargain necessary). The tramway-cars also pass the 
Villa on their way to the Villa Canonica. 

For the continuation of this street, see pp. 90, 91. 

The Strada di Piedigrotta (PI. B, A, 7), which forms the 
prolongation of the Chiaja in a straight direction, gradually ascends 
from the bifurcation mentioned at p. 85 to the hill of Posilipo. In 
5 min. we reach the small piazza where the Corso Vittorio Ema- 
nuele diverges (p. 87). At this point rises the church of S. Maria 
di Piedigrotta, a building of the 13th cent., but much altered, and 
finally restored in 1850 after the return of Pius IX. from Gaeta. 
It contains a very old picture of the Madonna, and an interesting 
Piet?t in the Flemish-Neapolitan style , the wings evidently exe- 
cuted under Sienese influence (2nd chapel to the right). — The 
popular festival of the 'Vergine di Piedigrotta', celebrated here on 
7th-8th Sept., having been instituted in 1745 in commemoration 
of the victory gained over the Austrians in the previous year by 
Charles III. at Velletri, has lost much of its original importance 
since the unification of Italy. 

About 3 min. farther, beyond the point where the road turns 
to the left, we observe on the left, between the smiths' forges, 
below No. 9, the entrance to the so-called Tomb of Virgil, a 
Roman columbarium situated on the hill, the genuineness of 
which, however, as the great poet's last resting-place is extremely 
questionable. The custodian is generally on the spot (adm. 1 fr. ; 
gratuity 6-8 soldi). The tomb-chamber, to which a long flight of 
steps ascends, contains nothing worth seeing, but the hill commands 
a beautiful view of the bay. The visit occupies 25-30 minutes. 

The tomb contains a chamber about 16 ft. square, with three win- 
dows and vaulted ceiling. In the walls are ten recesses for cinerary 
urns, and in the principal wall, which has been destroyed, there appears to 
have been one of greater size. The name of the monument is without 
?atisfactory historical foundation, but probability and local tradition favour 
the assumption that this was Virgil's last resting-place. The poet, as he 
himself informs us, here composed his immortal works, the Georgics and 
the iEneid, and he unquestionably possessed a villa on the Posilipo, and 
by his express wish was interred here after his death at Brundisium, B.C. 
J9, on his return from Greece, Petrarch is said to have visited this spot 



Grotla di Posilipo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 87 

accompanied by King Robert, and to have planted a laurel, which at the 
beginning of the present century fell a prey to the knives of curiosity- 
mongers, and has since been replaced. It is on record that in 1326 the 
tomb was in a good state of preservation, and contained a marble urn with 
nine small pillars, the frieze of which bore the well-known inscription : — 

Mantua me genuit, Calabri rapuere, tenet nunc 

Parthenope : cecini pascua, rura, duces. 
Of all this no trace now remains. In 1530, however, Cardinal Bembo's 
epitaph on the poet Sannazaro (see p. 85) proves that he believed in the 
genuineness of this tomb; and the following inscription, which is still 
legible, was accordingly placed on it in 1554 : — 

Qui cineres? tumuli hsec vestigia: conditur olim 

Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 
The road now ascends in a curve and reaches the Grotta di 
Posilipo, or Orotta di Pozzuoli (PI. A, 7), a tunnel probably con- 
structed in the reign of Augustus. It is mentioned by Seneca and 
Petronius, under Nero, as a narrow and gloomy pass. Medieval 
superstition attributed it to magic arts practised by Virgil. King 
Alphonso I. (about 1442) enlarged the opening by lowering the level 
of the road, and caused it to be ventilated ; a century later Don 
Petro de Toledo caused the road to be paved ; and it was again 
paved and improved [by Charles III. (1754). The length of the 
passage, which is always lighted with gas, is 757 yds. ; height at the 
E. entrance about 87 ft., varying in the interior from 20 to 50 ft. ; 
breadth 21-32 ft. Small chapels are situated at the entrance and in 
the middle. On a few days in March and November the sun shines 
direc.tly through the grotto, producing a magic illumination. 

At the egress of the Grotta di Posilipo is situated the village 
of Fuorigrotta, with numerous osterie, where several roads diverge. 
A new road to the right leads to Capodimonte (p. 43). The sec- 
ond leads to the village of Pianura (p. 93); a third road leads to 
the Lago d'Agnano, and that in a straight direction to Bagnoli (p. 96). 
At the W. end of Fuorigrotta is the small church of 8. Vitale, 
containing a simple monument to the distinguished philologist 
and poet Count Giacomo Leopardi, who died at Naples in 1837. 



Opposite the N.W. corner of the Museum, as mentioned at 
p. 43, the Strada Salvator Rosa (PL D, E, 3), formerly named 
Str. dell' Infrascata, ascends the heights of S. Elmo and the Po- 
silipo. Donkeys may be hired at the foot of the hill, and also 
farther up: to S. Martino l-l 1 ^ &• ( as quick as a carriage, or 
quicker). The road ascends in zigzags. After 10 minutes' walk we 
reach the small Piazza Salvator Rosa (omnibus-station, see p. 25), 
where the Str. Salvator Rosa turns to the right (see p. 92). 

In a straight direction begins here the new *Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele (PI. D, 4, 5; C, 5, 6; B, A, 6), which is carried by 
means of windings and several viaducts round the hills of S. Elmo 
and the Posilipo. It then skirts the slopes for some distance, and 
at length gradually descends to the Piazza di Piedigrotta (p. 86) 
and the Mergellina (p. 85), commanding admirable views of the 



88 Route i. NAPLES. 8. Martino. 

town, the bay, and Mt. Vesuvius. The road was begun by the 
Bourbons for military purposes (to afford a protected communi- 
cation between the Castel S. Elmo and the city), but has only 
recently been completed. Owing to the openness and healthiness 
of the situation, houses are rapidly springing up along this road. 
The distance from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to S. Maria di 
Piedigrotta is upwards of 2 l / 2 M. (pleasanter for a drive than a 
walk). From the Oorso a number of lanes descend, some of 
them by means of steps, to the lower part of the city. Those 
diverging from the first third of the road lead to the Toledo, 
those from the last third descend to the Chiaja. 

About l /~2 M. from the Piazza Salvator Rosa, beyond the 
viaduct and a bend in the Corso , a road diverging to the right 
beyond a red house (Salita di 8. Martino) ascends to the Castel S. 
Elmo and S. Martino. It soon narrows to a path ascending by means 
of steps, and towards the end by zigzags, and leads to the entrance 
of the fort in 1/4 nr - About l /% M. farther the Salita del Petrajo, 
another lane with steps, also ascends to the right from the Corso 
Vitt. Emanuele to S. Martino and S. Elmo. At the top we turn to 
the right and soon reach the entrance to S. Elmo. This is the 
shortest route to the castle from the new quarters on the Chiaja 
(donkeys for hire at the foot of the Salita). — A much easier, but 
longer route is by the carriage-road , following the Str. Salvator 
Rosa to the small chapel of S. Maria Costantinopolitana (PI. C, 4; 
p. 91), diverging there to the left, turning to the left again, and 
then to the right. Carriage to S. Martino, with one horse l'/>2, 
with two horses l 1 /^ fr., see p. 24. 

On entering the precincts of the fortifications, we first pro- 
ceed to the suppressed Carthusian monastery of — 

*S. Martino (PI. D, 5), which is not less remarkable for the 
beauty of its situation and its views , than for the great value 
of its contents. It was begun in 1325 by Duke Charles of Calabria, 
but was entirely rebuilt in the 17th cent. Since its dissolution, 
the monastery has been placed under the management of the 
Museo Nazionale , and is shown daily, 9-4 o'clock (adm. 1 fr. ; 
Sun. free). 

Beyond the ticket-office lies the monastery court. We turn to the 
left here, and reach the church ,by passing through a corridor and the 
Coro del Laid Conversi. 

The Church , which consists of a nave with three chapels on each 
side, is richly embellished with marble. On the ceiling is an Ascension, 
and between the windows the Twelve Apostles, by Lanfranco. Over the 
principal entrance a "Descent from the Cross by Statizioni (damaged), and 
next to it. Moses and Elias by SparjnolMo. The Twelve Apostles above the 
arches of the chapels , by the same artist. Frescoes of the choir by the 
Cavaliere d'Arpino. The Crucifixion by Zanfranco. Nativity, unfinished, 
by Ouido Reni (who died during the progress of the work). On the sides : 
to the left , Communion of the Apostles, by fipaijnolello (in the style 
of Paolo Veronese), and Christ washing the disciples' feet, by Caracciolo; 
to the right, the same subject by JStavzioni , and Institution of the 
Eucharist, by the pupils of P. Veronese. The marble decorations of 



Castel Sanf Elmo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 89 

the church , twelve different roses of Egyptian granite , after Cosimo 
Fansaga of Carrara , the beautiful mosaic marble pavement by Presti, 
and the high-altar by Solimena also merit inspection. — The Sacristy, 
entered to the left from the choir, is adorned with intarsias by Bonaventura 
Presto, and paintings by the Cavaliere (TArpino, Slanzioni, and Caravaggio. — 
Beyond it is the Tesoro, containing as an altar-piece a "Descent from the 
Cross, the master-piece of Spagnoletto , fine [in colouring and admirable 
for its delineation of pain ; on the ceiling Judith, by Luca Giordano, said 
to have been painted in 48 hrs., when the artist was in his 72nd year. 

Opposite the sacristy, to the right of the choir, is the Chapter- 
House, with a ceiling-painting by Corenzio; other pictures by Arpino, 
Finoglia, Stanzioni, and Cambiaso. 

From the chapter-house we pass through another small room and 
descend by a few steps into the 'Cloisters, which are borne by sixty 
columns of white marble. — To the right of the cloisters we next enter 
the recently founded Museum, which contains a collection of majolicas 
(some very fine), glasses, inirrors, small pieces of tapestry, etc., in nine 
rooms. 

At the end of the right wing of the cloisters is a door leading to the 
right through a corridor to the ''"Belvedere, a hexagonal room with two 
balconies commanding exquisite views of the city, the bay, Mt. Ve- 
suvius, and the fertile country as far as Nola and the Apennines. It 
is less extensive than that from the summit of the fort, but more 
picturesque. 

We now return to the monastery court by the corridor diverging 
immediately to the right by the entrance to the museum from the clois- 
ters and passing a room with old models of Neapolitan fortresses. — 
Lastly, in the court, we may inspect a state-coach and state-barge of the 
period of Charles HI. (1734). 

Visitors are not admitted to the castle without a permesso 
from the commandant at Naples (p. 36). 

The Castel Sanf Elmo (876 ft.), or Sanf Ermo, formerly Sanf 
Erasmo, was erected by Giacomo de' Sanctis under Robert the Wise 
(1343). Under Ferdinand I. (1458) it was called the Castello di S. 
Martino, after the neighbouring monastery, and considerably ex- 
tended. In the 16th cent, it was altered to its present form by 
Don Pedro de Toledo, and in 1641 some additions were made by 
the Duke of Medina. The vast walls, the fosses hewn in the 
solid tuffstone rock, its subterranean passages, and ample cistern 
formerly obtained for it the reputation of impregnability. The 
fort has been dismantled under the new regime , and is now 
used as a military prison. A walk on the ramparts affords a 
splendid *Panorama of the town and bay, and particularly of the 
district towards Camaldoli, Misenum, and Ischia. 



VI. Hill of Posilipo. 

The walks described below may either be taken as a continuation of 
the traveller's visit to the modern quarters of the city, or they may be 
combined with the excursions mentioned in Route 5. If time is limited, 
a visit to the Strada Nuova di Posilipo may be combined with the ex- 
cursion to Pozzuoli, the best plan being to go through the Grotta di Posi- 
lipo , and to return by the new road. A visit to Camaldoli may also be 
combined with that of S. Martino (2 hrs. more) , but a whole afternoon 
should if possible be devoted to the former. 



90 Route J. NAPLES. Strada Nuova di Posilipo . 

The hill which hounds Naples on the W., -with its villages and 
numerous charming villas, derives its name of PosUipo, or Posil- 
lipo, from Paustlypon ('sans-souci'), the villa of the notorious 
epicure Vedius Pollio, afterwards the property of Augustus, which 
was gradually extended to the whole hill. The Posilipo is most 
conveniently visited either from the Ohiaja or from the Museum. 
Our starting-point is the Chiaja. 

The **Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which at first skirts the coast, 
and then gradually ascends round the S. slope of the hill, was be- 
gun in 1812 during the reign of Murat, and in 1823 completed 
as far as Bagnoli. It leads between many beautifully situated 
villages, commanding exquisite views, and should on no account 
be omitted from the traveller's programme. Comp. Map, p. 96. 

The beginning of the Strada, as far as the Frisio, iy 4 M. from 
the end of the Villa Nazionale, has been described at pp. 83-86. 
The road leaves the sea and ascends in windings round the spur of 
the hill. To the left are the villas Rocca Romana (with hothouses), 
Rocca Matilda, andMinutoli. About l'/ 4 M. from the Frisio, beyond 
a church on the right with a relief of the Madonna over its portal, 
a road diverges to the left, descending past the Villa de Melis, or 
delle Cannonate, so called from its having been bombarded by the 
French, where Philip Hackert, the court-painter whose life and 
style of art have been described by Goethe, resided in 1786. The 
road then descends past the Villa Gerace to the Capo di Posilipo. 
The small church of S. Maria del Faro, in the vicinity, occupies 
the site of an old lighthouse. Beautiful view towards Naples. Boats 
for returning to the town may be hired here. 

The main road ascends for '/ 2 M. more. At the top of the hill 
it is joined by the road described at pp. 91, 92. It then passes 
through a deep cutting to a (V4 M.) projecting round platform 
which commands a magnificent *View towards Bagnoli, Camaldoli, 
Pozzuoli, Baja, and Ischia. The road now descends on the W. 
side of the Posilipo, commanding a fine view the whole way. 

On the left, V4 M. below the round platform, is the entrance 
to the so-called Grotto of Sejanus, a passage hewn through the 
rock of the Posilipo, about 990 yds. in length, being 233 yds. longer 
than the Grotta di Posilipo, and originally surpassing it in height 
and width. In the side next the sea are several openings for 
ventilation (fee 1 fr. ; the inspection occupies about J /2 hr.). 

This is the tunnel whose construction is ascribed by Strabo to 
M. Cocceius Nerva (B. C. 37), almost simultaneously with that of the 
Julian harbouT on the Lucrine lake by M. Agrippa. It is therefore a 
mistake to associate it with the name of Sejanus, as it is of much earlier 
origin. It has recently been cleared of rubbish and supported by walls, 
on which occasion an inscription was found, recording that the tunnel 
had been repaired by the Erap. Honorius about the year 400. At the E. 
end of this passage, especially near the rocky promontory of La Oajola, 
the most beautiful views are obtained of Nisida, Procida, Ischia, Capri, 
and the bay of Naples, and a number of relics of antiquity are observed. 



HillofPosilipo. NAPLES. 4. Route. 91 

The custodian conducts the visitor from the grotto to a vineyard in 
the vicinity (fee 30-50 c), whence a magnificent view is enjoyed, and 
where some of the scattered fragments of the Pausilypon, or villa of 
Vedius Pollio (p. 90) are visible, extending from the slope of the hill 
down to the sea, and overgrown with myrtles, erica, and broom. — 
The fishponds , in which the cruel Vedius was in the habit of feeding 
large lampreys with the flesh of his slaves, lay nearer the town. — A small 
Theatre is also seen , which belonged to the villa of Lucullus , with 
seventeen rows of seats hewn in the rock. Besides these are numerous 
other relics of the villas with which the Posilipo was covered in ancient 
times. We also observe, close to the sea, in the direction of the town, 
the Scuola, or properly Scoglio (rock) di Virgilio, perhaps once a temple 
of Fortune, or of Venus Euploea, to whom mariners sacrificed after a 
prosperous voyage. 

The S.W. spur of the Posilipo is called Capo Coroglio, opposite 
which rises the small rocky island of Nisida, the Nesis of the an- 
cients, an extinct crater, which opens towards the S. On the N. 
side is a rock, connected with the mainland by a breakwater, and 
bearing the Lazzaretto (for quarantine purposes). The building 
on the height is a bagno for criminals (no admission). 

The son of Lucullus possessed a villa on this island, to which Brutus 
retired after the murder of Caesar in the spring of B. C. 44, and where 
he was visited by Cicero. He took leave here of his wife Portia on his 
departure for Greece, previous to the battle of Philippi. In the 15th cent. 
Queen Johanna II. possessed a villa on the island of Nisida, which was 
converted into a fort for the purpose of keeping the fleet of Louis of 
Anjou in check. 

From the entrance of the Grotto of Sejanus to Bagnoli is 
another mile, so that the whole distance thither from the Largo 
della Vittoria is about 4 M. — Bagnoli, see p. 96. 



The Hill of Posilipo is traversed by numerous roads and 
paths connecting the different villages, houses, and villas. Most of 
them are flanked by walls and command no view, but here and 
there they afford fine prospects of the city and bay and towards 
the W. The following route is recommended, particularly for driv- 
ing (or at least part of the way ; cab-fare from the Piazza Salvator 
Rosa to Antignano, with one horse iy 2 , with two horses 2'/4 fr.). 

We follow the Strada Salvator Rosa (formerly dell' Infras- 
cata), mentioned at p. 87 , from the Piazza Salvator Rosa to the 
right (nearly !/ 2 M. from the Museum), passing between houses 
for nearly Y2 M. and afterwards between garden walls. • — A road 
diverges hence to Arenella, the birthplace of the talented land- 
scape-painter Salvator Rosa (b. 1605 , d. at Rome in 1673 after 
a chequered career). — We continue to follow the main road in 
a straight direction. By the C/3 M.) chapel of S. Maria Costan- 
tinopolitana the road to S. Elmo, mentioned at p. 88, diverges 
to the left. To the right, farther on, we reach Antignano in 2 min. 
more. From the small piazza at the beginning of the village the 
road to Vomero (left) andCamaldoli (right, p. 92) separate. Comp. 
Plan II (B, 4), p. 21. 

We turn to the left ('Strada Belvedere'), and then, halfway 



92 Route i. NAPLES. Camuldoli. 

to the village, to the right, and next reach (</ 3 M.) Vomero, where 
the Villa Belvedere on the left commands a charming *Panorama 
of both land and sea (attendant who shows the terrace, 5-10 soldi). 
About a hundred paces farther the steep Salita del Vomero de- 
scends to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and to the Chiaja. — Our 
route continues to follow the heights, passing between the garden- 
walls which enclose the villas Regina, Ricciardi, Belletieri, and 
Tricase, and turns (2/3 M. from the Belvedere) a little to the S. 
(fine view of Naples over the wall to the left). It then ascends, 
under the name of 'Strada Patrizi', past the C/3 M.) Villa Patrizi, 
to the top of the Posilipo, whence we enjoy an admirable view of 
the district to the W., the Phlegnean fields of antiquity (p. 94). 
Comp. the Map, p. 96. 

The road continues to follow the top of the Posilipo, under 
which the tunnel mentioned at p. 87 passes. A little before we 
reach the entrance to the (2/3 M.) village of Posilipo, the Salita di 
S. Antonio diverges to the left, descending past Virgil's Tomb 
(p. 86) to the Mergellina. — If the traveller prefers, he may pass 
through the village of Posilipo and follow the same road, which 
commands beautiful views and descends, past the village of Strato 
on the right, to (2 M.) the Strada Nuova di Posilipo, which we 
reach at its highest point. The Grotto of Sejanus is y 2 M. farther, 
and the Villa is about 3 M. distant thence (comp. p. 90). 

Camaldoli. 

An Excursion to Camaldoli and back on foot, including stay there, 
takes 4>/2-5 hrs.; on donkey-back a little less (from the Museum 2-2'/'2 fr. 
and a trifling fee to the attendant). Those who prefer it may drive as 
far as Antignano (one-horse carr. !'/■>, two -horse 2'/4 fr. ; comp. p. 24), 
where donkeys may he hired; carriages for returning may also be pro- 
cured here , so that it is unnecessary to keep one waiting. The bridle- 
path from Antignano, which walkers will find pleasant, cannot be mis- 
taken if the following directions be attended to (see also Plan, p. 20, and 
Map, p. 96). — The early morning and the evening lights are the most 
favourable for the views, particularly the latter. The traveller, however, 
should start on the return-journey in good time, as it is anything but 
pleasant to encounter frequent walkers and riders on the rough path 
after dusk. 

Leaving the Museum , we follow the Strada Salvator Rosa or 
dell' Infrascata (p. 91) as far as Antignano (IY4M.), where we 
turn to the right (comp. Plan B, 4). At the next bifurcation we 
turn to the left, and reach (4 min.) the office where the Dazio 
Consumo, or municipal tax on comestibles , is levied. About 200 
paces farther on, we take the bridle-path diverging to the left and 
passing an osteria on the right. The path then immediately passes 
under a viaduct and enters a hollow (to which point our Plan of 
Naples extends : A, 4, 3). The path runs between bushes and 
pines. After 20 min., beyond an archway through which we pass, 
the path turns by a white house a little to the left to the (4 min.) 
farm-buildings of Camaldolilli, and passes through the gateway, 



Camaldoli. NAPLES. 4. Route. 93 

immediately beyond which it ascends to the right at a sharp angle. 
Fine view of S. Elmo, Naples, Vesuvius, and the bay towards the 
right. After 7 min., at the point where the path descends slightly, 
a path diverges to the right to Nazaret, while our route descends 
to the left and passes the mouth of a gorge , through which is ob- 
tained a fine view of Capri. In 3 min. more we pass a path turn- 
ing sharply to the left, and in 10 min. reach a point where a path 
diverges to the right to Nazaret and a forest-path leads to the left, 
while the main path , leading to Camaldoli , ascends steeply in a 
straight direction. In 1 / i hr. more we turn to the right to a closed 
gate, on passing through which riders have to pay 20 c. and walk- 
ers 15 c. each. The path then skirts the wall of the monastery 
garden , where it is joined by the path from Nazaret, and reaches 
the entrance to the monastery in 5 min. more. Visitors ring at the 
gate, and on leaving give the porter a few soldi. 

**Camaldoli , a monastery of the Camaldulensian order insti- 
tuted by S. Romuald near Florence about the year 1000, was found- 
ed in 1585, but is now dissolved. It stands on the E. summit of an 
amphitheatre of hills which enclose the Phlegraean plain on the N., 
being the highest point near Naples (1476 ft.), and commands one 
of the most magnificent views in Italy. The monastery and church 
contain nothing worth seeing, and we therefore proceed at once to 
the garden. Two points of view are specially to be noted : the more 
important is in the garden, straight before us; the other, which 
commands the Campanian plain, is by the monastery, more to the 
left. Now that the monastery is dissolved, ladies also are admitted. 
There are still four surviving monks, who offer wine and coffee, 
and who in any case expect a small donation (*/2 fr- f° r one person). 

The view embraces the bays of Naples, Pozzuoli, and Gaeta, 
the widely extended capital (of which a great part is concealed 
by S. Elmo) with its environs, the Lago d'Agnano, the craters 
of Solfatara and Astroni, the promontories of Posilipo and Mise- 
num, the islands of Nisida, Procida, and Ischia, and the districts 
of Baiae , Cumae , and Liternum. Towards the S. the view is 
bounded by Capri and the Punta della Campanella , the ancient 
promontory of Minerva. The small towns of Massa, Sorrento, 
and Castellamare are visible ; also Monte Sant' Angelo, the smok- 
ing cone of Vesuvius , and the luxuriant plain at its base. To- 
wards the N. the eye wanders over the expanse of the Campania 
Felix with its numerous villages , over Nola, Cancello, Maddaloni, 
Caserta, Capua , Monte Tifata , the volcanic group of the Rocca 
Monfina, the lake of Patria, Gaeta, the hills of Formiae, and the 
Monte Circello beyond. To the W. stretches the open sea, with 
the islands of Ponza, Ventotene, S. Stefano, and Isola delle Botte, 

We may also descend by Nazaret to Pianura at the N.W. base of the 
hill, where there are extensive quarries; thence to Fuorigrotta (p. 87), 
4 M. — At the S. base of Camaldoli lies the village of Soccavo, to which 
a steep path descends (guide necessary); thence to Fuorigrotta 2'/3 M. 



94 



5. Fozzuoli, Baiee, Misenum, and Cumee. 



The Phlegraean Plain, a district to the W. of Naples, has from time 
immemorial been a scene of tremendous volcanic activity, and as lately as 
the 16th cent, has undergone vast changes , of which the traveller will 
observe traces at every step. This tract is scarcely less interesting in an 
historical than in a physical point of view. It was here that Hellenic 
civilisation first gained a footing in Italy, and constant communication was 
thenceforth maintained between this portion of the peninsula and the East. 
The legends of Hellenic tradition are most intimately associated with these 
coasts, and the poems of Homer and Virgil will continue to invest it with 
a peculiar interest as long as classic literature exists. The prosperity of 
this lovely coast has long since departed. The grand creations of imperial 
Rome, the innumerable palatial villas of the Roman aristocracy, have long 
been converted into a chaotic heap of ruins by convulsions of nature, and 
have left behind comparatively slight traces of their former magnificence. 
The malaria which prevails in many parts of the district, and the stupendous, 
though slumbering , agencies beneath the soil cast a certain gloom over 
the scene; but the inexhaustible beauties of Italian nature are still in- 
vested with the same charms as they possessed two thousand years ago. 
Islands and promontories, bays and lakes, and singularly beautiful inden- 
tations of the coast form the chief features of this scenery, which is per- 
haps without rival. 

The fertile imagination of the natives has assigned all kinds of impos- 
ing classical names to many insignificant and uninteresting objects in this 
district, and strangers are therefore often importuned to inspect pretended 
curiosities which make serious inroads on time, temper, and purse. The 
chief objects of interest are enumerated in the following description. 

Two Days should if possible be devoted to exploring this region as 
follows: First: — Drive through the Grotta di Posilipo (p. 87) to the now 
drained Lago d'Agnano, 40 min. ; visit the Dog Grotto, 20 min. ; walk over 
the hill ( :5 View) to the Solfatara, 1 hr. ; halt there, 20 min.; walk to 
Pozzuoli and the ''Amphitheatre, 20 min.; halt there, and visit cathedral, 
harbour, and "Temple of Serapis, 1 hr. ; drive back to Naples by the 
* Strada Nuova di Posilipo (which route must be expressly stipulated for), 
l*/4 hr. ; in all 5-6 hours. — Second : Drive through Pozzuoli. to the 
Arco Felice, l 3 /4 hr. ; walk to Cumae and back, 1 hr. ; walk through the 
Grotta della Pace to the Lago Averno and Baja, 1 hr. ; drive to Bacoli, 
20 min. (Piscina Mirabilis '/< n '-)i ascent of Capo Miseno and back, l'/ii 
hr. ; drive back to Naples 2'/2 hrs.; in all 7-8 hours. — A pleasant variety 
may be introduced into the excursion by going from Pozzuoli to Baja or 
to the Grotto of Sejanus by boat. 

One Day. If Cumae, which is chiefly interesting to archaeologists, or 
the Dog Grotto and the Lago d'Agnano be omitted , all the other places 
may easily be visited in one day. (The Solfatara may also be omitted 
by those who intend to ascend Vesuvius.) The important antiquities of 
Pozzuoli may in this case be visited either in going or returning. The 
start should be made early. — The inns are generally dear and indiffer- 
ent. Luncheon or early dinner may be taken at the Lucrine Lake or 
at Baja, but it is preferable to bring provisions from Naples and to picnic 
at Cumee or on the Capo Miseno. 

The way in which these excursions may be combined with a visit to 
Procida and Ischia is indicated at p. 102. 

Carriages. There is no fixed tariff except for the drives to the Lago 
d'Agnano and to Bagnoli , for either of which the fare is 2 fr. with one 
horse , or 3 fr. with two horses (from the stand in the Strada di Piedi- 
grotta ; comp. p. 24). — The usual fare to Pozzuoli for a cab with one 
horse is 3 fr., there and back 4 fr., or back by the Strada Nuova di Po- 
silipo 5 fr. ; to Pozzuoli and Baja, and back, 10 fr. ; driver's fee extra in 
each case. Those who take an interest in the antiquities, and do not 
object to walking, had better not be hampered with a carriage for the 
whole excursion. As there is constant communication between Naples 
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always be obtained for 1 fr., but some practice in bargaining is required ; 
most of these vehicles start from the Cafe Benvenuto (Strada di Chiaja, 
corner of the Strada Alabardieri; PI. D, 6). A single seat may also 
easily be obtained in one of the small 'corricoli' or gigs which ply be- 
tween Naples, Pozzuoli, and Baja O/2-l fr., according to the distance). — 
A carriage with two horses for the whole day costs 20-25 fr. , with one 
horse 10-12 fr., a corricolo 8 fr. ; in every case a distinct bargain should 
be made beforehand. 

Guides. The following directions, the map, and a slight knowledge 
of the language will enable the traveller to dispense with a guide. Those, 
however, who desire to avoid the importunities of the guides at Pozzuoli 
and Baja may engage a cicerone at Naples for the excursion (6 fr. ; see 
p. 25). The Naples guides undertake the hiring of a carriage, the pay- 
ment of fees, etc. , thus relieving the traveller of all trouble (total cost 
for two persons with one-horse carriage about 20 ft-.). 

The usual and shortest route to the W. environs of Naples is 
through the Grotta di Posilipo and Fuorigrotta (p. 87; 2^4 M. from 
the Largo della Vittoria), from which the main road leads straight 
to Bagnoli (p. 96). From that road, a few hundred paces beyond 
Fuorigrotta, a cart track, and nearly l 1 /? M. farther abroad road, 
diverge to the dried up Lago d'Agnano , 2*/4 M. from Fuorigrotta. 

The Lago d'Agnano, which was drained in 1870, is an old 
crater of irregular form, 2'/4 M. in circumference. The water pro 
duced malaria, but now that it is drained the gain in a sanitary 
point of view is very doubtful , while the beauty of the landscape 
is sadly impaired. 

On the*S. bank, immediately to the right of the point where 
the road reaches it, are the old Stufe di San Qermano, or chambers 
in which the hot sulphureous fumes rising from the ground here 
are collected for the use of sick persons (adm. 1 fr. each person). 
A few paces farther on is the famous Qrotta di Cane, or Dog 
Grotto. It derives its name from the fact that the ground and 
sides are so thoroughly impregnated with carbonic acid gas, 
that the fumes render dogs insensible in a few seconds, and 
produce a feeling of languor on human beings. Dogs are pro- 
vided for the exhibition of this somewhat cruel experiment, but 
the curiosity of the traveller may be sufficiently gratified by ob- 
serving that a light is immediately extinguished when brought in 
contact with the vapour. Pliny (Hist. Nat. ii. 93) mentions this 
grotto as : 'spiracula et scrobes Charonese mortiferum spiritum ex- 
halantes in agro Puteolano'. (Adm. 1/2 fr. each person; 1 fr. 
more is demanded for the experiments with the dog and the light.) 

The road skirting the S.W. bank of the dried lake leads to (1 M.) 
the royal chaste of Astroni, the largest and most important of the volcan- 
ic craters in this region , being upwards of 3 M. in circumference , and 
densely overgrown with holm-oaks and poplars. On the S. side it con- 
tains a small lake, and in the centre an eminence of trachytic lava. 
Picturesque, but somewhat dull park-scenery, pleasanter for riding than 
walking. Driving is practicable only as far as the margin of the crater. 
We then ascend the old road to the left to the large gate , where we 
show our 'permesso' (see p. 36). Fee '/j fr- 

From the Lago d'Agnano to Pozzuoli, l>/4 hr. , a pleasant footpath 
commanding a superb view towards the end, leads across the hills to the 
W. By a solitary house, about 8 min. from the Dog Grotto, a road di- 



96 Route 5. POZZUOLT. Environs 

verges to the left from the above-mentioned Astroni road, and skirts the 
N. base of the Monte Spina. After 3 min. we turn to the right, and in 
10 min. more to the right again; where the road divides into three_(2 
min.) we turn to the left, then immediately afterwards to the left again, 
continuing to follow the main road. At a farm-house (10 min.) the road 
narrows to a footpath, which ascends steeply past ancient walls to a (8 
min.) white building and yard, through which we pass by a door on the 
left. Passing through a narrow dell, the path leads in 8 min. more to 
the top of the hill, where we take the road to the right. Looking back, 
we obtain a beautiful glimpse at Nisida and Capri, and by the (5 min.) 
suppressed Capuchin monastery of S. Gennaro (p. 99), we enjoy a superb 
-'Survey of Pozzuoli and its bay, the Capo Jliseno, and Ischia. After 
4 min. more in a straight direction , we may turn to the right to the 
entrance of the Solfatara (p. 99), or to the left to 0/4 hr.) Pozzuoli. 

The monotonous high road from Fuorigrotta to (2'/4 M.) 
Bagnoli leads between gardens. When it approaches the coast, the 
island of Nisida (p. 91) becomes visible on the left. 

Bagnoli (called by the Neapolitans Bagnol) is a small wa- 
tering-place with hot springs , some of which contain salt and 
carbonic acid gas , others sulphur and iron. There are several 
bath and lodging-houses. From Bagnoli by the Strada Nuova 
di Posilipo to Naples, see pp. 91, 90. 

From Bagnoli to Pozzuoli, 2 l / 4 M., the road skirts the coast, 
commanding delightful views. In the lava hills which rise near 
the sea, not far from Pozzuoli, are extensive quarries^ (Petriere), 
where two hundred convicts are employed. 

Pozzuoli. — Hotels. Gran Beettagna , on the hill, in the street 
ascending to the right at the entrance of the town, well spoken of; 
Ponte di Caligola, near the harbour, in the small Piazza S. M. delle 
Grazie. — Restaurant. Bella Venezia , on the quay. (Bargaining necessary 
everywhere.) 

Guides, whose services may well be dispensed with (p. 95), assail 
the traveller pertinaciously the moment he arrives. Their demands are 
generally extravagant. For a walk through the town, to the Amphitheatre, 
and the temple of Serapis 1 fr., or, with the addition of the Solfatara, 
l'/a fr. suffices. — The guides and others also importune visitors to buy 
'antiquities' which are manufactured at Naples and then buried to give 
them the requisite coating of rust or verdigris. Genuine antiquities may 
be purchased of the Canoniro Criscio, in the road ascending to the right 
from the entrance to the town. 

Carriage with one horse to Cumse or Baja 3-4, to both 5-6 fr. ; seat in 
a 'corricolo' V2-I fr. — Donkeys (bad) 2-3 fr. for an afternoon. — Boat 
to Baja for 3-4 persons, in 1 /-2-l hr., about 2 fr. 

If the traveller takes a carriage from Pozzuoli to Baja he had better 
drive at once to the Solfatara (walking , however , for the last 5 min.), 
then to the Amphitheatre, and lastly to the Serapeum. The harbour may 
be visited in returning. — Comp. the Plan. 

Pozzuoli, a quiet town with 16,000 inhab., situated on a 
projecting hill and at its base, on the bay of the same name, 
which forms part of the Bay of Naples, was founded at an early 
period by the Greeks and named by them Dicaearchia. It was 
subdued by the Romans in the Samnite wars, repeatedly colo- 
nised by them, and called by them Puteoli. It afterwards be- 
came the most important commercial city in Italy, and the prin- 
cipal depot for the traffic with Egypt and the East, whence 




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of Naples. POZZUOLI. 5. Route. 97 

Oriental forms of worship were introduced here at an early pe- 
riod. St. Paul once spent seven days here (Acts, xxviii). Its 
ruins , which lie close to the modern town , are now the only 
indication of its ancient importance. The town itself presents 
few attractions. — The volcanic puzzolana earth found in the 
whole of this district , from which an almost indestructible ce- 
ment is manufactured, derives its name from Pozzuoli. 

At the entrance to the town a broad paved road ascends to 
the right in windings, leading to the upper town, the Amphi- 
theatre, and the Solfatara (see below). 

Entering by the gate we soon reach the principal Piazza, 
in which rise the statue of a senator, bearing the name of Q. 
Flav. Mavortius Lollianus, discovered in 1704 (head formed of a 
separate block , but also ancient) , and that of Bishop Leon y 
Cardenas, Viceroy of Sicily under Philip III. 

Proceeding in a straight direction, and turning to the left 
by the church of S. Maria delle Grazie, we come to the Harbour, 
where we see the remains of the ancient pier, called by Seneca 
Pilae , by Suetonius Moles Puteolanae , and now Ponte di Cali- 
gola. Of twenty-five buttresses , which supported twenty-four 
arches , sixteen are left , three being under water. They are 
constructed of bricks and puzzolana earth , and bear an in- 
scription recording that the pier was restored by Antoninus Pius. 
A common , but erroneous impression is , that they were con- 
nected with the bridge -of- boats which Caligula threw across 
the bay of Baise, in order that, clad in the armour of Alexander 
the Great , he might there celebrate his insane triumph over 
the Parthians. Route along the quay to the Serapeum, see below. 

If at the first bend in the above-mentioned road which leads 
to the upper part of the town we turn to the left we soon reach 
the Piazza del Municipio , commanding a fine view, whence we 
may follow the Via del Duomo and its second side-street to the 
left to the cathedral of 8. Proculo. It occupies the site of 
a temple of Augustus, erected by L. Calpurnius, six Corinthian 
columns from which are still outside. The church contains relics 
of St. Proculus and the monuments of the Duke of Montpensier 
and Giovanni Battista Pergolese of Jesi , the talented composer 
of the original Stabat Mater, who died in 1736 at the age of 26. 

At the extreme N. end of the town begins a narrow street 
(bearing the inscription 'Bagni di Serapide ') which leads from the 
sea to the *Temple of Serapis, or Serapeum (fee l /2 fr.), known 
as early as 1538, but not completely excavated till 1750. It con- 
sisted of a square court, enclosed by forty-eight massive marble 
and granite columns , and with thirty-two small chambers ad- 
joining. The portico rested on six Corinthian columns (three of 
which remain), bearing a rich frieze. In the centre of the court 
stood a circular temple, surrounded by a peristyle of sixteen 

Baedeker. Italy III, 7th Edition. 7 



98 Route 5. POZZUOLI. Environs 

Corinthian pillars of African marble , which have been trans- 
ferred to the theatre of the palace at Caserta (p. 10), the bases 
alone being left. The interior was approached by four flights of 
steps. The pavement declined inwards towards the centre, where 
the statues of Serapis , now in the museum at Naples , were 
found. Two inscriptions found here mention the restoration of the 
temple by Marcus Aurelius and Septimius Severus. The lower 
parts of the ruin are under water, but the level of the ground has 
recently been raised, in order to prevent unhealthy exhalations. 

In the course of centuries a species of shellfish (lithodomus, or modiola 
lithophaga , still found in this vicinity) had undermined the bases of the 
central columns, whilst the upper parts remained intact. Interesting obser- 
vations may be made here with respect to the changes which have taken 
place in the level of the sea at different periods. That it had risen con- 
siderably, even in ancient times, is proved by the fact that mosaics have 
been found 6 ft. below the present level of the pavement. After the decline 
of heathenism the sea continued to rise, as the different watermarks testify. 
Subsequently the lower part of the edifice was buried to a depth of 13 ft., 
probably by an eruption of Solfatara, and thus protected against the farther 
invasions of the Crustacea. These extend to a height of 9 ft., so that at 
one period the sea-level must have been at least 20 ft. higher than at 
present. This great change was caused by the convulsion connected with 
the upheaval of Monte Nuovo (p. 100) in 1538. Since the last century the 
ground has again been gradually sinking. The salt springs in the ruins 
were called into existence by the last eruption. 

The Temple of Neptune is a name applied to another ruin, to the W. 
of the Serapeum , consisting of a few pillars rising from the sea. In the 
vicinity, also under water, is situated the so-called Temple of the Nymphs, 
from which a considerable number of columns and sculptures have been 
recovered. A little farther on, a few fragments indicate the site of Cicero's 
Puteolaneum, a villa delightfully situated on the coast, with shady avenues, 
which the orator in imitation of Plato called his Academy, and where he 
composed his 'Academica' and 'De Fato\ Hadrian , who died at Baiae, 
A.D. 138 , was interred within the precincts of Cicero's villa, and Anto- 
ninus Pius afterwards erected a temple on the spot. 

On leaving the Serapeum , we proceed to the right, and by 
a fountain again to the right, after 4 min. cross the high road, 
and ascend the broad paved road to the left to an open space, 
whence the Via Anfiteatro leads after about 250 paces to the 
Amphitheatre , the most interesting and perfect of all the ruins 
of Pozzuoli (admission 2 fr. ; Sundays gratis). 

The *Amphitheatre rests on three series of arches, which were 
surrounded by an external court ; the two principal entrances were 
adorned with triple colonnades. The interior contained four tiers of 
seats in several compartments (cunei), connected by flights of steps. 
The imperial seat was distinguished by Corinthian columns of black 
marble. The arena, 369 ft. long, and 216 ft. broad, was excavated 
in 1838, when a number of subterranean passages and receptacles 
for the wild beasts, etc., 98 paces long and 53 broad, were dis- 
covered , affording us a distinct idea of the arrangements and 
machinery of the ancient amphitheatres. By means of a water 
conduit (to the left of the principal entrance) the arena could be laid 
under water when naval combats were to be represented ; the 



of Naples. SOLFATAEA. 5. Route. 99 

outlet is in the principal passage. The entrances for the gla- 
diators, and the air-holes and outlets of the dens of the animals 
are easily recognised. The celebrated gladiator-combats under 
Nero, when he received Tiridates, King of Armenia, as a guest 
at his court, took place here, and even the emperor himself 
entered the arena. Under Diocletian St. Januarius and his 
companions were thrown to the wild beasts here in vain, as an 
inscription on the chapel dedicated to him records, before they 
were put to death near the Solfatara. The high ground near the 
amphitheatre commands a fine view in the direction of Misenum. 

Above the amphitheatre was situated a theatre , the ruins of which 
have not yet been excavated. Other ruins in the vicinity , externally of 
circular construction, are believed to have been either Baths or a Temple 
of Diana. The Villa Lusciano contains the so-called Labyrinth , really a 
piscina, or ancient reservoir. The Piscina Grande , with vaulted ceiling, 
resting on three rows of ten columns each, still serves as a reservoir, and 
was doubtless once connected with the ancient Julian aqueduct from the 
Pausilypon to Misenum. 

Roman Tombs have been discovered in great numbers on the old 
roads, the Via Campana leading to Capua, the Via Puteolana to Naples, 
and the Via Cumana to Cumse, but are now mere shapeless ruins. 

We now return to the Piazza del Municipio (p. 97), from the 
opposite end of which, by the small church 'Deiparse Consolatrici 
Sacrum', the road to the entrance of the town descends to the 
right (p. 96) , while that to the Solfatara leads to the left. 
The latter (after 2 min. , to the right, afterwards to the left) 
ascends through vineyards. The ascent to the Solfatara on foot 
takes 20 min. ; donkey 1 fr. (not recommended). 

The *Solfatara (adm. V2 fr- eacn person) is the crater of a 
half extinct volcano, an oblong space enclosed by hills of pumice- 
stone, from fissures ('fumaroli') in which vapours and sulphureous 
gases ascend. The ground is hollow in every direction. The 
ancients (Strabo) called this crater Forum Vulcani, and believed 
it to be connected with the crater of Ischia. The only recorded 
eruption from it, attended with an emission of lava, took place 
in 1198. A manufactory of stucco is now established here. 

Above the Solfatara, towards the E. , rise the Colles Leucogaei , the 
white hills whose light-coloured dust was so highly prized by the an- 
cients for colouring groats and other kinds of grain. Several small brooks 
containing alum have their source here, called / Pisciarelli, the Fontes 
Leucogaei of the ancients (Plin. Nat. Hist. xxxi. 2) , which fall steaming 
into a ravine between the Solfatara and the Lago d'Agnano, and are fre- 
quently used as a remedy for cutaneous diseases. The ground is warm 
and saturated with gas in every direction. 

Shortly before our route reaches the Solfatara it is joined on 
the right by a road coming from the Lago d'Agnano (p. 95). The 
*View on the latter road is so fine that the traveller should not omit 
to ascend as far as (6 min.) the now suppressed Capuchin monas- 
tery of S. Oennaro, erected in 1580 on the spot where St. Janu- 
arius is said to have been beheaded in 305. 



100 Routed. LACUS AVERNUS. Environs 

The high-road (carriages, see p. 96) which leads towards the 
W. from Pozzuoli divides at the foot of the Monte Nuovo, nearly 
V/2 M. beyond the town. The branch to the right leads to the 
Lago Averno, Arco Felice, and Cuma? (pp. 104-6); that to the left 
to Baiae and Misenum ('Strada di Miniscola'). 

The Monte Nuovo (456 ft.) is a volcanic hill of comparatively 
recent origin, having been upheaved on 30th Sept. 1538, after 
a violent earthquake. Its form is that of an obtuse cone, in the 
centre of which is a deep extinct crater, enclosed by masses of 
pumice-stone, trachyte, and tufa. The ascent is interesting. 

The road to Baiae (2'/4 M. from the above-mentioned bifur- 
cation) traverses the narrow strip of land which now separates the 
Lacus Lucrinus from the sea. Here stands the small but clean 
Hotel de Russie (D. 3, de'j. 2, bottle of wine V2; pens. 5 fr.). 

The Lacus Lucrinus, which was famed for its oysters in an- 
cient times, was separated from the sea by a bulwark, called 
the Via Herculea, from the tradition that the hero traversed it 
when driving the bulls of Geryon across the swamps. This barrier 
afterwards fell to decay and was again repaired , but was seri- 
ously damaged by the eruption of Monte Nuovo in 1538. Part 
of it, 250 yds. in length, is still visible under the water, where 
remains of the Portus Julius, or harbour constructed by Agrippa, 
are also distinguishable. Instead of oysters, the lake now yields 
the spigola, a fish much esteemed by the Neapolitans. 

About V2 M. to the N. of the Lacus Lucrinus, a little in- 
land, bounded on three sides by hills clothed with chestnuts, 
vineyards, and orange-gardens, lies the celebrated *Lacus Avernus, 
which was regarded by the ancients as the entrance to the infernal 
regions on account of its sombre situation and environs. Its 
banks are now bordered with blocks of lava. Circumference 
nearly 2 M. ; depth 210 ft. ; height above the sea-level 3'/2 ft. 
Tradition affirmed that no bird could fly across it and live, owing 
to its poisonous exhalations, and that the neighbouring ravines 
were the abode of the dismal , sunless Cimmerii , mentioned by 
Homer (Odyss. xi). Virgil, too, represents this as the scene of 
the descent of ^Eneas, conducted by the Sibyl , to the infernal 
regions (^n. "vi. 237). Augustus, by the construction of the 
Julian harbour, and by connecting this lake with the Lacus 
Lucrinus, was the first to dispel these gloomy legends. Horace and 
Virgil accordingly extol the harbour as a prodigy. — The canals 
and wharves of Agrippa were still in existence in 1538, but the 
upheaval of the Monte Nuovo destroyed every vestige of them, 
half filled the Lucrine lake, and so altered the configuration of the 
neighbourhood that the two lakes are now quite separate, and the 
intervening space is completely overgrown with underwood. In 
1858 an attempt was made to convert the Lacus Avernus anew 
into a war-harbour, but the scheme was soon found impracticable. 



of Naples. BAJA. 5. Route. 101 

On the S. Side of the lake are observed grottoes and cuttings, hewn 
in the tuffstone rock, which probably once belonged to the Portus Julius. 
One of these caverns, situated a few hundred paces to the left of the end 
of the road coming from the Lucrine Lake , and now called the Grotto 
of the Sibyl, or Grotta d'Averuo, is entered by a gateway of brick , and 
consists of a long, damp passage hewn in the rocks and ventilated by 
vertical apertures. About midway between the two lakes a narrow pas- 
sage to the right leads to a small square chamber, the ' Entrance to the 
Infernal Regions' 1 - Near it is a chamber with mosaic pavement and ar- 
rangements for a warm bath. It contains luke-warm water, 1 ft. in 
depth, which rises in the neighbourhood, and is styled by the guides the 
'Bath of the Sibyl'. The grotto is 280 paces in length, and blackened with 
the smoke of torches. 

On the N.W. Side of the lake is one end of the Grotta della Pace 
(p. 105). 

On the E. Side are the interesting ruins of magnificent Baths, some- 
times called a Temple of Apollo, Pluto, or Mercury. 

Having returned to the Baja road, we reach, about 1/2 M. from 
the Lucrine Lake , the ruins of ancient baths , called Le Stufe 
di Tritoli. Near them a path on the slope of the mountain leads to 
the Bagni di Nerone, a long, narrow, dark passage in the rock, 
at the farther end of which rise several warm springs, the famed 
Thermae Neronianae of antiquity, and still frequented by invalids. 

The water is hot enough to boil eggs (1 fr. ; admission to the baths 
'/a fr.). But there is nothing worth seeing, and the interior is so hot that 
a visit to it is anything but pleasant. 

After we have ascended a little and rounded the projecting 
Punta delf Epitaffio, a charming view of Baja is disclosed to us. 
On the hill to the right we observe innumerable fragments of old 
masonry, passages, colonnades, mosaic-pavements, etc., all now 
overgrown with plants and buried in rubbish. 

Baja. — Hotel della Regina, a tavern commanding a charming 
view, not suitable for spending the night ; bargaining advisable in spite of 
the announcement of fixed charges, D. 3'/4 fr., A. 25 c; Albekgo della 
Vittokia, at the foot of the castle, '/a M. farther, less pretentious. — Guide 
unnecessary, 1-1 >/g fr. according to bargain; Giosafatta de Lucio may be 
recommended. 

Boat to Pozzuoli for 3-4 persons about 2 fr. ; to Bacoli and Miseno 
the same; there and back 3-4 fr. ; according to bargain in each case. 

Baja, the ancient Bai<e, now a very insignificant village, situat- 
ed on the bay of the same name and commanding a charming view 
was the most famous and magnificent watering-place of antiquity, 
and had attained the zenith of its splendour in the age of Cicero, 
Augustus, Nero, and Hadrian. 'Nothing in the world can be com- 
pared with the lovely bay of Baiae', exclaims Horace's wealthy Ro- 
man (Epist. i. 85) , who is desirous of erecting a magnificent villa 
there. Luxury and profligacy, however, soon took up their abode 
at Baiae, and the desolate ruins which now alone encounter the eye 
point the usual moral. With the decline of the Roman empire the 
glory of Baiae speedily departed. In the 8th cent, it was devastated 
by the Saracens, and in 1500 entirely deserted by its inhabitants. 

Of the imposing baths and villas of the Romans , the founda- 
tions of which were often thrown far out into the sea, nothing but 
mere fragments now remain. In modern times these ruins are often 



102 Route 5. BACOLI. Environs 

exalted into temples, or otherwise dignified in a manner for which 
there is not the slightest foundation. The principal remains consist 
of three extensive colonnades which belonged to baths. 

We first observe in a vineyard to the right of the high road, and 
to the N. of the road to the Lago Fusaro, a large octagonal build- 
ing, with a circular interior, and four recesses in the walls, and 
remains of a water conduit, styled a Temple of Diana (fee 30-50 c). 

If we ascend the road to the Lago Fusaro for 5 min. we reach a 
path to the right on the slope, which in 10 min. more leads us to the 
top of the hill, and commands an admirable view of Cumse, Ischia, etc. 

Close to the village, in another vineyard to the right of the road, 
is a large circular building, with a vaulted ceiling, open in the 
centre, and four niches in the walls, obviously a bath , but called 
a Temple of Mercury , or by the peasantry il troylio (trough). Fine 
echo in the interior (fee 30-50 c. ; women here offer to dance the 
tarantella for the traveller's entertainment, 50 c). 

A little farther on, to the right, is the Hotel della Regina. 
About 100 paces beyond it, to the left, by the small harbour where 
the boats from Pozzuoli land , is situated an octagonal structure 
with a vaulted ceiling, in the interior circular, and 25 paces in 
diameter, with remains of the ancient lateral chambers, windows, 
and staircases , somewhat resembling the Minerva Medica at 
Rome, now called the Temple of Venus. (As this is a public 
thoroughfare, no gratuity need be given.) 

The high road skirts the bay, and passing several columbaria 
on the left, ascends the hill occupied by the Castle of Baja, which 
was erected in the 16th cent, by Don Pedro de Toledo. 

About 2 M. beyond Baja we reach the village of Bacoli, which 
derives its name from the ancient Villa Bauli, and also boasts of a 
number of antiquities. The traveller who is pressed for time, how- 
ever , had better confine his attention to the Piscina Mirabilis 
(see below). 

The Villa Bauli is celebrated as having been the frequent residence of 
distinguished Romans , and it was here that Nero planned the murder of 
his mother Agrippina, in March, A.D. 59, a crime which was afterwards 
perpetrated at her villa on the Lucrine Lake. The tomb of Agrippina, of 
humble pretensions as Tacitus informs us (Ann. xiv. 9), was situated on 
the height by the road to Misenum, near the villa of Caesar, but the 
spot cannot now be exactly determined. What is commonly named the 
Sepolcro d" 1 Agrippina, on the coast below the village, a semicircular pass- 
age with vaulted ceiling, reliefs, and paintings, is really the ruins of a 
small theatre. Extensive ruins near this, partly under water, are supposed 
to belong to the villa of the eminent orator Hortensius, and may be visited 
by boat. Even the pond in which he reared his favourite lampreys is 
said to be visible. In this villa Nero is believed to have sanctioned the 
proposition of his freedman Anicetus, commander of the fleet, to drown 
his mother Agrippina by sinking her in a ship. The attempt, however, 
failed. 

The Villa of Julius Caesar, on the height near Bauli, was afterwards 
the property of Augustus, and was occupied by his sister Octavia after the 
death of her second husband 31. Antony; and here she lost her hopeful 
son, the youthful Marcellus, whom Augustus had destined to be his suc- 
cessor. It is believed by many that the subterranean chambers, known as 



of Naples. MISENUM. 5. Route. 103 

the C'ento Camerelle, or Canjeri di Nerone, or the Labyrinth, belonged to 
the basement story of this villa ( fee i/ 2 l'r. ). They are sometimes 
visited by torchlight, but the view from them is the chief attraction. 

On the hill to the S. of Bacoli, 10 miii. from the entrance to 
the village, is situated the *Piscina Mirabilis. (Guide unnecessary. 
We may either leave the road by the Ufflzio Daziario and follow 
the long street of the village; or, better, follow the road to the 
bifurcation mentioned below , and 60 paces beyond it ascend a 
path diverging to the left from the Misenum road. On the hill we 
turn to the right. Custodian, whose house is on the right, near 
the Piscina, '/ 2 fr. ; he sells vases and other antiquities found in 
the vicinity. ) The Piscina is a reservoir at the extremity of the 
Julitin Aqueduct , '230 ft. in length, 85 ft. in width, with a vault- 
ed ceiling supported by forty-eight massive columns, and ad- 
mirably preserved. — Following the top of the hill in the same 
direction (S. ) for 7 min. more, we reach a cottage (good wine), the 
roof of which commands a very fine view, though inferior to that 
from the Capo Miseno. 

Near Bacoli, about '/ 4 51. beyond the Ufflzio Daziario, the road 
divides : the branch to the right leads to Miniscola and the 
(_ 2 /s M.~) starting-point of the ferry-boat to Procida and Ischia (see 
p. 107 ); the road to the left leads in a straight direction to Misenum. 
Both of these roads skirt the margin of the shallow Mare Morte, 
part of the old harbour of Misenum , from which it has only 
recently been separated by the embankment which bears the road. 
The two basins are now connected by a narrow channel only, which 
is crossed by a bridge. 

In the time of Augustus a vast war-harbour was constructed atJIisc- 
num by Agrippa , in connection with the works at the Lacus Avernus 
and the Lacus Lucrinus, in order to serve as a receptacle for thelioinan 
fleet on this coast, like Ravenna in the Adriatic. The harbour consisted 
of three basins, two outer, one on each side of the promontory called 
Fonto, and one inner, the present Mare Morto. The Panta di I'eiiiutta, 
a narrow promontory which bounds the harbour of Misenum on the N., 
was penetrated by a double subaqueous passage for the purpose of pre- 
venting the accumulation of sand at the entrance. A pier was also con- 
structed on pillars, three of which are still visible under water. Other 
relics of antiquity abound in the neighbourhood , but it is a difficult 
matter now to ascertain to what they belonged. Even the situation of 
the Town of Misenum is not precisely known , although it probably lay 
near the modern village of that name. Scanty remnants of a theatre are 
still traceable near the small promontory II Forno. Some ruins on the 
height above are supposed to belong to the once famous villa of Lucullus, 
afterwards the property of Tiberius, who died here, and subsequently 
that of Nero. The Orolta Dntgonara, a long subterranean passage on 
the W. side of the promontory, with vaulted roof, supported by twelve 
pillars, is variously conjectured to have been a naval depot or a reser- 
voir for water. 

The fleet stationed at Misenum , to which the place owed its impor- 
tance, was commanded in A.D. 79 by the Elder Pliny, who perished 
during the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius (p. 118). In 890 the town was de- 
stroyed by the Saracens. 

Driving is not allowed beyond the above - mentioned bridge, 
l /i M. from the bifurcation of the road. Beyond it we pass a 



104 Route 5. CAPO MISENO. 



Environs 



white powder-mill, soon reach (i/ 2 M. ) the village of Miseno, 
situated at the foot of the cape, and proceed to the clLurch. The 
ascent (to the top and back l'/ 2 hr. ) is fatiguing. We follow 
the main road to the Tenuta , a little before which we ascend to 
the right; a steep and narrow path then leads to the summit 
through vineyards. 

The *Capo Miseno is an isolated mass of rock rising from the 
sea, which was formerly only connected with the mainland by the 
narrow Spiaggia diMiniscola (see below), extending towards theW. 
Its remarkable form once gave rise to the belief that it was an 
artificially constructed tumulus of very ancient origin. Thus Virgil 
(yEii. vi. 232) describes it as the burial-place of the trumpeter 
Misenus : — 

At pius jEneas ingenti mole sepulcrum 
Inponit, suaque ariiui viro remumque tubamque 
Monte sub aereo, qui nunc Misenus ab itlo 
Dicitur neternumque tenet per saecula nomen. 
The summit (300 ft.) is crowned with a ruined castle. On the 
side next the sea rises a picturesque mediaeval watch-tower ; an- 
other similar tower has recently been removed to make way for 
a lighthouse. The **View hence is one of the most striking in 
the environs of Naples. It embraces the bays of Naples and Gaeta 
and the surrounding heights, with the peculiarity that the spectator 
appears to stand in the midst of a complicated assemblage of straits, 
peninsulas, bays, lakes, and promontories. 

To the W., opposite the Capo Miseno, rises the Monte di Pro- 
eida, a volcanic rock, covered with vineyards yielding excellent 
wine, and fragments of ancient villas. 

The narrow strip of coast, about 1 M. in length, between the 
Capo Miseno and the Monte di Proeida, separating the sea (Canale 
di Proeida) from the Mare Morto, is called the Spiaggia di Minis- 
cola, or Miliscola, a name which is said to be a corruption of Mititis 
Schola { 'military exercising-ground'J. At the foot of the Monte di 
Proeida, at the point where the road from Baja reaches it, is the 
landing-place (Sbarcatojo) for boats to Ischia and Proeida, to which 
there are frequent opportunities of crossing. (To Proeida , for one 
or more persons V/ 2 -2 fr. ; the bargain should be made with the 
boatmen themselves.) — On the road to Baja, '/ 4 M. to the N. of 
the landing-place, at the junction of the road with that from the 
Lago Fnsaro, is the poor O.iteria del Monte di Proeida (no sign; 
good wine). 

The N. (right) branch of the road ascends gradually from the 
bifurcation at the foot of the Monte Nuovo (p. 100), V/ 2 M. from 
Pozzuoli, to the top of the E. margin of the crater of" the Lago 
Averno, which soon becomes visible below to the left. About 2M. 
farther, where the road turns a little to the right, a cart-track di- 
verges to the left, leading in a few minutes to the Arco Felice, a 



of Naples. CVMM. 5. Route. 105 

huge structure of brickwork, about 63 ft. in height, and 18'/.2 ft- 
in width, situated in a deep gully. On the summit are traces of 
an aqueduct. The arch may have been exclusively destined for 
the latter purpose, or it may also have carried a road over the high- 
er ground. 

The road to Cumae passes through the arch and then descends. 
About 400 paces beyond it an ancient paved way diverges to the 
left to a subterranean vaulted passage , called the Qrotta delta Pace 
(after Pietro della Pace, a Spaniard who explored it in the 16th 
cent.). It was constructed by Agrippa for the purpose of affording 
direct communication between Cumae and the Lacus Avernus. This 
tunnel is upwards of */2 M. in length, and is lighted at intervals 
by shafts from above. 

The entrance is closed by a gate (admission 1/2 fr.), which carriages 
are not allowed to pass. Torches, which are, however, unnecessary, are 
offered for sale at Pozzuoli (1 fr. per pair). — Travellers from Cumae, or 
those who wish to combine the excursion to Baja with a visit to the La- 
cus Avernus in such a way as not to be obliged to traverse the same 
ground twice, may avail themselves of this tunnel in order to reach the 
N. bank of the lake (see p. 100). 

We continue to follow the road to Cumae, the acropolis of which 
we observe on the hill to theW. About '/^M. from the Arco Felice 
near the entrance to a vigna bearing the name 'Villa Martino', the 
road forks: to the left to the Lago del Fusaro (p. 106); to the 
right (but not practicable for carriages beyond this point) to Cum 33. 
In a vigna to the left of the former branch of the road, about 120 
paces from the bifurcation, is situated an ancient Amphitheatre with 
twenty-one tiers of seats, covered with earth and underwood. If 
we follow the branch of the road to the right, and after 90 paces 
diverge from it to the left, we are led through a farm-yard and by 
a path through vineyards in J / 4 hr. to the site of ancient Cumae. 

Cumae, Greek Cyme, the most ancient Greek colony in Italy, was 
situated near the sea on a volcanic eminence (trachyte), which 
rises from the extensive plain between the Monte di Procida and 
the mouth of the Volturno. 

The town is said to have been founded by iEolians from Asia Minor 
in B. C. 1050, or at an even earlier period. Cumse in its turn founded 
DicEearchia, the modern Pozzuoli, and Palseopolis, the modern Naples, and 
exercised the most widely extended influence on the civilisation of the 
Italian peninsula. All the different alphabets of Italy were derived from 
the Cumsean ; and Cumse was the centre whence the Hellenic forms of 
worship, and with them Hellenic culture, became gradually diffused among 
the aboriginal tribes. Rome received the mysterious Sibylline books from 
Cumse, and the last of the Tarquinii died here in exile. The city, which 
once boasted of great wealth and commercial prosperity, was often seri- 
ously imperilled by the attacks of the neighbouring tribes, especially the 
Etruscans , who were signally defeated in a naval battle near Cumse , by 
Hiero of Syracuse, the ally of the citizens, B.C. 474. Pindar cele- 
brates this victory in the first Pythian ode , and a helmet of the en- 
emy dedicated at Olympia as a votive offering from the spoil was found 
there (now in the British Museum). At the close of the 5th cent. Cumse 
participated in the general decline of the Hellenic towns. In 420 it was 
stormed by the Samnites, and in 337 taken by the Romans, after which 



106 Route 5. LAGO DEL FUSARO. Environs 

it became a Roman municipium of little importance. Under the emperors 
it fell entirely to decay, but was restored by the Goths. In the 9th cent, 
it was burned by the Saracens , and in the 13th it was finally destroyed 
as a stronghold of pirates by the inhabitants of Naples and Aversa. 

Fragments of the huge external walls of the lofty *Acropolis 
are still standing. Beautiful prospect thence towards the sea, 
Gaeta, and the Ponza Islands, and (to the left) of the Lago Fusaro, 
Ischia, etc. Extensive remains of the ancient fortifications are 
preserved, especially on the E. side and by the S. entrance. The 
rock on which this castle stands is perforated in every direction 
with passages and shafts. One of these (descend to the loft by the 
hut), with numerous lateral openings and subterranean passages, is 
thought to correspond with the description given by Virgil {JEn. 
vi. 41) of the Grotto of the Sibyl, which had a hundred entrances 
and as many issues, 'whence resound as many voices, the oracles 
of the prophetess'. The principal entrance is on the side of the 
hill towards the sea, but most of the passages are blocked up. It 
is believed that one of the passages leads to a large, dark cavern 
in the direction of the Lago del Fusaro, but the investigations have 
been abandoned as dangerous. — The form of the temples of 
Apollo, Diana, the Giants, and Serapis, where recent excava- 
tions have brought sculptures and columns to light , is not now 
traceable. The scanty ruins are concealed among vineyards and 
underwood. 

Numerous tombs have been discovered at the base of the rock of Cumic, 
many of which were explored by the Count of Syracuse and yielded a 
rich spoil, consisting of vases and valuables of every kind. Some of these 
were taken to the collection of Marchese Campana at Rome , whence they 
were afterwards transferred to the Museums of Paris and St. Petersburg. 

To the S. of Cumse is situated (l'/a II.) the Lago del Fusaro, perhaps 
once the harbour of Oumaj, to which the poetical name of the Acherusian 
Lake is sometimes applied. It is still, as in ancient times, celebrated for 
its oysters. In the centre is a pavilion, erected by Ferdinand I. The lake 
is believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano , and as lately as 1838 
it exhaled such volumes of mephitic gases that the oysters were destroyed 
by them. At the S. end of the lake is a Roman 'emissarius', the Foce del 
Fusaro, which connects it with the sea. To the N. of the emissarius, on 
a projecting tongue of land, stands the Torre di Qaveta , with extensive 
ruins of the villa of Servilius Vatia, who retired hither when Nero's folly 
and tyranny at Rome had become insufferable. — A road leads from the 
Lago del Fusaro , passing numerous relics of ancient tombs , to ( 3 A M ) 
Baja, and another to (2>/2 M -) Miniscola (p. 104). 

6. Procida and Ischia. 

Comp. the Majy. 
A visit to these charming islands requires two days. A Steamboat 
(Societct Anonima di Navigazione a Yapore Procida-Ischia ; office at Naples 
Strada Nuova 14) plies between Naples and Casamicciola in Ischia once 
daily (sometimes twice in summer) , in 2'/2-3 lirs. (fare 5 fr.) the inter- 
vening stations being Procida and the town of Ischia. It usually starts 
from the Molo Piccolo at Naples (p. 39 ; near the Inunaeolatella PI F 5) 
at 1 or 2 p.m., returning from Casamicciola at 5 or 6. a.m. The steam- 
boat starting from Naples every Tuesday at 7 a.m. for the Ponza Islands 
(returning on Thursday) also calls at Procida and Ischia. Farther infor- 



of Naples. PROOIDA. 5. Route. 107 

mation may be obtained at any of the hotels. The steamers are small and 
sometimes crowded. Embarking or landing at Naples, or at Casamicciola, 
20 c. each person; at Procida or Ischia 10 c. ; the boatmen are rarely sat- 
isfied with this tariff, but their importunities should be disregarded. 

First Dat. A visit to Procida, which may be paid either in going to or 
returning from Ischia, occupies a few hours only. In the former case 
we land at the town of Procida on the N. side, ascend to the fort for the 
sake of the view, and then traverse the island lengthwise to the creek of 
Chiajolella (2 M.), where boats are found for the crossing to Ischia. (I1/2 fr.). 
After landing in Ischia we walk (l 3 /4 hr.) or ride (donkey 1 1/2 fr.) to 
Casamicciola, and pass the night there (the inns at Procida and Ischia being 
poor). On the Second Day we ascend the Epomeo, either going or returning 
by Forio. 

A visit to these islands may be very conveniently combined with the 
excursion to Cumfe and Baja. After breakfasting at Baja, we arrange to 
start thence about 11 a. m., drive by Bacoli (p. 102; visit the Piscina 
fllirabilis; see the view from the roof of the cottage; no time for the Capo 
Miseno) to Miniscola in 1-1 1/2 hr., cross to Procida (p. 104) in 3 /4-l hr. (visit 
the castle if time permits, 3 /4 hr.), and then proceed by steamboat to 
Casamicciola (1 hr. ; fare 3 fr. 25c). — The second day may then be spent 
as indicated above , and on the third we return to Naples. — A rowing- 
boat takes 6 hrs. to cross from Ischia to Capri in fine weather (20 fr.). 

Procida, the Prochyta or Prochyte of the ancients, like its 
sister island Ischia, with which it appears once to have been con- 
nected , is of volcanic origin , being composed of pumice-stone 
and lava. It consists of two contiguous craters, which now form 
two semicircular bays , their S. margins having been destroyed 
by the action of the sea. A third and smaller crater forms 
the creek of Chiajolella, and a fourth the neighbouring island 
of Vivara, which has been separated from Procida by some con- 
vulsion of nature. The island is 1 M. in length, and of varying 
width; population 14,100, whose occupations are fishing and the 
cultivation of the vine and other fruit. The surface is somewhat 
flat compared with that of its more majestic sister isle. 

As the island of Procida is approached , the most conspic- 
uous object is the fort, situated on the Punta di Rocciola, the 
N.W. extremity. Below lies the town of Procida, extending a- 
long the N. coast, partly built on the higher ground above, and 
stretching thence towards the S. side. The white, glistening 
houses with their flat roofs present a somewhat Oriental aspect. 
On festivals, especially that of St. Michael (29th Sept.), the 
women in commemoration of their ancient origin assume the 
Greek costume (red upper garment with gold embroidery), and 
perform the tarantella, their national dance. 

The landing-place is on the N. side, and close to it is the in- 
different Vittoria inn (R., B., and D. 4-5 fr., bargaining necessary). 
In order to reach the castle we follow the main street of the village 
which ascends to the left by the Cafe del Commercio at the W. 
end of the Marina, and take the first side-street to the left. This 
leads to the small Piazza dei Martiri, where a tablet was placed in 
1863 in memory of twelve Procidans who were executed during 
the reaction of 1799 (fine view towards the S.). In 5 min. more 



108 Route 6. ISCHIA. Environs 

we reach the Castle, now a house of correction, situated on a pre- 
cipitous rock, and commanding fine * Views of Procida and the 
Epomeo , Capo Miseno, Capri, Vesuvius, and the peninsula of 
Sorrento. 

The above mentioned main street' intersects the town from E. 
to W., and is prolonged to the left by the 'Strada Vittorio Ema- 
nuele', which runs between garden-walls and rows of houses, and 
traverses the whole island towards the S.W. In 40 min. we reach 
the Bay of Chiajolella, situated below the old chateau of $. Mar- 
garita , and near the small olive -olad island of Vivara. At the 
Chiajolella boats for the passage to Ischia are always to be found 
( 3 / 4 hr. ; fare l 1 /o tr.~). As soon as we have passed Vivara, we 
obtain a view of Ischia with its beautiful hills, commanded by the 
summit of the Epomeo, with the town and castle of Ischia in the 
foreground. 

Ischia, the Pithecusa, JEnaria, or Inarime of antiquity, and 
the mediaeval Iscla , the largest island near Naples, is about 19 
M. in circumference, without taking the numerous indentations 
into account, and has 25,800 inhabitants, who are principally 
engaged in fishing and the culture of the vine (white wine, light 
and slightly acid) and other fruit. The climate is genial, the soil 
extremely productive ; the scenery almost everywhere singularly 
beautiful, for which it is indebted to its volcanic origin. Monte 
Epomeo (the ancient Epomeus, or Epopeus) was an active volcano 
at a much earlier period than Vesuvius, and in consequence of 
its eruptions the island was deserted in B. C. 474 by the greater 
number of the Greek inhabitants. Eruptions also took place in 
B.C. 92, and in the reigns of Titus, Antoninus Pius, and 
Diocletian. According to the ancient poets, the giant Typhosus, 
transfixed by the thunderbolt of Jupiter, lay buried beneath this 
mountain, like Enceladus under y£tna, periodically groaning and 
causing fearful eruptions of fire. The last eruption recorded took 
place in 1302. The stream of lava which on that occasion de- 
scended to the sea near Ischia is not yet wholly covered with ve- 
getation, and resembles a black seam athwart the landscape. 

After the fall of Rome Ischia suffered many attacks and devastations 
at the hands of the different lords of Italy, especially the Saracens in 813 
and 847, the Pisans in 1135, and the Emp. Henry VI. and his son 
Frederick II. In 1282 it revolted with Sicily against the Anjou dynasty, 
but was subdued by Charles II. of Naples in 1299, and has since been 
united with the kingdom and shared its vicissitudes. The celebrated 
general, the Marchese Pescara, was born in 1489 at the castle of Ischia, 
which was afterwards gallantly defended by his sister Constance against 
the forces of Louis XII. of France. As a reward, her family were invested 
with the governorship of Ischia, which they retained till 1734. In 1525 
JVscara's widow, Vittoria Colonna, celebrated alike for her talent and 
I'eauty, the poetical friend of Mirhael Angelo, retired to Ischia to mourn 
her husband's loss. So loo .Maria of Arragon in 1548, widow of the Mar- 
chese del Vasto. 



of Naples. [SCHIA. 6. Route. 109 

The charming situation of this island has attracted numerous 
visitors in all ages, and its influence is as fascinating as ever. 
A sojourn here, particularly during the height of summer, is re- 
commended on account of the refreshing coolness of the air. The 
N. side, having been most exposed to volcanic action, is far more 
beautiful than the S. The island abounds in thermal springs, 
which occur most frequently on the N. side. The principal towns 
are Ischia, Casamicciola, and Forio. 

Ischia, the capital of the island, with 6800 inhab., and the 
seat of a bishop , stretches picturesquely along the shore in the 
form of a street, 1 M. in length, extending from the Castle on its 
lofty isolated rock on the S. to the Punta Molina on the N. The 
castle, erected by Alphonso V. of Arragon (Alphonso I. of Naples) 
about 1450, and connected with the land by a stone pier, is only 
shown by permission of the commandant, which may often be 
obtained in the Stabilimento Bagni d'lschla (see below). 

The route to Casamicciola (4'/ 2 M.) is very beautiful at places. 
From the landing-place at Ischia we follow the road to the right 
in a straight direction, crossing the Lava dell' Arso, or lava-stream 
of 1302, which did not descend from Epomeo, but from a neigh- 
bouring side-crater, where slag and pumice-stone are still observ- 
ed. About 1 M. from Ischia, after passing a royal park and 
casino on the left, we reach an old crater, formerly the Lake of 
Ischia, which was connected with the sea in 1853-56 in order to 
afford refuge to vessels in stormy weather. Near it are several 
warm salt springs, which are used at the different establishments 
of the Bagni d' Ischia (also called Porto a" Ischia). On the quay is 
the small Caffe dei Viaggiatori, with rooms and baths. 

The road ('Via Quercia') ascends to the left by a yellow church 
with Ionic columns, being accompanied by the telegraph wires, and 
commanding a beautiful view of the rocky coast and the sea. 
About 2 l /-2 M. farther we reach the first houses of Casamicciola, 
and 1 M. beyond them the hotels. 

Casamicciola. — Arrival by Steamer. The landing-place is 25 min. 
walk from the loftily situated hotels ; landing or embarcation 20 c. ; don- 
key to the hotels 50 c. ; road ascending to the right, not to be mistaken. 
Order is now strictly maintained at the landing-place by the authorities. 
Most of the hotels send a facchino to meet the steamboat. 

Hotels , all fitted up for persons making a prolonged stay ; for pass- 
ing visitors as dear as first-class hotels, though somewhat inferior. They 
are all detached, situated in gardens, and commanding beautiful views. 
*Hotel Bellevue , the yellow house farthest to the right, with the finest 
view, visited by Garibaldi in 1863; La Gkan Sentinella, a grotesque- 
looking pink house , near the first. Lower down : "Hotel Piccola Sen- 
tinella, a comfortable house, English landlady, R. 3, T>. 4'/2, L. and A. 
l'/2, pension 7 fr., less for a prolonged stay. — Hotel Manzi, near the 
bath-house. 

Pensions. "Villa de Rivaz, 8 fr. ; '-Villa Saove, 7-8 fr., delightfully 
situated; both near the Gran Sentinella; Villa Pisano, Monkepos (Villa 
di Majo), 6-8 fr., etc. — Furnished rooms at the Villa Balsamo , at the 
entrance to the town from Ischia , and in many other houses. 



110 Route 0. ISCHIA. Environs 

Donkeys and Mules, strong and swift, generally 1 fr. per hour; for 
the ascent of the Epomeo and back 3-4 fr., or including Forio 5 fr. 
and fee. 

Casamicciola, a village with 4200inbab., consisting of several 
large groups of houses and a number of scattered dwellings , ex- 
tends from the sea up the N. slope of the Epomeo. The higher 
parts of it afford charming views, particularly towards the E., em- 
bracing the N. creeks of the Bay of Naples as far as Mt. Vesuvius. 
It is much frequented in summer (May to Aug.) for the sake of 
its warm alkaline and saline springs. The baths of Manzi and 
Belliazzi are well fitted up. The large bath hospital of the Monte 
della Misericordia treats about 1000 patients annually. The chief 
spring is the Ourgitello (upwards of 144° Fahr.), which, like most 
of the others, rises in the Vallone Ombrasco. The traveller will 
find this a pleasant place for a prolonged stay. 

Many beautiful walks and excursions on donkey-back may be 
taken from Casamicciola. Thus to the "W. , to the village of Lacco, 
situated on the lava-stream which forms the N.W. extremity of the 
island. Here are situated the' church and monastery of St. Resti- 
tuta , the patroness of the island, on the occasion of whose festival 
(17th May) numerous national costumes and dancers of the taran- 
tella are observed. Near the monastery and in the garden attached 
to it rise hot springs which are used for vapour-baths. Other plea- 
sant excursions may be made with the help of the Map at p. 106. 

Forio , the most populous place in the island after Ischia, 
with 6500 inhab. , lies on the W. coast, 3 M. from Casamicciola, 
whence a visit to it forms an agreeable excursion. The route by 
Lacco should be chosen for returning. The Franciscan monastery 
by the sea merits a visit on account of the beauty of its situation. 

The Ascent of the Epomeo, the finest of all the excursions, 
may be undertaken from any of the principal towns. It occupies 
5-6 hrs., and is a very fatiguing walk. The ascent, for which 
donkeys are generally used (see above), may be made either from 
Casamicciola or by Forio and Panza , and the descent to Ischia 
or Forio, in order that the traveller may thus become acquainted 
with the greater part of the island. The descent to Ischia is 
preferable for the sake of the fine view obtained of the bays of Poz- 
zuoli and Naples. The afternoon and evening lights are the most 
favourable for the view. A moonrise, too, is often very beautiful. 

The route from Casamicciola first descends to the left by the 
public rooms and follows the road to Ischia. The footpath then 
ascends to the right, occasionally traversing precipitous ravines. 
The vegetation changes ; below are vineyards, above them chest- 
nut-woods, and then barren, rocky ground. Beyond the culminating 
point of the pass, the path skirts the S. side of the mountain, 
below the principal peaks , and ascends in long zigzags to the 
hermitage (donkey in 2'/ 2 hrs. ; on foot, direct, in 2 hrs.). 

The **Epomeo (2625 ft.) falls away on the N. side almost per- 



of Naples. ISCHIA. 6. Route. 1 1 1 

pendicularly, but is less steep on the other three sides. At the 
top are a Hermitage and the Chapel of S. Nicola, hewn in the 
volcanic rock , from which the mountain is also called Monte 
S. Nicola. Wine and bread may be obtained from the hermit, and 
in any case a trifling donation is expected. The tourists may also 
inscribe their names in a visitors' book. Passages and steps cut in 
the rock ascend to the Belvedere, commanding a strikingly beauti- 
ful panorama, embracing the bays of Gaeta and Naples. At our 
feet lies the island of Ischia itself ; to the W. the open sea ; to 
the E. the coast of Italy from Terracina, the promontory of Cir- 
cello, and the Ponza islands to Capo Miseno, Vesuvius, and the 
Capo Campanella, the extremity of the peninsula of Sorrento ; in 
the foreground Procida, then the indentations of the Bay of Nap- 
les, to the right the island of Capri; towards the N. the distant 
snowy peaks of the Abruzzi. 

The descent by the villages of Fontana, Moropano, and Casa- 
bona, and lastly across a desolate lava-field to Ischia, takes 2'^ hrs., 
and the route by Panza to Forio about as long. Both the ascent 
and descent afford charming views. 

The following extracts from the writings of Nicolovius, an eminent 
German author, and husband of Goethe's niece, although dating from 1792, 
are in most respects still applicable to Ischia. 

'The climate of this charming island is genial, the sky rarely overcast, 
the winters mild, the inhabitants bounteously supplied by nature with the 
necessaries of life, and the sick with healing springs. Trees, shrubs, and 
all kinds of plants thrive luxuriantly in the rich volcanic soil. Here and 
there are observed groves of young oaks and chestnuts. Orange, pome- 
granate, fig, and arbutus trees are the most common in the gardens ; the 
myrtle and mastich-tree form the most frequent underwood in the unculti- 
vated parts. The inhabitants are distinguished by a peculiar dialect, 
costume, and figure. Fashion is unknown. The island cannot boast of a 
single carriage or horse. The king himself on landing here must, like the 
humblest inhabitant, have recourse to a donkey, unless he prefers to 
walk .... Nowhere have we seen the tarantella, or national Neapolitan 
dance, in greater perfection than here. It is usually performed by two 
girls ; a third plays on the tambourine and sings. The woes of an absent 
or unhappy lover are usually the theme of the song. In many of them 
the Madonna and Cupinto (Cupid) are depicted as in perfect harmony with 
each other. The dancers stand opposite to each other, grasp the corners 
of their broad aprons, and begin their evolutions. They place their arms 
alternately akimbo, while the disengaged hand grasping the apron raises 
it high in the air, and occasionally draws it tightly across the knee. The 
posture and the manipulation of the apron changes incessantly. At one 
time the dancers flit past each other , at another with a slight curt- 
sey and sweep of the foot give the sign to meet again, whereupon they 
let go their aprons and career round in a circle, striking their castanets 
with upraised hands , or imitating the sound with their fingers. The ca- 
price of the dancer is capable of imparting an entirely different character 
to the dance, which is generally intended to manifest the state of the feel- 
ings. Fortunata, a relative of our host, performed the dance one evening, 
at our request, with an uncouth Lombard youth, and the expression of the 
dance was one of bitter derision. ' 



112 

7. From Naples to Pompeii (and Salerno). 
Herculaneum. La Favorita. 

Railway to Pompeii, 15 31., in 50 min.; fares 2 fr. 75, 1 fr. 90, 1 fr. 10 c. 
(return-tickets 4 fp. 50, 3 fr. 10, 1 fr. 85 c). — High-road, see p. 115. 

The railway from Naples to Pompeii, and thence to Salerno 
and Baragiano (best views to the right), traverses the suburbs 
and crosses the insignificant Sebeto, a stream which bounds Naples 
on the E. The large red buildings on the right are the Granili, 
which are used as barracks and (as their name imports) corn-maga- 
zines. Beyond these we obtain a retrospect of the Castel S. Elmo. 
This district is densely peopled ; the first village is the straggling 
8. Qiovanni a Teduccio. To the right the view becomes less cir- 
cumscribed; and Naples, thePosilipo, beyond which rise the moun- 
tains of Ischia, the island of Capri opposite , and the peninsula 
of Sorrento are now visible. 

5 M. Portici. — Pension du Vesuve, near the royal palace, 10 fr. per 
day, thoroughly Italian. 

Carriages. With one horse to the Piazza del Municipio at Naples 
l'/2 fr., or from one hour after sunset till midnight 2'/4 fr. ; to the Rivi- 
era di Chiaja 2 or 3 fr. ; to the Museo Nazionale 1 fr. 75, or 2 fr. 60 c; 
to Resina 50 or 75 c. — With two horses double these fares. 

Portici, a town with 12,300 inhab., is also the station for Re- 
sina (see below). It has a small harbour formed by a molo, from 
the end of which a fine view is obtained of the bay. The high 
road from Naples to Salerno traverses the town, and also leads 
through the court of the palace built by Charles III. in 1738. — 
Continuation of the Railway Journey, see p. 114. 



Adjoining Portici , immediately beyond the palace , are the 
houses of Resina, a town with 13,000 inhab., built upon the lava- 
streams which cover the ancient Herculaneum. About ^4 M. 
beyond the palace, and 200 paces beyond the office of the Vesuvius 
guides, immediately on this side of a viaduct crossing the Vicolo 
di Mare, and to the right of the high road, is the entrance to the 
excavations. — Distance thither from the Portici station 2/3 M. (guide 
unnecessary). On leaving the station we follow the main street 
to the right, and after 7 min. turn to the left ('Linea Daziaria del 
Comune di Resina'); in min. more, near the palace of Portici 
(on the left) we reach the above-mentioned high road which we 
follow to the right. Over the entrance is the inscription, ; Scavi 
di Ercolano'. Admission 2 fr., for which the visitor is provided 
with a guide (no fees) ; on Sundays gratis. 

Herculaneum, the Heracleia of the Greeks, derived its name from the 
worship of Hercules peculiar to the place. Tradition attributed its 
foundation to the hero himself, who during his wanderings in the West 
visited this district. It was inhabited by Oscans, the aboriginal natives 
of the country, by Etruscans, and by Samnites , before it became subject 
to Rome. Owing to its salubrious situation on a height, between two 
rivers, and being near the sea and the harbour of Resina, it became a 




(PARTE ORIENTALE I 
Seal* nel 1:100.000 



Chilontt 



2 l,ave del 1871-72 " Lave pi'u antiehe . 

Abiircvia/iuiii : B.Soccu, C.Capo. M. M° Madoiuw , VfYUlu. 



G«epr*ph AnilaH »on 




W*pntr i- Jlebes, T,e-ip7,i«; 



HERCULANEUM. 7. Route. 1 13 

favourite site for Roman villas (thus that of Servilia , sister of Cato of 
Utiea). The spot retained its name even after the total annihilation of 
the town by the eruption of 79. A number of poor families then took up 
their abode here, but in 472 their village was again destroyed by an eruption, 
which altered the configuration of the whole coast. Subsequent eruptions 
increased the depth of ashes and lava under which the old town was 
buried to 40-100 ft. , that being the depth of the remains at the present 
day below the surface of the soil. The discovery of Herculaneum took 
place in 1719. Prince d'Elbceuf of Lorraine, whilst erecting a casino 
at Portici, caused a well to be dug to supply it with water. This 
led to the discovery, at a depth of about 90 ft., of the ancient thea- 
tre, where a number of statues were found. Two of these, beautiful 
portrait-statues of an old and a younger woman, are now in the mu- 
seum at Dresden. During the next thirty years the excavations were 
discontinued, but in 1737 Charles III., when engaged in erecting a palace at 
Portici, recommenced operations, which were unfortunately directed by 
unskilful hands and led to no satisfactory result; nor was it an easy task 
to remove the huge masses of tuffstone and lava which covered the ruins, 
especially as the buildings and streets of Portici and Resina were thereby 
undermined. In 1750 a long, narrow passage was hewn through the rock, 
leading to the theatre, which lies 69 ft. below the level of the street, and 
this is the entrance at the present day. In 1755 the Accademia Ercolanese 
was instituted for the investigation of the antiquities discovered, and 
under their auspices was published the 'Pitture d'Ercolano 1 in 9 vols. 
(Napoli, 1757), which caused immense sensation in the learned world. 
The excavations during the next 50 years were conducted too superficially 
and unsystematically, but progressed more favourably under the French 
kings Joseph Napoleon (1806-8) and Joachim Murat (180S-15). Under theBour- 
bons operations were suspended till 1828. Many of the most interesting 
objects were excavated and again covered; thus the theatre, part of 
the forum with its colonnades, a basilica similar to that of Pompeii, 
private houses, etc. Although the works were carried on without any defin- 
ite plan, the yield was remarkably rich, and has furnished the museum 
of Naples with a large proportion of its most valuable treasures, including 
statues, busts, mural paintings, inscriptions, and utensils of all kinds. In 
the chamber of one house an extensive papyrus library of 3000 rolls was 
discovered. The excavations were recommenced with great ceremony in 
1868, but as they are conducted on a limited scale no great results have 
yet been obtained. In due time, however, a number of interesting dis- 
coveries may confidently be expected. This is all the more likely as the 
ancients appear soon to have given up their search for objects of value 
here as being unprofitable; and while Pompeii was thoroughly explored 
and ransacked, the treasures of Herculaneum have been preserved for the 
benefit of posterity by the mantle of lava with which they are enveloped. 

The attractions presented by Herculaneum are at present of a very 
limited character, but an opportunity of seeing them should not be neglect- 
ed. The visit may he paid on the way to Jit. Vesuvius, or, better still, 
after the excursion to Pompeii. 

From the entrance we are first conducted down a dark flight 
of more than a hundred steps to the Theatre, of which an accurate 
idea is not easily formed by the light of the flickering candle. 
Owing to the buttresses built to support the rock above, the 
place rather resembles a profoundly dark subterranean labyrinth. 
It contains nineteen tiers of seats in six compartments (cunci) : 
between these, seven flights of steps ascended to a broad corridor, 
above which was situated a colonnade with three more tiers 
of seats. The number of spectators it could contain has been 
variously computed at from 8000 to 30,000, the latter number 
being certainly too high. The orchestra lies 85 ft. below the 

Baedeker. Italy III. 7th Edition. 8 



114 Route!. TORRE DEL GRECO. From Naples 

level of tlie modern Resina, and is faintly lighted from above 
through the shaft of the well which was the occasion of tlie dis- 
covery. One inscription records that L. Annius Mammianus Rufus 
erected the theatre, another that Numisius, son of Publius, was 
the architect. On each side of the proscenium are pedestals for 
honorary statues, with inscriptions. 

A visit to the buildings brought to light by the Scavi Nuovi 
of 1828 to 1837, and resumed in 1868, is of far higher interest. 
We are conducted by the custodian clown the Vicolo di Mare 
(p. 112) for 4 min. ; the entrance is by an iron gate to the left. 
A street, part of a large private house, and several houses used for 
trading purposes have been excavated here. They lie 40 ft. below 
the present surface, and the different layers of the superincumbent 
lava are readily distinguished. The houses with their fittings and 
decorations resemble those of Pompeii. The building-material is 
a yellow tufa from Mte. Somma, of very soft consistency, which 
accounts for the thickness of the walls. The garden of the principal 
house, that of the Argus, is one of the most interesting objects. 
It is enclosed by an arcade of twenty columns and six buttresses. 
To the right of it is a triclinium with a painting (not now visible) 
of Argus and Io, from which the house derives its name. Towards 
the sea, the proximity of which at that period is indicated by the 
rapid descent of the street, are situated magazines, three stories 
in height, and well preserved. 

About 2 / 3 M. beyond the entrance to the theatre, and also close 
to the high road, is situated the royal chateau of La Favorita 
(permesso, see p. 36; gratuity l fe fr.). The interior hardly merits 
a visit, but the garden contains pleasant grounds extending as far 
as the railway and down to the sea. A casino in the grounds 
affords a fine view of the peninsula of Sorrento. A visit to the 
Favorita is recommended after the ascent of Vesuvius, when the 
vegetation and quiet of the gardens will be found very grateful. 



Near Portici we enjoy a fine view from the railway of the Bay 
of Naples with the Castello dell' Ovo and Pizzofalcone, commanded 
by Camaldoli ; in the background the Capo Miseno and the moun- 
tains of Ischia. Farther on, to the left, Vesuvius and Resina. 
The train skirts the coast and traverses the huge lava-stream of 
1794, 38 ft. in thickness and 700 ft. yds in breadth. 

7'/ 2 M. Torre del Greco, a flourishing town with 25,000 in- 
habitants , stands on the lava-stream of 1631, which destroyed 
two-thirds of the older town. The lava-streams of 1737 and 1794 
also caused great damage. The earthquake of I8;"i7, and partic- 
ularly the eruption of 8th Dec. 1861, proved still more destructive. 
On this last occasion eleven small openings were formed immediately 
above the town, whence vast showers of ashes were precipitated, 
while the shore in tin: vicinity was upheaved to the extent of 



to Pompeii. TORRE DELL' ANNUNZIATA. 7. Route. 115 

3 ft., causing the ruin of many houses. Although the entire base 
of Vesuvius as far as Torre dell' Annunziata is covered with 
traces of similar catastrophes, yet the inhabitants appear never 
to be deterred from rebuilding their dwellings , a circumstanoe 
which has given rise to the jesting saying of the Neapolitans, 
'Napoli fa i peccati e la Torre U paga.' 

The line intersects Torre del Greco (to the right a small har- 
bour), and then skirts the sea. To the left the monastery of Ca- 
maldoli delta Torre is visible, standing on an isolated volcanic peak 
at the base of Vesuvius, and protected by its situation against 
lava-streams. 

After passing another stream of lava, the train reaches — 

12^2 M. Torre dell' Annunziata, a prosperous town with 
16,550 inhab. and a small harbour. A beautiful glimpse is dis- 
closed here of the bay of Castellamare with the town, commanded 
by Monte S. Angelo, the summit of which is crowned by the chapel 
of S. Michele ; beyond it Vico Equense, in the distance Sorrento. 
Beyond the town the train skirts the shore, which is much frequent- 
ed by fishermen. The line to Castellamare then diverges to the 
right, see p. 150. 

The Pompeii train now proceeds inland , and on the left the 
partially overgrown heaps of ashes thrown up by the excavations 
soon become visible. 

15 M. Pompeii, see p. 123. 

Continuation of the line to Salerno, see R. 11. 



High Roa]> from Naples to Pompeii. 

The High Eoad from Naples to Pompeii is also still much frequented, 
and in cool weather may be recommended as a route as far as Portici 
and Resina, as the railway-stations at Naples and Portici are inconveni- 
ently situated. In the hot season the dust is extremely unpleasant. 
(Carriages take 50 min. from the Piazza del Municipio tu Resina, see 
pp. 24, 112; omnibus and tramway to Torre del Greco, see p. 25). 

The road, which traverses the busy and bustling E. suburb of 
Naples, leaves the town near the Castello del Carmine, skirts the 
Marinella, and crosses the Sebeto by the Ponte delta Maddalena, 
passing the barracks of the Granili (p. 112) to the right. It then 
leads along the coast, which, however, is so covered with villas and 
other houses that the route is more like a long street than a country 
road. Maccaroni hung out to dry is seen on every side. The first 
village reached is <S. Giovanni a Teduccio , which is adjoined on 
the left by the small town of La Barra. We next reach Portici 
and Resina (p. 112), which stretch along the road for a distance 
of 2 M., the boundary between them being immediately beyond 
the royal palace, through the court of which the road passes. At 
the beginning of Resina on the left is the office for the Vesuvius 
guides (p. 116). On the right, farther on, is the entrance to the 
excavations of Herculaneum (p. 112), beyond which the rnnd to 



110 Route N. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

Vesuvius diverges to the left (see p. 122). We next pass the 
Favorita on the right (p. 114). 

As far as Torre del Greco (p. 114) the road runs hetween 
houses and garden-walls , but farther on it commands an unim- 
peded view. Torre deW Annunziata, see p. 115. The drive from 
Naples to Pompeii takes 2 hrs. (carr. and pair 20 fr.). Pompeii, 
see p. 123. 

8. Mount Vesuvius. 

Compare Map, p. 112. 

The Ascent of Mount Vesuvius may lie made from Resina near Por- 
tia, or from Pompeii. The excursion takes about 7 hrs. , but a whole 
day should be allowed, in order to leave sufficient margin for rest, 
refreshment, and the journey from Naples and back. After the ascent, 
if time permits, a visit may be paid to Herculaneum or to the garden 
of La Favorita. — The ascent from Pompeii is less costly than that from 
Resina, and the traveller is less exposed to annoyance, but the ascent is 
less interesting, somewhat longer, and altogether more fatiguing. 

Disposition of Time. As the lights are most favourable and the at- 
mosphere clearest in the morning, the traveller should leave Naples as 
early as possible, unless he intends remaining on the mountain till 
sunset to observe the working of the crater in the darkness. A single 
traveller had better take an omnibus or a tram-car to the guides 1 office 
at Resina lone-horse carriage to this point from Naples 2 fr. ; railway see 
p. 112, from the station to the office '/« nr - i comp. also p. 112), obtain 
a horse, and guide there, and ride to the foot of the cone (2 hrs.). The 
traveller is not recommended to walk the whole way from Resina to the 
top, as \ised formerly often to be done, owing to the fatigue of the last 
part of the ascent. A carriage with one horse may sometimes be hired 
from Portici to the Observatory for 10 fr. and a gratuity. — A party of 
ta-o or more persons will find it preferable to drive from Naples to the 
Observatory (carriage and pair, there and back, for 2-3 persons 20-25 fr. , 
with three horses 25-30 fr. ; the driver has to provide an extra horse 
from Kesina onwards without extra charge). Guides are always to be 
met with at the Observatory (and horses also), but as they charge no less 
than from Resina, it is better to engage one at the office in passing. (If 
the guide mounts on the box of the carriage, 6 fr. ; otherwise 11 fr. ; see 
below.) Tolerable walkers may dispense with a horse for the distance 
between the Observatory and the foot of the cone ( 3 /4-l hr.). The steep 
ascent of the cone itself (l-l'/ 4 hr.), which can only be performed on foot, 
is extremely fatiguing owing to the looseness of the ashes. To many per- 
sons the assistance of being drawn by a strap will not be unacceptable. 
Ladies had better engage a 'portantina'' to carry them up. The charges 
include the descent also, but as attempts at extortion are often made, 
the descent as well as the ascent should be distinctly stipulated for. 

About 3/4 hr. should be allowed for the halt on the summit. Wine 
(2 fr. per bottle), eggs (V2 fr. each), and bread are offered for sale here, 
hut the traveller had better bring some refreshment for himself (oranges 
nr other fruit). 

The descent of the cone is accomplished in 12-15 min. ; to the Her- 
mitage 3/4 hr. ; thence to Itesina V/1-V/2 hr. 

Expenses. The cost of the ascent for a single traveller amounts to 
about 20 fr., but is considerably less for each of the members of a party. 
The ascent should in no case be attempted without a guide. 

From Resina. On 7th Aug., 1870, the following tariff, which may be 
seen at the ofl'iriua delle Guide del Vesitvio at Resina, was issued by the 
Slunicipio of i.'csina: — 

For a mounted guide (comp. p. 117) 11 fr. 

Horse attendant (facchino, unnecessary for most travellers) , 3 fr. 



MOUNT VESUVIUS. 8. Route. 1 1 7 

Horse or mule (both generally good) 5 fr. 

Donkey (rather slower) 4 fr. 

'Portantina 1 (chaise-a-porteurs) with 8 bearers from Resina to 

the crater GO fr. 

Portantina from the Hermitage to the crater ....... 40 fr. 

Portantina from the foot of the cone to the top 30 fr. 

'Aiuto 1 (assistance with a strap in ascending the cone) ... 3 fr. 

Holding horse during the ascent of the cone 2 fr. 

Torches (for the descent after sunset) 2 fr. 

(From Pompeii : — Mounted guide 10, horse 5, holding horse 2, portantina 
from the foot of the cone about 25 fr.) 

A stout stick, which is indispensable for walkers, may be hired at 
the office for 25 c. 

Payment for the whole of the above items, both for going and return- 
ing, is made at the end of the excursion, either at the office, or to the 
guide himself. In every case, however, an additional gratuity is expected : 
guide l'/2-3 fr. according to the mimber of the party; horse-holder a few 
soldi; strap-assistant '/2-1 fr. ; chair-bearers 2-3 fr. Numerous other attacks 
on the traveller's purse are of course made ?n route, but should be si- 
lently disregarded. 

Strictly speaking the charge for the guide is 6 fr., the additional 5 fr. 
being the charge for mounting him. The Municipio of Resina has coun- 
tenanced this extortion by altogether omitting from the tariff the charge 
for an unmounted guide. Those who drive and take the guide on the 
box from Resina to the Observatory of course pay him no more than 6 fr. 
and his gratuity. Some of the guides are fond of assuming a superior 
and patronising air towards their employers, but those who are guilty of 
such impertinence soon come to their senses when treated with perfect 
indifference. 

[The Wire Rope Railway to the top of Vesuvius, constructed by 
the engineer Olivieri, and finished in spring, 1880, will cause a thorough 
revolution in the mode of ascending the famous crater. The road ending 
at the Observatory has been prolonged to the foot of the cone, where the 
railway begins. The railway company will probably also make arrange- 
ments for bringing travellers from the foot of the hill to the fttatum 
(Cafe-liestaurant), which lies 2600 ft. above the sea. The length of the 
line is 980 yds., and the upper end is 1300 ft. higher than the lower. 
The gradient varies from 43 : 100 to 03 : 100. The carriages contain twelve 
persons each, and in case of any accident can be brought to an immediate 
standstill by powerful brakes. The ascent occupies 7 minutes. The end 
of the line is about 100 yds. below the mouth of the crater.] 

Railway to Portici , see p. 112: 13-14 trains daily (fares 95, 65, 
40 c). Guides proffer their services as soon as we arrive; but we dis- 
regard their representations, follow the road to the right, turn to the left 
after 7 min., and in 6 min. reach the Portici and Hesina high road , on 
which we soon come to the guides 1 office (comp. p. 112|. 

High Road to Resina, see p. 115. Cabs, see pp. 21, 112. Omnibus 
and Tramway, see p. 25. 

Monnt Vesuvius, sometimes called Vesevus by ancient poets 
(e. g. by Lucretius and Virgil), rises in isolated majesty from the 
Campanian plain, near the sea. The height varies, according to 
the different effects of the eruptions , from 3900 to 4300 ft. ; 
in 1845 the height was 3900 ft., and in 1K08 it had increased 
to 4255 ft. ; it was somewhat diminished by the eruption of IS'72, 
but is now steadily increasing. The N.E. side of the mountain is 
named Monte Somma, of which the highest peak is the Punta del 
Nasone (3642 ft. J. A deep sickle-shaped valley, the Atrio del C<i- 
vallo, separates Somma from Vesuvius proper, which consists of a 
cone of ashes with the crater in the centre, the 'Forge of Vulcan'. 



1 I 8 Route 8. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Eruptions. 

The summit is also liable to constant change after eruptions, having 
sometimes a single crater with an opening in the middle , and 
sometimes two or three craters adjacent to each other. The moun- 
tain rises from the sea at an angle of 10°, while the cone itself 
has a gradient of 30-35°. Monte Somma descends almost perpen- 
dicularly to the Atrio del Cavallo , but slopes very gradually 
down to the plain (3°). 

Vesuvius in Ancient Times. Vesuvius forms the S. E. ex- 
tremity, and has for the last three centuries been the only active 
crater, of a highly volcanic district, which includes Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara, and the Monte Nuovo. The case was reversed in 
ancient times , as we are informed by the geographer Strabo 
(Bk. v., chap. 4), who lived in the time of Augustus: 'Mount 
Vesuvius is covered with beautiful meadows, with the exception 
of the summit. The latter is indeed for the most part level, but 
quite sterile ; for it has an appearance like ashes , and shows 
rugged rocks of sooty consistency and colour , as if they had 
been consumed by fire. One might conclude from this that the 
mountain had once burned, and possessed fiery abysses, and had 
become extinguished when the material was spent. And just 
from this cause its fertility may arise , as in the case of Catania 
the eruption of ashes from ^Etna renders it so productive of 
wine'. About fifty years later, in the time of Nero, A. D. 63, 
the volcanic nature of the mountain manifested itself by a fearful 
earthquake , which destroyed a great part of the prosperous en- 
virons, and seriously damaged Iierculaneum and Pompeii. This was 
repeated at Naples in 64, and again at intervals till the reign 
of Titus, when, on 24th Aug. 79, the first (recorded) eruption 
took place with appalling fury, and devastated the country far 
and wide , covering it with showers of ashes and vast streams 
of lava. On that occasion, it would appear, the peak now call- 
ed Vesuvius was formed. Previously it had been a rounded 
crater; the S. side, where Vesuvius now rises, having been the 
lowest. The crater-like form of M. Somma is still distinctly re- 
cognisable, although somewhat concealed by the more recent de- 
posits of ashes. It was on that eventful day that Pompeii, Her- 
culaneiim , Stabiae , and other villages of this smiling district 
were overwhelmed. The naturalist Pliny, then in command of a 
section of the fleet stationed at Misenum, also perished on 
this occasion. He had ventured too near the scene of desolation, 
both as an observer and for the purpose of rendering aid to 
the distressed, when he was suffocated near Castellamare by 
the ashes and exhalations. His nephew, the younger Pliny, in 
two letters (Ep. vi. 16, 20) to his friend the historian Tacitus, 
gives a graphic description of this fearful phenomenon. He 
mentions the premonitory earthquakes, day turned into night, 
the extraordinary agitation of the sea, the dense clouds over- 



Eruptions. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 8. Route. 119 

hanging land and sea, and riven by incessant flashes of light- 
ning, the emission of Are and ashes, the descent of streams of 
lava, and the universal terror of men, who believed the end of 
the world had arrived. A similar description is given of an erup- 
tion in the reign of Alex. Severus, A.D. 222, by Dio Cassius 
(Ixvi. 23), who describes how the clouds which hovered over the 
mountain assumed the form of awful colossal figures. Herculaneum 
and Pompeii were thus lost to the world for seventeen centuries. 
The eruptions of Vesuvius have been repeated at intervals with 
varying violence, down to the present day. The next took place 
in 203, under Septimius Severus, and another in 472, sending 
its showers of ashes as far as Constantinople. 

Vesuvius in Modern Times. Down to the year 1500 nine 
eruptions are recorded , and from that date to the present time 
fifty. The mountain has been known to be quiescent for centuries 
in succession, while at other periods its activity has been al- 
most uninterrupted, e.g. from 1717 to 1737. From 1500 to 
1631 Vesuvius was quiescent, while in 1538 the Monte Ntiovo 
was upheaved near Pozzuoli, and y£tna was labouring without 
intermission. During that period Vesuvius was entirely covered 
with wood and bushes, like the deer park of Astroni at the 
present day, and cattle grazed peacefully within the crater. After 
this lull, on 16th Dec. 1631, came a most terrific eruption, the 
first of which we possess detailed accounts. A huge cloud of 
smoke and ashes rising in a conical form, cast a profound 
gloom over Naples in the middle of the day , and extended 
with incredible rapidity over the southern portion of Italy , as 
far as Tarentum. Heavy stones were thrown to a distance of 
15 M. (one which fell at the village of Somma being 25 tons 
in weight) , while the earth was convulsed by violent earth- 
quakes , and seven streams of lava poured from the summit, 
overwhelming Bosco, Torre dell' Annunziata, Torre del Greco, 
Resina, and Portici. No fewer than 3000 persons perished on 
that occasion. The following year an eruption of ^Etna also 
took place, although that mountain is usually quiescent when 
Vesuvius is in an active state. An eruption in 1707 was of a 
very alarming nature, lasting from May to August, and covering 
Naples with dense showers of ashes, to the terror of the cit- 
izens. The eruptions of 1737, 1760, and 1767 emitted consider- 
able quantities of lava and scoria?, which in 1767 descended on 
Portici, and even reached Naples. One of the most stupendous 
of these phenomena took place in Aug. 1779, when a vast 
number of red-hot stones were hurled to a height of 2000 ft., 
some of them exceeding 100 lbs. in weight, spreading terror 
among the inhabitants far and wide. The lava eruption of 1794 
was even more fatal in its effects ; the streams precipitated 
themselves into the sea by Torre del Greco, heating the water 



120 Route 8. MOUNT VESUVIUS. Volcanic 

for a considerable distance; upwards of 400 lives were lost, 
and the ashes were carried as far as Chieti and Taranto. Erup- 
tions during the present century took place in 1804, 1805, 
1822, Feb. 1850, and May 1855; in June 1858 the upper 
crater sank about 195 ft. below its former elevation; and, on 8th 
Dec. 18IS1, an outbreak remarkable for its violence, and inter- 
esting from the fact that it was witnessed by Humboldt and 
other men of science , devastated Torre del Greco. After this 
the mountain remained quiescent until 1865. In November of 
that year the lava began to overflow, but at length in November, 
1868 , it forced a passage for itself through a fissure on the side of 
the cone, after which no change took place till 1871. 

The most recent period of great activity began in January 
1871, when the mountain showed renewed symptoms of internal 
disturbance by the emission of a stream of lava through a fissure 
on the N.E. side. This was followed by another on the W. side 
about the end of October, and early in 1872 these phenomena gra- 
dually increased in violence , until at length they culminated in 
the great eruption of 24th-30th April of that year. During these 
days the lava burst forth on every side — on the N.E., S.W., and 
more particularly at the Atrio del Cavallo (p. 117), from which a 
huge stream issued with such suddenness on 26th April as to 
overtake and destroy 20 persons out of a crowd of spectators who 
were watching the spectacle, while others were injured by the 
stones thrown from the summit. The torrent descended to Massa 
and S. Sebastiano, and passed between these villages, which it 
partially destroyed , in a stream upwards of 1000 yds. wide and 
20 ft. deep. This overflow ran to a distance of 3 M. in 12 hours. 
At the same time, amidst terrific thundering, the crater poured 
forth huge volumes of smoke mingled with red-hot stones and 
lava to a height of 4000 ft., whilst clouds of ashes, rising to double 
that height, were carried by the wind as far as Cosenza, a distance 
of 140 M. The lava emitted during this eruption covers an area of 
2 sq. M., and averages 13 ft. in depth. The damage was estimated 
at upwards of 3 million fr. A visit to S. Sebastiano is admirably 
calculated to convey to the traveller an idea of the effects of this 
stupendous convulsion of nature. ^One-horse carr. thither from 
Naples 4-5 fr., from Portici 3 1'r.) — From this eruption till the 
end of 1875 the mountain remained almost entirely quiescent, but 
since then it has been giving premonitions of a new period of ac- 
tivity. The crater of 1872 became gradually filled with masses of 
lava, which at the end of 1S?8 were precipitated into the Atrio 
del Cavallo. Eruptions of lava also frequently took place in 1879, 
particularly towards the close of the year, often presenting a mag- 
nificent spectacle when viewed from Naples at night. 

Volcanic Piirnomhna. Notwithstanding the long series of 
works mi the subject which have appeared since 1631, the 



Phenomena. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 8. Route. 121 

cause of these phenomena is still to some extent a matter of 
mere conjecture. It is highly probable that they are intimately 
connected with the water of the sea, near which all the prin- 
cipal volcanoes are situated. There is reason to believe that the 
enormous clouds of steam generated during eruptions are due to 
some temporary communication of the water with the burning 
liquids of the interior of the earth, and that the premonitory 
earthquakes are occasioned by the vapours and gases as they expand 
and endeavour to And an outlet. The red-hot fluids expelled from 
the volcano by means of these vapours are called lava. When, 
however, they are broken by the vapours into fragments, the 
larger of these are known as lapilli (rapilli) or scoria;, whilst the 
minute portions form volcanic sand or ashes. When freed from tho 
pressure of the lava, the vapours rise to a height of 10,000 ft., 
resembling a pine in form , as Pliny has aptly described it, car- 
rying dense masses of rapilli and ashes along with them ; they 
are then condensed in the air, and in descending give rise to 
those formidable streams of mud (lave d'acqua) which proved so 
destructive to Herculaneum. Vesuvius has of late been active in 
the manner described, although to a very limited extent, ejecting 
vapours and stones with a roar resembling that of distant artillery; 
but the effects of this action have been confined to the formation 
of the cone in the crater. More serious eruptions are accompanied 
by loud subterranean noises, earthquakes, and flashes of lightning 
and peals of thunder, owing to the electricity produced by the 
unwonted pressure of the air. The temperature of the lava as it 
descends occasionally exceeds 2000° Fahr. The volume of the 
streams, as well as their velocity, depends on a variety of external 
circumstances. The surface of the lava ultimately becomes disinte- 
grated into black sand. The smoke which ascends from the 
crater is more or less dark in colour, according to the quantity 
of ashes mingled with it. The appearance of fire at night is not 
flame, but the reflection of the molten lava in the interior of 
the crater on the rising clouds of vapour and ashes. 

Of the Minerals ejected by the volcano, most of which are 
found in the older lava of M. Somma, as well as in that ejected 
during later eruptions, about 40 species, according to the investi- 
gations of Professor Scacchi of Naples, are at present known. In 
the lava stream of lSfjf) the remarkable cotunnite, a chloride of 
lead, was detected in great abundance. Most of these minerals 
are sold by the guides at Kesina ; a small box may be purchased 
for 1/2-I fr. 

The ** Ascent of Vesuvius is unquestionably an excursion 
of extreme interest, though not unattended with fatigue, and 
it should not be undertaken in rainy or stormy weather. When 
the mountain is covered with snow in winter the difficulty of 
the ascent is of course greater. 



1 "22 Route 8. MOUNT VESUVIUS. 

From Resina. The road to Vesuvius diverges to the left 
from the high road immediately beyond the entrance to the 
excavations of Herculaneum (comp. p. 115; riders ascend by a 
side-lane immediately from the guides' office). Near the N. end 
of the town it passes a small piazza with the church of S. Maria 
a Pugliano on the right, whence it ascends the slopes of Ve- 
suvius to the Observatory. The luxuriant vineyards here, which 
are interspersed with gardens and cottages, presenting a picture 
of teeming fertility, yield the famous 'LachrimcC Christi' wine, 
which is generally strong and heavy , and never of a very re- 
fined quality. The wine is offered for sale at nearly every cottage, 
but had better not be partaken of before the ascent (usual price 
1 fr. per bottle). Higher up, beyond the garden-walls, the beau- 
tiful view is gradually disclosed. In about 3/4 hr. we reach 
the huge dark lava-stream of 1872 , which we can trace down 
to S. Sebastiano and Massa di Somma (p. 120), and which the 
windings of the road cross several times. In 40 min. more we 
reach the so-called Hermitage, a tavern where guides, horses, 
and mules are to be found. Carriages wait here till the travellers 
return from the summit (Lachrinwe Christi 2 fr. ; good Vesuvius 
wine at 1 fr. per bottle may be obtained at a peasant's house 
a little lower down, where there is a seat commanding a view). 

Immediately above the Hermitage , on the same shoulder of 
the hill which divides the lava-streams descending from the 
crater into two branches , is situated the Meteorological Obser- 
vatory, 2218 ft. above the level of the sea, and 1965 It. above 
Resina. It contains , in addition to the usual instruments , a 
'sismograph', or apparatus for recording the phenomena of earth- 
quakes. The first director of the observatory was the celebrated 
Melloni (A. 1854). The present director Palmieri has published an 
interesting account of the eruption of 1872. A slab has been 
placed at the entrance of the building in memory of the tra- 
vellers who perished in the Atrio del Cavallo in 1872 (p. 120; 
on which occasion Sign. Palmieri remained at his post in the 
Observatory). Beyond the building is a guard-house of Cara- 
binieri, whose duty is to watch over the public safety. 

The new road constructed by the Wire-rope Railway Company 
above the Observatory traverses the stream of lava formed by the 
eruption of 1872. In 50-60 min. we reach the foot of the cone 
(720 ft. above the Observatory), where in fine weather the traveller 
is immediately beset by an eager troop of portantina-bearers, 
horse-holders, and men with straps, etc. (tariff, see p. 117). The 
railway will, however, alter all this. 

The ascent of the precipitous cone , consisting of slag and 
loose ashes, which is 1500 ft. higher, and rises at an angle of 
30-35°, has been extremely fatiguing since the eruption of 1872. 
If the traveller has not accepted the 'aiuto' of the strap he is 




I.VlUos ctiDiffmede 

2 .Sepolcri deUa Fiuniyhn- 

Jrria> 
3 . Sepolcro di Cew Labeane 
k. Triclinia funebre 

5 . Sepolcro di Jeroleia,Ptrche 

6 . Sepolcro di (ubrenzio 

7 . Sepolcro dCI/ucw LtbeUa 

8. Sepola-o deQa Tortau dimarmo 

9. Sepolcro rotandjo 

10. Sepolcro di Vmbrido Scauro 

11. Sepolcro dlServHia, 
Yl.Jlbergo di- campaffna.' 
13.1OT«t di Cicerone (Gia. scarata/J 
IV.tiua deZle cohrroxe di musodco 
l'\.$edih' pubbUco 

\§.Sepolcro deUe glarlande 
ll.Bottegw deUo Sadtore 
18. Sepolcro di Terenzio 
IS. Sepolcro in costrurume 
20. Sepolcro di Yamia 

21. Sepolcro di Teio 

22. Sepolcro di Cerinio 
23.Termapolu> 

24- /Bottcga di Albino 
'-';"..(. i. mi deUe Testabi 
2(i.(iou del (hirurgo 
27 Ihtiianu 

2H.Casa>atre piaru- 

29. Bottcfja di< sapone- 

30. Casa. deUe Dansatrici 
Z\.Fontanw 
32JSrao pubblico 
33. Oua di SaSustut 
M'.Forno e Hotini- 
ZS.Casa. deWJccademia 

di musica. 



oXsWianie 



w @ m p t ij 

i: 6.800 



GffojCT»ph . A'ii.1 a 11 ' 



ABh asa delta fontanel piccolo,- \->n.l\ua di Castorc e Folluee 
1 Hata, di Adorn \?7.Casa del Labirinio 

fr y 'asa di JpoQme 48.Casa deJV Jncora 

'■' asa di Jteleaaro 4-9. Tempia dclla Fortuna 

asa del Centawro %Q.Casa del Fauna 



«/.^._cV./lnl_ 



Porta di Capua 



5t . CamdeUa Fareta nera 
5 2 . Casa dei capiteJU, iigwati 
52.CdsadelGra7vJhica 
$4. Casa, di uiritcmui 
55.fia.ta. iteila cacao, 

56, Casa di XarcoLucrezw 

57. Faro civile- 

58. Pantheon, o Tempio 

di Auyusto 
SQ.Sala del Senate 



60 . Tempio di Giore- 

61. Tempio dxHCercwrio 
62 .Edifisio diFumaclua, 
63. Tempio di Venere, 
64. Basilica, 
6$.Casadi Ckanyrumct 
66. Trihunali 
67. Casa del Cxgncde 
GS.Vuo dci dodici Dei. 
6Q.Term& Stabiane 
70. Casa, di Olconio 
IX.Casadi Srrico 
72. Casa di Cornelio Rufo 
73. Tempio d'lside, 
74.Curia, Tsiaca. 
75. Faro triangolare- 



orta di Sola 



IS. Tempio Greco 

77. Teatro scaptrto 

78. " caperto 

7 9. Tempio diEsculapio 

80 . Quaruere de'Soldati 

hlJBiaentale, 

82 . Casa, da- mama, con, 

pozzo sorgio 
83.Lupanare 

84\ Casa. del balcone. pensile- 
85. Casa deW Orso 

%6J?armacia ossia Tavtoria 
87. Casa con, giardvw 
Hfi.Cusu th Maj-tc eVenere- 

. Casa del dXarista 
90 . Casa <te' Hiadameni 
SI. Casa di Salba 
92.Jtrio Cinestrato 
93. Casa del ConciapeUe 
94. Fontana, del GaRo 




"Wagner *■ Detes, leipiig. 



POMPEII. 9. Route. 123 

followed for a considerable way up by a number of would-be 
assistants , who only return when satisfied that their services 
are not required. Halfway up there is a resting-place. The as- 
cent takes l-l'/4 hr. The Crater, which changes its form after 
every great eruption , presents a most striking appearance. At 
present the cone in the crater is higher than the rim, and several 
lateral openings have been formed for the escape of the lava. 

Under ordinary circumstances there is no danger unless one approach- 
es the shelving brink. incautiously, or exposes oneself to the fumes of sul- 
phur and showers of stones. Thus in 1854 a young German, imprudently 
approaching the aperture of the active cone, lost his footing, fell in, and 
was killed by the fall. As the mountain was quiescent at the time, his 
body was recovered. — The guides are in the habit of making impres- 
sions on the hot lava with copper coins , roasting eggs , and inviting the 
traveller to make similar experiments. The only risk incurred in doing 
so is that of damaging the soles of one's boots. 

From Pompeii the ascent takes about the same time as from 
Resina , but there is no carriage-road. The route leads by 
C/2 nr Bosco tre Case, and ascends thence through vineyards. 
The view gradually becomes freer. We first reach the lava of 1822, 
and then, where the ascent becomes steeper, those of 1848 and 
1868. Riders usually reach the base of the last cone in 1^2 nr - 

The ascent is most interesting when the mountain 'works', 
or ejects scoria? and ashes, a condition indicated by smoke during 
the day and a reflection of fire at night, which may be observed 
from Naples. Even if its state is that of perfect repose, which is 
not often the case, the fatigue of the ascent is repaid by the im- 
posing appearance of the crater and the magnificent *Panokama 
commanded by the summit, extending as far as the Ponza Islands 
and Mte. Circello, and most beautiful about sunrise or sunset. 

The Monte Somma (3642 ft.) also affords a fine view, and 
is interesting to geologists and botanists. The ascent may be 
made from Massa or from Somma. 



9. Pompeii. 

Railway to Pompeii , see R. 7. — (The distance to Pompeii from 
Torre Annunziata, the station before it, is only l'/ 4 II., so that the tra- 
veller may find it convenient to take one of the Castellamare trains to that 
station; the high road thence to Pompeii is apt to be very dusty, carr. 
I-IV2 fr.) — From the Pompeii Station a walk of about 200 paces in a straight 
direction brings us to the Hotel Diomede (p. 124), situated close to the 
Entrante. We ascend a flight of steps, immediately on the right of the 
hotel , to the ticket-office. We are then provided with a guide at the 
turn-style, and soon reach the Porta Marina, where our description begins 
(see p. 130). 

High Road to Pompeii, very dusty in summer, like all the roads 
near Naples. Carriage with one horse 10 , with two horses 20 fr. and 
gratuity; drive of 2hrs. See p. 115. 

Duration of Stat. The time which the traveller devotes to the 
ruins must depend on his own inclination. A superficial inspection may 
be accomplished in 4-5 hrs. ; but in order to summon up from these mutilated 
walls a tolerably accurate picture of ancient life , frequent and prolonged 



124 Route 9. POMPEII. Hotels. 

visits and patient observation are indispensable. The enthusiasm called 
forth by the discovery of Pompeii and the fascination attaching to the 
name are calculated to raise the expectations of the non-archaeologist to too 
high a pitch. The remains are simply the bare ruins of a town destroyed 
by fire, which have been extricated from the rubbish accumulated during 
seventeen centuries. 

Admission on Sundays gratis, on other days 2 fr. (If the ruins be 
quitted and re-entered, the entrance-money is exacted a second time ; 
tickets must be shown at the Amphitheatre and elsewhere.) At the en- 
trance visitors are provided with a guide (except on Sundays , when one 
cannot even be had by payment of a fee), who is bound to accompany 
them and pilot them through the ruins during any number of hours be- 
tween sunrise and sunset. These guides are about 60 in number, and each 
is provided with a badge (numbered according to the seniority of the 
wearers, No. 1 being the oldest). One of those who speak French 
or a little English will be assigned to the traveller on application. They 
are strictly forbidden to accept any gratuity, but the offer of a cigar or 
other refreshment will ensure their civility. The guide-books, drawings, 
and photographs which they offer for sale are generally of an inferior de- 
scription and should at once be declined. Complaints made to the in- 
spectors (soprastanti), or better still to the director Ruggiero , are sure to 
receive attention. The discipline and order maintained by the latter are 
deserving of the highest commendation. Permission to draw, take mea- 
surements , etc. , is obtained at the Segreteria of the Museum at Naples 
(comp. p. 60), where the applicant must show his passport. Artists or 
students who desire to make prolonged studies may, on application at the 
office and production of their passports, obtain a free ticket of admission 
available for a fortnight, which they are most liberally permitted to renew 
as often as they desire. Permission to visit the ruins by moonlight is 
only accorded to persons specially introduced to the director. 

Before visiting Pompeii the traveller should acquire some previous 
acquaintance with the place from books and plans, t The more familiar 
the objects are to him, the greater will be his enjoyment. Implicit confi- 
dence cannot be placed in the guides for anything beyond mere technical 
explanations. Those who visit the ruins once only should avoid occupying 
much of their time with the minutiae, as the impression produced by the 
whole is thereby sacrificed, or at least diminished. On account of the phy- 
sically and mentally fatiguing nature of the expedition, the stay should not 
be extended much beyond 3 hrs. In summer the streets of Pompeii are 
often insufferably hot ; the evening is therefore the most enjoyable time for 
the visit, when the lights and shades on the surrounding mountains and the 
illumination of the ruins by the declining sun invest the place with magic 
fascination. The traveller should, if possible, contrive to visit it at least 
twice, once with and once (on a Sunday) without a guide. 

Hotels. At the entrance to Pompeii, opposite the railway-station, 
Hotel 1>[omei>e (tolerable, colazione 3'/2, pranzo 4 fr., and 25 c. for atten- 
dance). About 5 min. walk farther , on the right , opposite the Porta di 
Stabia, Hotel & Restaurant Pompeii, E. 2'/2, colazione 2'/i, D. 3'/2, pens, 
for artists 5 fr. A little farther on , near the Amphitheatre, ''Hotel du 
Soleil, B. 2, D. 3, pension 4'/ 2 fr., chiefly frequented by artists; the land- 
lord may be recommended as a guide for Vesuvius and other excursions 
in the neighbourhood. 

Pompeii was once a prosperous provincial town, with a po- 
pulation of 20-30,000 souls. The original Oscan inhabitants had 
at the close of the republic become completely Romanised, and 
after the earthquake of A.D. 63 the town was re -erected in 



t A work recommended to the traveller's notice is Professor Overbeck's 
Pompeii, which contains a plan, 26 coloured views, and 315 woodcuts 
(3rd ed. Leipzig, 1875; 20 marks). A more recent work is Professor Nissen's 
l'ompejaiiisclie Stmlien (Leipzig, 1877; 25 marks). 



History. POMPEII. 9. Route. 125 

the new Roman style composed of Greek and Italian elements. 
Pompeii , therefore , represents one definite epoch of antiquity 
only, but it is the most important and almost the only source 
of our acquaintance with ancient domestic life. The investigation 
of the various phases of this life , even in its minuter details, 
forms a pursuit of inexhaustible interest. 

Pompeii is mentioned in history for the first time in B.C. 310; hut 
its monuments, such as the wall of the town and the so-called Greek 
Temple, clearly prove it to be of much greater antiquity. Founded by the 
Oscans, it soon became imbued with the elements of Greek civilisation, like 
the other towns of this extensive tribe. Being situated near the sea on 
an ancient volcanic eminence, it carried on extensive commerce with the 
inland Campanian towns by means of the navigable river Sarnus, and 
enjoyed an uninterrupted, though not brilliant share of prosperity. (The 
sea and river were separated from the town by subsequent convulsions of 
nature.) After the Samnite wars, in which Pompeii had also participated, 
the town became subject to Rome. It united with the other Italians in 
the Social War. The rebels were defeated in the vicinity of Pompeii by 
Sulla, who attacked the town itself, but unsuccessfully. After the termi- 
nation of the war, however, B.C. 82, a colony of Roman soldiers was sent 
thither, and the inhabitants were compelled to cede to it one-third of their 
arable land. In course of time Pompeii became thoroughly Romanised, 
and was a favourite retreat of Romans of the wealthier classes, who (e.g. 
Cicero) purchased estates in the vicinity. It was also favoured by the em- 
perors. Tacitus records a serious conflict which took place in the amphi- 
theatre, A. D. 59, between the Pompeians and the neighbouring Nucerines, 
in consequence of which the former were prohibited from performing 
theatrical pieces for a period of ten years. A few years later, A.D. 63, a 
fearful earthquake occurred, evidencing the re-awakened activity of Ve- 
suvius, which had been quiescent for centuries. A great part of Pompeii, 
its temples, colonnades, theatres, and private dwellings were destroyed on 
that occasion. This disaster afforded the inhabitants an opportunity of 
re-erecting their town in a style more conformable to the improved 
architecture of imperial Rome , and it accounts for the comparatively 
modern and often unfinished character of the buildings. The new town 
had not long been completed , although it had been restored in a re- 
markably short period with the aid afforded by private liberality, when 
it was overtaken by the final catastrophe of 24th Aug. 79. The first 
premonitory symptom was a dense shower of ashes, a stratum of which 
covered the town to a depth of about 3 ft. , allowing the inhabitants 
time to escape. Many of them, however, returned, some doubtless to rescue 
their valuables, others paralysed with fear and uncertain what course to 
pursue. In the years 1861-72 were found eighty -seven human skeletons, 
and those of three dogs and seven horses. The whole number of those 
who perished is estimated at 2000. The ashes were followed by a shower of 
red hot rapilli, or fragments of pumice-stone of all sizes, which covered the 
town to a depth of 7-8 ft. , and was succeeded by fresh showers of ashes 
and again by rapilli. The present superincumbent mass is about 20 ft. in 
thickness. Part of this was formed by subsequent eruptions, but the town 
had already been completely buried by the original catastrophe, and was 
entirely lost to view, though its name was long preserved by a small 
village which sprang up near the site. Extensive excavations, however, 
had been made in ancient times. Immediately after the calamity the sur- 
vivors doubtless recovered as many valuables from their buried homes as 
they could ; and in subsequent centuries the ruins were repeatedly ran- 
sacked for the marbles and precious stones used in the embellishment of 
the temples and other buildings. We therefore now find the town in the 
condition in which it was consigned to oblivion some fifteen centuries 
ago as no longer containing anything of value. During the middle ages 
Pompeii was entirely unknown. In 1592 the architect Fontana constructed 
a subterranean water-conduit in order to supply Torre deir Annunziata 



1 26 Route 9. POMPEII. History. 

from the Sarno, actually intersecting the ruins, and to this day in use ; yet 
no farther investigations were then attempted. In 1748 the discovery of 
some statues and bronze utensils by a peasant attracted the attention of 
Charles III., who caused excavations to be made. The amphitheatre, the- 
atre, and other parts were then disinterred. The enthusiasm caused by the 
discovery has been the frequent theme of poetical and other compositions 
by Bulwer, Schiller, and other celebrated authors: 

What wonder this t — ice ask the lymphid well, 
Earth .' of thee — and from thy solemn womb 
What yield" st thou ? — Is there life in the abyss — 
Doth a new race beneath the lava dwell » 
Returns the Past, awakening from the tomb ? 



The earth, with faithful watch, has hoarded all 1 

Under the Bourbons the excavations were continued in a very unsatis- 
factory manner. Statues and valuables alone were extricated, whilst the 
ruins were either suffered to fall to decay or covered up again. To the 
reign of Murat, however, we are indebted for the excavation of the Forum, 
the town-walls, the Street of Tombs, and many private houses. The political 
changes of 1860 have likewise exercised a beneficial effect. Under the able 
superintendence of M. Fiorelli, instead of the former predatory operations, 
a regular plan has been adopted, according to which the ruins are systema- 
tically explored and carefully preserved, and highly satisfactory results thus 
obtained. The movable objects found, as well as the more important 
frescoes, have been removed to the Museum at Naples, — a very desirable 
course , as is obvious from the injury caused by exposure to those left 
behind. At Pompeii itself a museum and library have been instituted, a 
dwelling-house erected for students supported by government, and a railway 
constructed for the removal of the debris. The workmen employed in the 
excavations average eighty in number, but several hundred are at times 
engaged. If the works continu : to progress at the same rate as at present, 
the complete excavation of the town, according to Fiorelli's calculations, 
will occupy seventy years more, and will cost about 5 million francs. A 
sum of 30-40,000 fr. is realised yearly from the money paid by visitors for 
admission. 

Before beginning our walk, we may make a few remarks on the 
plan and architecture of the town. 

Town Walls. The town is built in the form of an irregular 
ellipse, extending from E. to W. The circumference of its walls 
amounts to 2843 yds. There are eight gates, to which the 
following names have been given : Porta di Ercolano , delta 
Marina, di Stabia, di Nocera, del Sarno, di Nola, di Capoa, and 
del Vesuvio. In consequence of the prolonged peace, however, the 
walls had entirely lost their importance. Towards the sea they 
had been demolished, and outside the Gate of Herculaneum a 
considerable suburb had sprung up, called Pagus Augustus Felix, 
after the settlement established by Augustus. 

Plan of the Town. The excavated portion (about 275,000 
sq. yds.) embraces about one-third only of the town, but prob- 
ably the most important part, including the Forum with the con- 
tiguous temples and public buildings , two theatres with large 
colonnades, the amphitheatre, and a considerable number of private 
dwellings of more or less ornate character. The principal streets 
are : 1 . The Consular Street, or Via Domitiana, which , prolonged 
by the Strada de' Sepolcri , or Street of Tombs , leads to the Porta 
di Ercolano, and thence in several ramifications to the ForiiDi ; 



Topography. POMPEII. 9. Route. 1 27 

2. The Street of Mercury (named Street of the Forum as far as the 
Temple of Fortuna), from the Forum to the N. extremity of the 
town ; 3. The street leading from the sea, past the Thermal and the 
Temple of Fortuna, to the Porta di Nola (called successively the 
Street of the Thermae, Fortuna, and JVoiu) ; 4. Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza, leading apparently from the Forum to the Porta del 
Sarno ; 5. Strada Stabiana, from the Porta di Stahia to the Porta 
del Vesuvio. — According to the new Official Arrangements 
the town is divided into nine 'Regions' (Regiones) by the four 
principal streets connecting the gates (Strada dell' Abbondanza, 
Str. della Fortuna, Str. Stabiana, and another, parallel to the last 
but not yet excavated). Six of these quarters have been wholly or 
partly excavated, viz. the VI th, Vllth, and VHIth to the W. of 
the Str. Stabiana, and the 1st, Ilnd (amphitheatre), Vth, and IXth 
to the E. of it. Each region is subdivided into Insulae, or blocks 
of houses bounded by four streets, each provided with a number. 
Each house is also numbered. Thus 'Ins. VI. 8, No. 5' means the 
house No. 5 in the eighth insula of the sixth region. Lastly, the 
streets of each region are numbered (Via prima, secunda, etc.), 
while the Str. Stabiana is entitled the 'Cardo' (line through the 
centre from N. to S.), the Str. della Fortuna the 'Decumanus 
Major' (major transverse line) , and the Str. dell' Abbondanza the 
'Decumanus Minor' (minor transverse line). The older names of 
the houses , by which many of them are known, were generally 
chosen in a very arbitrary fashion ; the newer names are generally 
taken from signet-rings or seals found in the interiors. 

The streets, bordered by pavement, are straight and narrow, 
not above 24 ft. in breadth, the narrower lanes 14 ft. only. They 
are admirably paved with large polygonal blocks of lava. At in- 
tervals, especially at the corners, are placed high stepping-stones, 
leading from one side of the pavement to the other, intended for 
the convenience of foot-passengers in rainy weather. The waggons 
have left deep ruts in the causeways, which do not exceed A 1 /^ ft. 
in width ; and the horses' hoofs have made impressions on the 
stepping-stones over which they were obliged to pass. At the 
corners of the streets are public fountains, decorated with the head 
of a god, a mask, or similar ornament. 

In the streets are frequently seen notices painted in red let- 
ters, referring generally to the election of the municipal authori- 
ties, and recommending some particular individual as »dile or 
duumvir. Trade-signs, like those of the present day, are very 
rare. On the other hand an occasional 'phallus' is seen, for the 
purpose of averting the evil eye ; and one or two large snakes, 
the emblems of the Lares, the gods of the hearth and of cross- 
ways, are very common. Stuccoed walls are often covered with 
graffitti, or roughly scratched drawings resembling those with which 
our 'Street Arabs' still delight to decorate blank surfaces. 



1"2S Route it. POMPEII. Architecticre 

Construction. The houses are slightly built of concrete 
(small stones consolidated with cement) or brick, and sometimes, 
particularly the corner pillars , of blocks of stone. The hasty 
and patched character of the construction is accounted for by the 
earthquake of 63. The numerous well-preserved staircases prove 
that the houses must uniformly have possessed a second and per- 
haps also a third story. These upper portions, consisting chiefly 
of wood, have, with a single exception (p. 146), been destroyed 
by the red-hot scoriae of the eruption. 

Shops. In traversing the streets of Pompeii, we soon ob- 
serve a difference between the various houses, which were shops 
(tabemae) or dwelling-houses according as their rooms are turned to 
or from the street. The former belonged to the large dwelling-houses, 
and were let to merchants and shopkeepers, in the same way as the 
ground-floors of the palazzi in Naples are occupied by shops at 
the present day. These shops were generally in no way connected 
with the back part of the house, and presented their whole fron- 
tage to the street, from which they could be separated by large 
wooden doors. Many of the shop-tables, covered with marble, 
and once fitted up with large earthen vessels for the sale of 
wine, oil, etc., are still preserved. At the back of the shop 
there was occasionally a second room, probably occupied by the 
shopkeeper, who in other cases must have lived in the upper 
part of the house, or in a different part of the town. The nu- 
merousness of these shops affords proof of the importance of the 
retail traffic at Pompeii. Where the street was not thus enli- 
vened , it was flanked by bare walls , adorned here and there 
with a painting. The absence of glass forms one of the chief 
differences between an ancient and a modern dwelling. The 
ancients therefore concentrated their domestic life in the interior 
of their houses, which presented to the street a blank wall with 
as few openings as possible , and these covered with an iron 
grating. A distinct idea of this mode of building, so different 
from that of the present day , and without parallel except in 
some Oriental countries, is best obtained in the more recently 
excavated and better preserved streets between the Forum and 
the Stabian Street, and to the E. of the latter. 

Plan of the Houses. The dwelling-houses of Pompeii vary 
greatly in size, and have obviously been very differently fitted up, 
in accordance with the nature of the situation, or the means and 
taste of their owners. Their chief peculiarity is the internal court, 
which provided the surrounding chambers with light, and was the 
medium of communication between them. Most of the Pompei- 
an houses of the wealthy middle class are entered from the 
street by a narrow passage (vestibulum) leading to the court (atri- 
um), which is surrounded by a covered passage, with the implu- 
vium, or reservoir for rain-water, in the centre. The roof sloped 



of the Town. 



POMPEII. 



9. Route. 129 



inwards and had an opening in the centre (compluvium) which 
afforded light and air to the court and the adjoining rooms. 
Beyond the atrium is a large apartment opening into it , called 
the tablinum. This front portion of the house was devoted to 
its intercourse with the external world ; and it was here that 
the patron received his clients and transacted business. The rest 
of the house was destined solely for the use of the family. Its 
centre also consisted of an open court, enclosed by columns, and 
thence termed the peristylium, the middle of which was laid 



ww^m^mm^sMM^Mzm^u, 




Souse of Pansa (p. 136). 

out as a garden. Sometimes, however, there is a flower-garden 
(xystus), surrounded by columns, beyond the peristyle. At the back 
of the peristyle are generally several business rooms, called aci. 
Around these principal apartments , in which the magnificence 
of the house is concentrated , are situated the sleeping and eat- 
ing-rooms , slaves' rooms, kitchen, cellar, etc. The upper floor 
was destined principally for the slaves. Most of the apartments 
are very small , but the family worked and spent most of their 
time in the light and airy courts. 

The reconstruction of a complete house in its original form would 
he most interesting and instructive, hut has not yet heen carried out. 
(A good model is to he seen at the Museum of Naples, p. 74.) 

Decoration. Marble is rarely met with in the public or 
domestic architecture of Pompeii , the columns being invariably 
constructed of tuffstone or bricks, cemented by mortar. The brick 
walls and columns were then covered with stucco, which took the 
place of marble, and afforded ample scope for decorative painting. 
It is in fact hardly possible to imagine a gayer or more richly 

Baedkkkr. Italy III. 7th Edition. 9 



130 Route 9. POMPEII. Porta Marina. 

decorated town than Pompeii must have been. The lower halves of 
the columns are generally red or yellow, the capitals tastefully 
painted ; the walls, too, where undecorated, are painted with bright, 
and almost glaring colours , chiefly red and yellow , harmonising 
well with the brilliancy of a southern sun. The centre of the walls 
is generally occupied by a painting unconnected with the others. 
The best of these were removed to the museum at Naples, before 
they had suffered from exposure to the elements ; many, however, 
of those left merit inspection. The scenes present a uniformly soft, 
erotic character, corresponding to the peaceful and pleasure-seeking 
taste of the age (comp. Introd., p. xxxviii). 

We now proceed to describe the different streets and build- 
ings , beginning with the Porta Marina, by which we enter the 
town on arriving from the station (p. 123). We shall then proceed 
(comp. Plan) to the Forum and first explore thence the streets in 
the N.E. quarter of the town — those of the Forum, of the 
Thermae, of the Herculaneum Gate, and of the Tombs. Returning 
to the Scuola Archeologica, we shall next traverse the Vicolo di 
Mercurio to the Strada di Mercurio , then follow the Str. della 
Fortuna to the recently excavated quarter near the point where it 
intersects the Stabian street, and then proceed by the Stabian 
street, crossing the Str. degli Augustali and the Strada dell' Abbon- 
danza, to the Forum Triangulare and the theatres. Our description 
terminates with the Amphitheatre. The chief points of interest 
are printed in heavier type. Those who are pressed for time had 
better omit the Amphitheatre. 

The Guides usually conduct visitors from the Forum to the E. into 
the .Strada dell' Abbondanza, and to the theatres and the Amphitheatre, 
and then return through the street of the Auguttales to the Fortuna 
street, where they keep their stock of photographs and souvenirs. They 
next show the street which is now in course of being excavated, running 
towards the Vesuvius gate, and beyond it the Mercurius street; and they 
end with the Herculaneum Gate and the Street of Tombs. Those who 
desire to form a distinct idea of the topographv and arrangements of the 
town are recommended either to adopt the following plan, or to frame 
one for themselves and name to the guide in order the places they desire 
to see. Travellers who intend lo dine or put up at the Hotel du Soleil 
should visit the Amphitheatre last. 

The above-mentioned Porta Marina is a vaulted passage under 
ancient magazines, which have been built over in modern times. 
The street here ascends rapidly, like all the other approaches to 
the town, which lies on an eminence. The passage, 17'/ 2 ft- in 
width and 7f)'/ 2 ft. in length, has a path for foot-passengers on 
the left. 

tin the right in this passage is the entrance to the *Museum, 
which contains many interesting objects, though none of artistic 
value, arranged in three rooms. 

Among these are casts and models of doors, windows, shop-shutters 
and other objects in wood. ' 

In glass cases are preserved casts of eight hum;m corpses, and one 



Temple of Venus. POMPEII. 9. Route. 131 

of the body of a dog. Although the soft parts of the bodies had decayed 
in course of time, their forms frequently remained imprinted on the 
ashes, which afterwards hardened. In 18G3 Fiorelli made the ingenious ex- 
periment of carefully removing the bones of a body thus imbedded, 
and filling the cavity with plaster , and he has succeeded admirably in 
preserving the figures and attitudes of the deceased after their death- 
struggle. On the point of flight, many of them had divested themselves 
of most of their clothing. Among the figures are a young girl with a ring 
on her finger, two women, one tall and elderly, and the other younger; 
a man lying on his face; and a man lying on his left side with remark- 
ably well-preserved features. 

There are also amphorae, vases, rain-spouts, etc., in terracotta; vessels 
in bronze; carbonised articles of food like those at Naples (p. 74); 
skulls, and skeletons of men and animals. 

The Via Marina ascends hence in a straight direction to the 
Forum, being bounded by a wall on the right, and by uninteresting 
shops on the left. Behind these are a number of houses recently 
excavated, but presenting little attraction. 

On the right at the end of the Via Marina is a side-entrance to 
the Basilica (PI. 64), an oblong edifice, 220 ft. long and 82 ft. 
broad, with its facade towards the Forum. A passage round the 
interior consists of twenty-eight brick columns with capitals of 
tufa ; the space in the centre was probably roofed in. On the 
walls are half-columns, all covered with stucco. At the end of 
the building was the elevated tribune, or seat of the presiding 
magistrate, which was probably approached by movable steps. In 
front of it is a pedestal for a statue ; below are vaults (perhaps a 
prison), reached by a staircase. In the year 79 the building must 
obviously have been undergoing extensive alterations. 

Also on the W. side of the Forum, to the left of the Via 
Marina, is situated the so-called *Temple of Venus (PL 63), 
an edifice of very early origin, but restored after the earthquake 
of 63. The temple is surrounded by a spacious, irregular quad- 
rangle, 177 ft. long, on the S. side 103 ft. and on the N. side 
109 ft. broad. As the side towards the Forum was not parallel 
with it, the wall, in order to prevent the eye being offended by 
this irregularity, was furnished in the interior with eight buttresses 
at intervals, each projecting farther than the last. The portico is 
borne by forty-eight columns, originally Ionic, which had been 
converted by means of stucco into Corinthian ; but this coating 
has now fallen off. The Temple itself rises in the centre of the 
court, on a basement 65 ft. in length, 39 ft. in width, and 
7y 2 ft. in height, and is approached by thirteen steps. Facing 
these stands an Altar , with an inscription of the donors , the 
quatuorviri of the town , and still bearing traces of its former 
use for offerings of incense. To the right in the colonnade is a 
statue of unknown import. On the left, opposite, in front of the 
small altars, were placed several other statues (among which were 
the Venus and Hermaphrodite found here). The temple itself 
was surrounded by a Corinthian colonnade, and had a facade of sis. 

Cj* 



132 Route 9. POMPEII. Forum. 

columns. Within the vestibule was the shrine, where the figure 
of the goddess stood on a lofty pedestal. A much mutilated statue 
of Venus was found here. Fine view of M. Santangelo from this 
point. ■ — Behind the court of the temple are chambers for the 
priestesses, decorated with paintings. 

The *Forum (PL 57, Foro Civile) forms the central point 
of the town (109 ft. above the sea-level). On the N. side, de- 
tached, stands the temple of Jupiter (p. 133); the other sides 
are enclosed by an arcade. The Area, or open space in the 
centre, 515 ft. in length and 107 ft. in breadth, is paved with 
large slabs. Six streets converge here, but the forum was pro- 
tected against the trespass of riders or waggons by stone pillars 
round the margins, and could even be entirely shut off by gates. 
In the area are twenty-two bases for statues, erected in honour 
of emperors and other illustrious men, five of which (four on the 
W. side, one at the S.B. corner) still bear incriptions, dedicat- 
ed to officials of high rank, the duumviri (similar to the consuls 
of Rome) and quinquennales (censors) of the town. The exten- 
sive basements on the S. side were destined for equestrian statues, 
most of the pedestals never having been completed. The colon- 
nade surrounding the Forum varies in breadth from 26 to 45 ft., 
a number of the buildings which adjoin it having been erected 
at a date prior to the construction of the Forum. Above the 
lower columns of the Doric order rose a second series of the Ionic, 
thus constituting an upper, covered passage, approached by steps, 
several of which are still preserved. The whole was in an unfin- 
ished condition at the time when the town was destroyed ; por- 
tions of the frieze , consisting of limestone , placed round the 
colonnade, are still in a rough state; on the S. and B. sides 
are older columns of tuffstone. 

To the right of the Basilica, on the S. side of the Forum, are 
situated the Tribunals (PI. 66), three adjacent chambers, each 
with a semicircular extremity, handsomely built of brick which 
was once covered with marble. Their use is not distinctly ascer- 
tained; but they seem to have been minor courts of justice. 

To the left of the tribunals diverges the Street of the Schools, 
pursuing an E. direction as far as the Forum Triangulare (p. 147). 
The excavated houses are again partially covered with rubbish, 
and therefore devoid of interest. 

On the E. side of the Forum, at the corner of the handsome 
Strada dell' Abbondanza (p. 144), is a square hall, erroneously 
supposed to be a school. 

On the opposite side of the street, Forum No. 1, is situated 
the *Chalcidicum (PI. 62), erected by the priestess Eunmchiu, and 
perhaps used as an exchange. On the frieze of the portico facing 
the Forum, and still more fully over the entrance in the Str. 
dell' Abbondanza, may be read the following inscription : 'Eumachia 



Temple of Jupiter. POMPEII. 9. Route. 133 

Lucii filia sacerdos publico, nomine suo et M. Numistri Frontonis 
fili chalcidicum cryptam porticus, Concordiae Augustae Pietati sua 
pecunia fecit eademque dedicavit.' 1 The interior is separated from 
the portico by a number of small chambers, which were used as 
a kind of magazine, where a great number of marble slabs, 
destined for the completion of the edifice, were found. In the 
interior is an open court, 123 ft. in length and 62 ft. in width, 
once surrounded by fifty-four columns of Parian marble , of which 
three only are left,, and these in a mutilated condition. This 
colonnade (chalcidicum) is surrounded by a covered passage (crypta), 
which afforded protection against the weather. At the back of 
this, in a niche, stands the statue of Eumachia (a copy, the ori- 
ginal being at Naples, p. 07), erected by the fullers (fullones) of 
Pompeii. — On the external wall of the Chalcidicum is the copy 
of an inscription found here, dedicated to Romulus. 

We next reach No. 2, the so-called *Temple of Mercury 
(PI. 61), 83 ft. in length and 53 ft. in breadth. A number of 
excavated objects have been placed here : vases, spouts of fount- 
ains , rain - gutters , capitals, stone- weights with iron handles, 
mortars, earthenware, etc. To the left of the entrance are ves- 
sels of lead, fragments of glass, bone articles, iron gratings, fetters, 
tires of waggon-wheels ; to the right earthenware and fragments 
of marble. In the centre an *Altar in marble with reliefs: on the 
front victims, on the sides the sacrificial utensils. The form of 
this temple is very irregular. At the extremity of the area is the 
small shrine with a pedestal for the statue of the god. 

No. 3, adjacent, is the Curia (PI. 59), where, as is generally 
believed, the town-council held their deliberations. It is a square 
hall , 65 ft. long , 58 ft. broad , with hemicyclical termination 
and several niches, but greatly damaged. 

Opposite, on the N. side of the Forum and in the most con- 
spicuous part of it, rises the Temple of Jupiter (PI. 60), on a 
basement 9'/-2 ft- in height. At the time of the eruption it was 
in process of being restored. The Pronaos is approached by eigh- 
teen steps, and has a facade of six columns with three on each 
side. Apertures in the ground admit light to the underground 
chambers, which were used as a magazine for building materials, 
having originally been probably a treasury. The whole length 
of the temple is 1 18 ft. Behind the Pronaos is the shrine, with 
two series of Ionic columns, eight in each, arranged close to the 
painted walls. At the back are three chambers. At the farther 
end, to the left, a flight of steps ascends to the basement which 
bore the statue of the god, which the visitor should not omit to 
visit as it affords a fine *Panorama of Pompeii, M. Santangelo, 
the palace of Quisisana, and the chain of the Apennines. 

Passing along the W. side of the Forum, we observe, at the 
end of the Temple of Venus, No. 31, a niche, in which, as 



134 Route 9. POMPEII. Temple of Augustus. 

an inscription found here informs us, the standard weights and 
measures were kept. Then follows a flight of steps, which led 
to the arcade, and formed an approach to the Temple of Venus, 
Adjoining the latter is No. 29, the so-called Lesche, a hall ap- 
parently for public purposes. Beyond this is No. '28, a public 
lutrinti, and then No. 27, a building which from its narrow, 
gloomy cells appears to have been a prison. Farther on, the Forum 
is bounded by a wall. In front of it, adjoining the Temple of 
Jupiter, is a Triumphal Arch. 

At the E. end of the Forum, adjoining the Curia, stands 
the so-called Temple of Augustus (PI. 58), sometimes named 
the Pantheon, an edifice whose object is involved in mystery. 
In front of it are pedestals for statues; on the exterior, shops 
possibly occupied by money-changers. The building is entered 
by two doors (Nos. 7 and 8). The interior consists of a rectan- 
gular court, 122 ft. in length and 80 ft. in width. The walls 
are decorated with frescoes (those to the left of the entrance, 
the best preserved, represent Argus and Io, Ulysses and Pene- 
lope). The court was still unfinished when the catastrophe took 
place; it was destined to be enclosed by a colonnade, but the 
limestone slabs of the pavement have been laid on the N. and W. 
sides only, while on the other sides the enclosure is formed by 
blocks of tufa. A dodecagon is formed in the centre by twelve 
pedestals for statues. To the right are eleven chambers simply 
painted red ; at the extremity is an exit into a back street. To 
the left is one of the principal outlets to the Street of the Au- 
gustales (named after this edifice). On the E. side, opposite us 
as we enter the building, rises the shrine. On the principal pedes- 
tal stood the statue of the emperor, in the side niches Livia and 
Drusus (here replaced by copies). To the left of this shrine was 
another with an altar, which perhaps was employed in the cele- 
bration of the sacrificial banquets ; the gallery by the lateral 
wall is believed to have been an orchestra. To the right a larger 
apartment, containing stands of masonry with a slight inclination, 
and furnished with gutters below to carry off blood or water, 
is supposed to have been a kitchen. The whole establishment was 
probably used by the college of Augustales. The arrangements 
resemble those of the Serapeum at Pozzuoli (p. 97). 

Adjacent to the Temple of Augustus rises a Triumphal Arch 
of brick, now divested of its marble, which here forms the bound- 
ary of the Forum. Under it begins the Street of the Forum. 
which we now follow (called in its prolongation the Street of 
Mercury, p. 139). The first transverse street immediately beyond 
the Triumphal Arch is that of the Augustales. At the corner is a 
relief with figures of two men carrying a wine-jar, being the sign 
of a wine-merchant. Farther on, a little to the right, is the de- 
pot of the objects sold by the guides (pp. 124, 130). 



Thermae. POMPEII. .9. Route. 135 

No. 1, at the corner of the next cross-street, is the Temple 
of Fortuna (PI. 49) , erected according to the inscription by M. 
Tullius during the reign of Augustus. It is approached by thir- 
teen steps ; length 79 ft., breadth 29 ft. Two portrait-statues found 
in the Cella are believed to have belonged to the Gens Tullia. 

At the entrance to the Street of Mercury rises a Brick Arch, 
on which the pipes of a water-conduit are visible. It was once 
surmounted by the bronze statue of Nero mentioned at p. 72. 

We now turn to the left into the Strada delle Tkkmk. 
No. 2, on the left, is the entrance to the * Thermae (PI. 39), 
which occupy nearly a whole insula, i.e. the space enclosed 
by four streets; breadth 161 ft. , depth 172ft. The exterior was 
surrounded by shops, which had no connection with the interior. 
Entrances six in number. A great part of the establishment 
is now employed as magazines, and the public are admitted to 
one half of the actual baths only. A passage leads first to the 
chamber for undressing (apodyterium) , 37 ft. long , 21 ft. wide, 
and surrounded by benches. Beyond this is the cold bath (fritji- 
darium), a rotunda with four niches. The vault above was pro- 
vided with a glass window. In the centre is the basin , 14 ft. 
in diameter, with a marble ledge surrounding it. From the un- 
dressing room to the right the warm bath (tepidarium) is enter- 
ed, an apartment 32 ft. in length, 17'/2 ft- i n breadth. A frieze 
running round it is furnished with niches for depositing clothes and 
articles of the toilet, and is supported by figures of Atlas in terra- 
cotta. The vaulting was richly decorated, partly with stucco figures 
in relief. This chamber was heated by means of a large brazier 
of bronze. Adjacent is the hot-air bath (calidarium or sudatorium), 
52 ft. long and 17 ft. broad. A niche at the end contains a marble 
basin for washing the hands and face with cold water ; it bears 
an inscription recording that it was erected at a cost of 5250 
sesterces (391. sterling). At the other end is the basin for warm 
baths. The apartment had double walls and floor, between which 
the ^team diffused itself. — The baths also possessed an exten- 
sive colonnade , now converted into a garden , besides several 
other chambers and baths for women, none of which are at present 
open to the public. 

Nearly opposite to the Thermae, Ins. VI. 8, No. 5, is the 
* House of the Tragic Poet (PI. 38), one of the most elegant in 
Pompeii , so called from two representations found in the tablinum 
— a poet reading, and a theatrical rehearsal (which, together with 
beautiful paintings of subjects from the Iliad, are now in the 
museum at Naples) ; but it was more probably the house of a 
goldsmith, if we may judge from the trinkets discovered in the 
adjoining shop. This is represented by Bulwer in his 'Last Days 
of Pompeii' as the dwelling of Glaucus. On the threshold was a dog 
in mosaic, with the inscription 'Cave Canem' (p. 62), now in the 



136 Route 9. POMPEII. House of Pansa. 

Museum at Naples. The peristyle of seven columns is closed at 
the back l)y a wall, on which is a small shrine of the Lares. In 
a room to the left of the latter, Venus and Cupid fishing, and the 
deserted Ariadne. In the triclinium on the right, Youth and maiden 
looking at a Best containing Cupids, Theseus abandoning Ariadne, 
and Diana with Orion (?). 

We continue to follow the Strada delle Terme. Ins. VI. 6, 
No. 1, beyond the cross-street, on the right, is the House of Fausa 
(PI. 37; Domus Cn. AUei Nigidi Mai), one of the largest in 
Pompeii, occupying a whole insula, 319ft. long and 124 ft. broad. 
It comprises sixteen shops and dwellings, facing the different streets. 
On the threshold was found a mosaic with the greeting 'Sai.vk'. 
This house affords a normal specimen of a palatial residence of 
the imperial epoch, complete in all its appointments : atrium, 
tablinum, peristyle, oecus (to the left, adjacent, the kitchen 
with the snakes), and lastly the garden or Xystus. Comp. Ground- 
plan, p. 129. 

We next turn to the right towards the Porta di Ercolano. At 
the picturesque corner opposite, Ins. VI. 3, No. 20, is a tavern, 
the street to the left of which leads to the gate. This was a 
business street, and contained few handsome dwelling-houses. 

On the left is a house fitted up as a Library, containing an 
extensive collection of archaeological works on Pompeii, and for 
the reception of students supported by government (Scuola Ar- 
cheologica). 

On the right, Ins. VI. 2, No. 4, is the House of Sallust (PL 33 ; 
Domus A, Coss. Libani), with gaily painted atrium, behind which 
are the tablinum and a small irregularly-shaped garden , with a 
dining-room (triclinium) in the corner. Instead of a peristyle, 
this house contains a small court enclosed by pillars, to the right 
of the atrium, and styled, though without good reason, the Venereum. 
On the wall opposite, *Actieon converted into a stag, and torn to 
pieces by his own dogs. 

No. 6 is a Bake-house, with ovens and different mills for 
grinding the corn. The latter were probably turned by asses, or 
in some cases by slaves. — At the corner of the street is a foun- 
tain , and behind it a cistern. 

Some of the houses on the left, on the slope of the hill occu- 
pied by the town , had several stories , and large vaults, used as 
magazines. 

A large, open hall to the right, Ins. VI. 1, No. 13, was a kind 
of Custom-House (PI. 27), where a number of weights and mea- 
sures were found, one of which had been stamped in the Capitol 
at Rome. 

No. 10, a little farther on, to the right, is the House of the 
Surgeon ( PL 26), so called from a considerable number of surgical 
instruments found here. It is remarkable for its massive con- 



Street of Tombs. POMPEII. 9. Route. 137 

struotion of limestone blocks from the river Samo, and is probably 
the most ancient house in the town. "We next reach No. 7, on 
the right, the extensive House of the Vestals (PI. 25). 

No. 3, on the left, opposite, is a large Tavern, with a phallus 
towards the street , intended to avert the evil eye. It contains two 
wine-tables, and has an entrance for waggons. From the cham- 
bers at the back, as well as from the preceding and following 
houses on this side, a charming glimpse is obtained of the bay 
with the island of Capri ; near the land is the picturesque little 
rocky island of Revigliano ; to the right is Torre dell' Annunziata. 

No. 2, on the right, is another tavern, and beyond it is the 
Porta di Ercolano (136 ft. above the sea-level). To the right of 
the gate is the approach to the *Town Wall, which may be visited 
for the sake of the view. The wall is 2<S43 yds. in circumference, 
and consists of an outer and inner wall, the intervening space 
being filled with earth. The height of the external wall varies ac- 
cording to the ground from 25 to 33 ft., the internal being uni- 
formly 8 ft. higher. Being constructed in several very different 
styles, it obviously dates from several distinct periods. The older 
part is built of large blocks of tufa and limestone, while the more 
recent consists chiefly of concrete (small pieces of lava consolidated 
with cement). The difference between these kinds of building 
will be observed near this gate. At a later period, perhaps during 
the Social War, it was strengthened by the addition of towers. 
During the undisturbed peace of the imperial period, the walls 
on the side towards the sea were probably removed , and their 
site built over. The Gate of Herculaneum is one of the more 
recent structures. It consists of three series of arches, of which the 
central and largest has fallen in. The depth of the passage is 59 ft. 

Outside this gate lay a considerable suburb, the Pagus 
Augustus Felix, so named in honour of Augustus. One street 
of this only has been partially excavated ; but several others di- 
verged from it on each side. This is the so-called * Street of the 
Tombs (Strada clei Sepolcri), the great military road from Capua 
to Naples, Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Reggio. The ancient Roman 
custom of burying the dead by the side of a high road is well 
known. It has been ascertained that rows of graves, similar to 
those discovered here, exist beyond the other gates also. The 
Street of Tombs is in point of situation the most beautiful part 
of the town. 

On the right, No. 1, is a large unfinished pedestal. 

On the left, No. 1, is the Tomb of Cerinius (PI. 22), a recess 
with seats. It has been said that this was a sentry-box, and that 
the skeleton found in it was that of the sentinel who expired at 
his post ; but this is a mere fiction. 

L. No. 2, a semicircular seat with the tomb of the duumvir 
A. Veins. 



138 Route 9. POMPEII. Street of Tombs. 

L. No. 4, *Tomb of Mamia (PI. 20); in front a seat like the 
above, with the inscription : 'Mamiae Publii filiae sacerdoti pu- 
blicae locus sepulturae datus decurionum decreto'. At the back, en- 
closed by a low wall, is the columbarium, with niches for cinerary 
urns. A solitary cypress adorns the tomb. The view hence of the 
bay and the mountains of Castellamare is singularly beautiful. — On 
a street diverging to the right, No. 2, is the Tomb ofTerenUus(Vl. 18). 

Farther on, on the right, No. 6, is the Tomb of the Garlands 
(PI. 16), so called from its decorations; name unknown. R. No. 9, 
a tomb with open recess and seat. 

On the left is the so-called Villa of Cicero (PI. 13), again 
covered up. The buttresses still visible belong to a colonnade which 
ran parallel to the street. 

It. Nos. 10 and 11, two shops. No. 12, House of the Mosaic 
Columns (PI. 14), very dilapidated. The entrance leads first into 
a garden, at the end of which is a recess inlaid with mosaic, and 
used as a fountain ; to the left is a court with a private chapel and 
altar. The two staircases ascended to the upper floor. 

On the left, beyond the villa of Cicero, several handsome mon- 
uments will be observed: No. 16, that of Servilia (PI. 11). No. 17, 
that of Scaurus (PI. 10), with reliefs in stucco, representing gladia- 
torial combats, but in a very ruinous condition. The columbarium 
contains niches for the urns. 

On the right is a long arcade, at the back of which there were 
shops. From the skeleton of a mule found here it has been 
suggested that this was a resort of peasants on market-days. In the 
last shop is a stove, the upper part of which consisted of earthen- 
ware vessels fitted together. — Farther on are several ancient tombs 
of limestone discovered in 1872, belonging to the remote Oscan 
period, when the dead were buried instead of being burned, and 
when painted vessels of terracotta were interred with them. — The 
street which diverges here is still uuexcavated. 

On the right are several ruined tombs, the first of which is 
supposed to have been an ustrinum, or place of cremation. 

L. No. 18, a circular monument, name unknown. 

L. No. 20, *Tomb of the Augustalis Culventius Quintus (PI . 6); 
below the inscription is represented the bisellium (seat of honour) 
accorded him in recognition of his liberality. 

R. No. 37, *Tomb of the Libella family (PI. 7), of travertine, 
and well-preserved, with inscriptions. Beyond, to the right, are 
several ruined tombs, with inscriptions partially preserved. 

L. No. 22, *Tomb of Naevoleia Tyche (PI. 5), with chamber 
for cinerary urns. The deceased was a freedwoman, who, ac- 
cording to the inscription, destined this tomb for herself and 
C. Munatius Faustus, chief official of this quarter of the town, 
and for their freedmen ; a relief below refers to the con- 
secration of the tomb ; on the left side is the bisellium, or ma- 



Villa of Diomedes. POMPEII. ». Route. 139 

gisterial seat of Munathis, on the right a vessel entering the har- 
bour, a symbol of human life. No. 23 was a Triclinium for ban- 
quets in honour of the dead. 

No. 24, *Villa of Diomedes (PI. 1), arbitrarily so called from 
the opposite tomb of the family of Arrius Diomedes (PI. 2). The 
arrangement of this, like that of other villas, differs considerably 
from that of the urban dwellings. A flight of steps with two col- 
umns leads at once to the peristyle of fourteen Doric columns, 
whence the bath is entered to the left. Opposite are terraces, which 
rise above the second and lower portion of the house. The garden, 
107 ft. square, with a basin for a fountain in the centre, is sur- 
rounded by a colonnade. From the terrace a staircase descends to 
the left (another, from the entrance from the street, to the right). 
Below this colonnade , on three sides, lies a vaulted cellar which 
merits a visit , lighted by small apertures above , and approached 
by staircases descending at each end. Seventeen bodies of women 
and children, who had provided themselves with food, and sought 
protection in this vault against the eruption, were found here. But 
impalpable ashes penetrated through the openings into the interior, 
and too late the ill-fated party endeavoured to escape. They were 
found with their heads wrapped up, half buried by the ashes. The 
impression made on the ashes by a girl's breast is now in the 
museum at Naples. The probable proprietor of the house was 
found near the garden-door (now walled up), with the key in 
his hand; beside him was a slave with money and valuables. 



We now retrace our steps by the same route to the Gate of 
Herculaneum and the Scuola Archeologica (p. 136), whence we 
enter the Vicolo di Mercurio (Via Prima, between Ins. VI. 2 and 
Ins. VI. 3), the transverse street to the left. 

The third street intersecting the latter at right angles is the 
important Strada di Mercurio (Via Sexta), leading from the town- 
wall to the Forum, and deriving its name from a Fountain with a 
Mercury's head immediately on the right. "VVe now turn to the 
left towards the town-wall. 

Nos. 6 and 7 (Ins. VI. 9) on the opposite (E.) side are the 
House of Castor and Pollux (PI. 46 ; Domus Cn. Caetroni Eutychi), 
consisting of two distinct houses, but connected. No. 7 is simple 
and homely. It is connected with the neighbouring house by a 
large peristyle, adorned with paintings all round ; at the end is a 
basin for a fountain ; beyond it is a hall. From the peristyle the 
atrium of the other house is entered to the left, beyond which 
are the tablinum and a garden with lararium. The best preserved 
of the frescoes is one of Apollo and Daphne in a room to the 
left of the garden. 

Farther on, Nos. 5-3, House of the Centaur (PI. 45), two 



140 Route 9. POMPEII. House of Meleager. 

different houses, connected by a door. No. 5 has an underground 
dwelling, the vaulting of which has fallen in. 

Adjacent, No. 2, *House of Meleager (PL 44). Within the 
doorway, to the right, Mercury handing a purse to Fortuna. The 
richly decorated atrium contains a marble table , borne by grif- 
fins. Contrary to the usual arrangement, the peristyle does not lie 
behind, but to the left of the atrium. This is the finest peristyle 
which has been discovered at Pompeii, being 73 ft. in length, and 
CO ft. in breadth. The porticus is borne by twenty-four columns 
(lower part red, upper white), and adorned by a graceful fountain. 
Adjoining the peristyle at the back is an cecus, enclosed on 
three sides by twelve yellow painted columns. The fresooes are 
also yellow ; among them, to the right, a young Satyr startling a Bac- 
chante with a snake. To the left of the cecus is a hall with frescoes : 
on the transverse wall to the left, the Judgment of Paris. 

"We return along the opposite side of the street. Ins. VI. 7, 
No. 23, House of Apollo (PI. 43; Domus A. Herenulei Communis), 
so named from the numerous representations of that god which were 
found here. Behind the tablinum, a fountain of a grotesque style. 
To the right is an adjoining court, at the end of which is a hand- 
some sleeping-chamber (for two beds); on the external wall is a 
landscape with a Bacchanalian, and a mosaic of Achilles in Scyrus ; 
among the weapons which Ulysses offers him is a shield, on which 
Achilles and Chiron are represented. 

No. 18, House of the Wounded Adonis (PI. 42; Domus M. 
Asellini). In the Xystus, to the right, a fresco, above life-size, of 
*Adonis wounded, tended and bewailed by Venus and Cupids ; at 
the sides, Achilles and Chiron. In a room to the left of the 
Xystus, 'Toilet of the Hermaphrodite'. 

Continuing to follow the Strada di Mercurio, we next observe 
on the left, opposite the fountain mentioned at p. 139, Ins. VI. 10, 
No. 1, a *Tavern; towards the street is a table covered with 
marble and a fire-place. A door leads from the shop to the left 
into a small room adorned with various allusions to drinking : 
a waggon with a wine-cask, players and drinkers, eatables, etc. 
In the corner to the left a soldier is being served; above him is 
scribbled : 'da fridam pusillum' (a glass of cold). To the right 
two other chambers, out of the first of which a door leads to the 
neighbouring house No. 2, the Casa del Cinque Scheletri (so called 
from the five skeletons found here), which was perhaps used as 
a lodging-house. 

From the corner of the Vicolo di Mercurio a digression may be 
made in the adjacent street to the left to the House of the Labyrinth 
(opposite side of first side-street, immediately to the left; PI. 47), 
a roomy dwelling with two atria ; principal entrance, Ins. VI. 11, 
No. 9, second door No. 10. In the passage leading to the peri- 
style, immediately to the left and opening on the latter, is a 



House of the Faun. POMPEII. 9. Route. 141 

window of terracotta with six small apertures, resembling pigeon- 
holes. In the room beyond the peristyle, to the left, a mosaic 
pavement : Theseus killing the Minotaur in the Labyrinth. The 
house to the left was destined for the menage ; it contains a finely 
decorated bath with three rooms, and a large bake-house. 

We now return to the Strada di Mercurio. 

R., Ins. VI. 8, No. 23, *House of the Small Fountain (delta 
fontana piccola, PI. 41); to the right of the entrance a staircase 
ascends to the 2nd floor. At the end of the house is a *Fountain 
of gaily coloured mosaic, adorned with a small and graceful bronze : 
Boy with a goose (a copy, original at Naples). The walls are deco- 
rated with landscapes, among which is a *Harbour on the left. 

R. No. 22 , House of the Large Fountain , at the end of 
which is a mosaic *Fountain similar to the above. 

R. No. 20, the Fullonica (PI. 40), or fuller's establishment. 
The large atrium , borne by square pillars (on one of which 
were frescoes alluding to the fuller's art, now in Naples), was 
perhaps covered in and used as a magazine. Around it are 
chambers for the workmen. At the end of the house -are four 
basins on different levels, destined for washing the cloths, which 
were afterwards stamped with the feet in the small stands to 
the right. One egress leads to the Strada delta Fullonica. Adjacent 
to these premises, and connected with them by a door, was the 
dwelling-house of the proprietor, No. 21. 

L., Ins. VI. 10, No. 6, House of Pomponius, with an oil-mill 
to the right of the entrance. 

L. No. 7, House of the Anchor (PI. 48), named after an 
anchor in mosaic on the threshold, a spacious dwelling. By the 
tablinum a staircase descends to a peristyle on the level of the 
Strada della Fortuna, surrounded by a cryptoporticus. 

R., Ins. VI. 8, No. 14, Barber's Shop, very small. In the 
centre a seat for customers ; to the right a bench and two recesses. 

Having reached the brick archway of the Strada di Mer- 
curio (p. 135), we now turn to the left into the Strada della 
Fortuna (Decumanus Major), a prolongation of the Strada delle 
Terme , leading to the Gate of Nola. 

L., beyond the first cross -street, Ins. VI. 12, Nos. 2-5, the 
*House of the Faun (PI. 50), discovered in 1830 in presence of 
Goethe's son, and entirely excavated during the two following 
years. The name is derived from the bronze statuette of a dancing 
Faun found here (p. 71 ). The house occupies a whole insula, 
and is the handsomest in Pompeii, 262 ft. long and 125 ft. 
broad. The style of its decoration proves it to date from the 
republican era. It contained beautiful mosaics , but hardly any 
mural paintings. The stucco on the walls is an imitation of in- 
crustation in coloured marble (comp. p. xl). On the pavement 
in front of the house is the greeting 'Have'. It possesses two 



142 Route 9. POMPEII. Souse of the Chase. 

entrances and two atria. The left atrium (35 ft. by 38 ft.) is 
in the Tuscan style , i. e. the roof was borne by cross-beams 
without vertical support. On each side of it there are four 
rooms. The 4th on the left contains a mosaic representing doves 
by a casket. In the centre of the impluvium stood the bronze 
statuette already mentioned. The simpler atrium on the right is 
an atrium tetrastylum , i. e. the roof-beams were borne by four 
columns near the impluvium. The peristyle contains twenty-eight 
Ionic columns of tufa coated with stucco. In the exedra, which 
opens on the peristyle, was found the celebrated mosaic of the 
Battle of Alexander (p. 69). At the back is a garden 105 ft. long, 
115 ft. broad, enclosed by fifty-six columns of the Doric order. 
Numerous amphor* were found here. 

R., Ins. VII. 4, No. 59, Casa delta Par eta Nera (PI. 51), so 
called from the black wall in the exedra, covered with represen- 
tations of Cupids, beautifully executed , but unfortunately in had 
preservation. 

R. No. 57, Casa del Capitelli Figurati (PI. 52), named after 
the capitals of the entrance-pillars, adorned with heads of Bac- 
chantes and Fauns. From the peristyle we enter a sugar-bake- 
house , the use of which has been conjectured from the nature 
of the objects found in it. The stove is still in existence. 

R. No. 56, House of the Grand-Duke of Tuscany (PL 53), 
small, with mosaic fountain. 

R. No. 51, House of Ariadne (PI. 54), extending to the 
Street of the Augustales, towards which it has an additional 
atrium. The atrium next to the Str. della Fortuna has twenty 
columns, the peristyle sixteen, the lower parts being yellow, and 
the capitals variegated. In the centre is a fountain. Various 
representations. 

R. No. 48, House of the Chase (PL 55). In the peristyle 
(which has columns on two sides only and a basin in the centre), 
opposite, wild beast flghts, whence the name of the house ; on 
the right, landscapes. 

If we follow the Strada della Fortuna for a short distance, 
we reach the broad Strada Stabiana (p. 144 ; Cardo), diverging to 
the right, the N. extension of which, with Insula? VI. 14 and V. 1, 
was excavated quite recently. At the corner to the left are a 
Founta in and an Altar of the Lares; adjacent is the pillar of an 
Aqueduct. Of the houses here the following are noticeable : — 
L., Ins. VI. 14, No. 20, with a mutilated hermes erected by the 
arcarius (cashier) Anteros to M. Vesonius Primus, the master of 
the house, with projecting props for the support of wreaths. The 
peristyle is adorned with a fresco of Orpheus, over life-size. • — 
No. 22, a Fullonica, or fuller's workshop. The atrium contains a 
handsome impluvium, in which the bronze summit of the fountain 
js still preserved, and several handsome table-supports. In the 



Strada di Nolo. POMPEII. 9. Route. 143 

room at the back are three basins (comp. p. 141), and on the 
wall are paintings of a banquet of fullers (fullones) and a scene in 
a court of law. — Opposite, to the right, Ins. V. 1, No. 26, the 
house of L. Caecilius Jucundus , the banker, where the receipts 
now preserved in the Museo Nazionale (p. 74) were discovered. 
In the atrium stood a hermes erected to the banker by his freedman 
Felix; the pedestal, with the inscription i Oenio L(uci) n(ostri) 
Felix libertus' is still here, but the bronze bust has been removed 
to the Museo (p. 71). The beautiful *Paintings in the tablinum 
are unfortunately somewhat faded. The large room to the left of 
the peristyle contains a fine representation of *Theseus deserting 
Ariadne. — Farther on, No. 18; the last room to the left of the 
peristyle is adorned with paintings and Greek epigrams (to the left, 
Pan and Cupid wrestling). 

The prolongation of the Strada della Fortuna , beyond the 
Strada Stabiana, is called the Stkada di Nola, and leads in 5 min. 
to the gate of that name , which is one of the most ancient in 
the town. Here the first two insulae to the S. were excavated 
in 1877-78, but beyond them the fronts only of the houses have 
as yet been laid bare. 

The whole of the first insula to the right (IX. 4) is occupied by 
extensive Thermae, which were in course of construction at the 
time the city was overwhelmed. In the large court, which is acces- 
sible on three sides, the labourers seem to have been in the very- 
act of making the gutter and laying the bases for the columns of the 
portico when they were overtaken by the catastrophe of A. D. 79. 
The large swimming-basin, to the left, below the windows of the 
inner rooms, was also unfinished. Instead of the two swimming- 
baths, for men and women, usually found in the Thermae, there is 
here only this one, which is, however, of unwonted size, and quite 
destitute of ornamentation. Passing through an antechamber on 
the left, off which open several rooms of unknown purpose, we 
reach the dressing-room (apodyterium), containing a large bath of 
cold water (frigidarium). Next to this is the warm bath ftepida- 
riutnj, beyond which is the hot chamber (calidarium), with three 
basins for hot baths. To the left of the tepidarium is the laconi- 
cum, or sudatory, covered with a vaulted roof, and also connected 
with the calidarium. The three rooms last mentioned appear to 
have been heated by means of double floors and walls, traces of 
which are still visible in the laconicum. The heating-furnaces had 
not yet been built. The three largest rooms are provided with 
large windows, another divergence from the ordinary plan of the 
Thermae. 

The houses in the next insula (IX. 5) contain numerous paint- 
ings, most of which, however, are of little artistic merit. The first 
house, No. 2, contains, in the room to the left of the tablinum, 
three scenes from the story of Achilles : His recognition at Scyros, 



I 14 Route 9. POMPEII. Strada ddV Abbondunza. 

Hephaestus showing Thetis the armour he had made for Achilles, 
and Thetis on a Triton taking the armour to her son. — Leaving 
this house by the door at the hack, to the right, we reach after a 
few paces the house No. 21, the principal entrance to which is 
from the S. (No. 18); the room at the S.W. corner of the house 
is decorated with three paintings representing a woman consulting 
with a girl about a letter, Medea on the point of slaying her child- 
ren, and Paris about to declare his passion for Helen (Cupid enter- 
ing at the door). Other important paintings found in this house 
have been removed from the walls. — The house in the S.E. angle 
of this insula, No. 16, seems to have been a tavern, and contains 
a room with paintings of the grossest description. 

A large house in the insula to the E. of the last, with a hand- 
some, spacious peristyle, was excavated in 1879. It contains a small 
bath, the marble flooring of which seems to have been removed in 
some early excavation. One of the rooms with black walls and 
flooring is tastefully decorated with coloured paintings, inserted in 
the walls at a later period : right, Orestes, Pylades, and Iphigeneia ; 
left, Theseus and the Minotaur ; in the middle , Hermaphrodite 
and Silenus. 

We now turn to the "W., and pass through the lane between Ins. 
IX. 3 and IX. 4 to the Stkada Stabiana, Immediately to the left, 
Ins. IX. 3, No. 5, the *House of Marcus Lucretius (PI. 56), once 
richly fitted up, though with questionable taste (shown at the request 
of the visitor). Behind the atrium is a small *Garden, laid out in 
terraces, with a fountain and a number of marble figures. The best 
of the paintings are preserved at Naples. This is one of the few 
houses in Pompeii of which the proprietor's name is known. The 
information was afforded by a letter found with the painted address : 
M. Lucretio Flam. Martis decurioni Poinpei. 

Continuing to descend the Stabian Street towards the gate, we 
reach (1. ; Ins. IX. 2, No. 9), a house with frescoes in the tablinum 
representing the 'Caritas Romana' and the forsaken Ariadne ; then 
(r.; Ins. VII. 1, No. 25), the House of Sirtcus, with a handsome 
marble table in the atrium. A staircase leads from the peristyle to the 
W. part of the house, entered by the Strada del Lupanare (p. 146). 

Farther on, to the right, are the Thermae (see below) at the 
corner of the Strada dell' Abbondanza (from which they are 
entered). This broad street ascends from the Stabian Street 
( P.) ft. above the sea-level) to the Forum. On the other side, 
towards the Porta del Sarno , it is only excavated as far as the 
next street ( Vico di Tesmo, see below). At the corner here is the 
buttress of an aqueduct, leaden pipes from which are observed 
on the pavement farther on. 

On the left, in the direction of the Sarno G;ite, his. IX. 1, 
No. 20, is the Casa dei Biadumeni (PI. 90), or of Epidius Rufus, 
with a small platform in front of the facade, and a handsome atrium 



Stabian Thermae. POMPEII. .9. Route. 145 

with fourteen columns. Within it is a lararium on the right, with 
the inscription , 'Genio Marci nostri et Laribus duo Diadumeni 
liberti'. At the back is a garden, to the left of which is the 
vnulted kitchen. — The atrium of the House of Epidius Sabinus, 
No. 22 (left), contains a well-preserved lararium, with paintings at 
the back, nearly obliterated. These houses have been brought to 
light since 1866. The excavations have been carried as far as 
the old Porta Stabinna to the S., lower down. — Ascending the 
platform in a straight direction, we reach a cart-road leading to 
the Amphitheatre (see p. 149). 

The Vico di Tesmo(left) affords a good example of the monotonous 
character of the more remote streets. At the corner we observe 
the Tannery (Ins. I. 5, No. 2), and also an atrium (PI. 91 ; Ins. I. 2, 
No. 28), the compluvium of which was covered with an iron grating 
(restored) as a protection against thieves. 

We now return and continue to ascend the Strada dell' Ab- 
bondanza towards the Forum , near which this handsome street, 
with its numerous shops, was closed by means of stone pillars, 
in order to exclude carriages. 

L., Ins. VIII. 4, No. 15, *House of Cornelius Rufus (PL 72). 
The atrium contains two handsome pedestals for tables, and a bust 
with the inscription, '0. Cornelio Rufo'. The peristyle has eight- 
een columns. 

In the Strada dell' Abbondanza, on the right (Ins. VII. 1, No. 8), 
is the principal entrance to the *Stabian Thermae (PI. 69). They 
are larger and older than the Thermae at the back of the Forum, 
and date from the Osoan period, but were afterwards extended and 
redecorated. We enter a spacious court , flanked by pillars on two 
sides , which was used for palaestrie exercises. On the wall on the 
left are stucco ornaments in relief. Two rooms situated here were 
perhaps intended for undressing. Then a basin for cold baths, 
16 paces long, 9 paces broad, 5 ft. deep, and another vaulted 
room. In the wing opposite, which has a side entrance from the 
street, are four baths for single bathers on the left. — In the 
upper part of the wing to the right is the Women's Bath. The 
door above leads into a vestibule , into which the dressing-room 
opens on the left; from the street are two separate entrances. 
Round the vaulted hall are niches for clothes ; in the corner is 
a basin enclosed by masonry. Adjacent is the warm bath , a 
vaulted saloon with double walls. Then the sudatory, the vaulting 
of which has fallen in ; at one end is a marble basin, at the 
other a fountain for cold water; the walls are double. Behind 
these chambers were the stoves. — The Men's Bath, to the right 
near the entrance, is similar. The first door on the left leads from 
the large dressing-room to the cold, the second to the warm bath ; 
beyond is the sudatory. The two latter are much dilapidated. 

L., Ins. VIII. 4, No. 4, House of Holconius (PI. 70), with 

Baeoekkk. Italy III. 7th Edition. 10 



146 Route 9. POMPEII. House of Siricus. 

handsome peristyle, rich in paintings, but faded. In the oecus (r.) 
Ariadne and Bacchus; (1.) Hermaphrodite; in the room to the 
right, Rape of Europa ; in the room to the left, Achilles in Scyrus, 
and Judgment of Paris. 

A few paces farther the Theatre Street (see below) diverges to 
the left, while we follow the Strada del Lupanare to the right. 

R., Ins. VII. 1, No. 47, *House of Siricus (PI. 71). On the 
threshold the inscription, 'Salve lucrufrnf ; to the same proprietor 
belonged the large adjacent bake-house, No. 46. To the left of the 
atrium is a room with good paintings: (1.) Neptune and Apollo 
helping to build the walls of Troy ; opposite, *Drunken Hercules ; 
(r.) * Vulcan presenting Thetis with weapons for Achilles. The 
columns of the peristyle are painted green. 

To the left on the opposite wall are large snakes, with the in- 
scription: 'Otiosis locus hie non est, discede morator'. 

To the left at the corner of the second lane, the Vicolo del 
Balcone Pensile, is Ins. VII. 12, No. 18, the Lupanare (PI. 83 ; 
closed) ; at the sides five sleeping-places ; in front, the seat of the 
hostess. The bad character of the house is sufficiently indicated by 
the paintings and inscriptions. A separate entrance from the street 
ascended direct to the upper floor. 

We now follow the Vicolo del Balcone Pensile, which leads 
to the left between Insulas VII. 12 and VII. 11 and 10. 

R. No. 26, House with fine frescoes at the back, to the left. 

R. No. 28, *House with the Balcony (PL 84; Casa del Bal- 
cone Pensile). The atrium contains a fountain with a marble figure 
on the right. Three rooms of the upper floor have been pre- 
served by carefully replacing the charred woodwork by new beams 
— a laborious and costly undertaking. The projecting wooden 
structure is similar to that frequently seen in old continental 
towns , and appears to have been common in Pompeii. 

The Vicolo del Balcone Pensile terminates in the Vicolo di Eu- 
machia, which extends behind the buildings of the Forum. This 
street leads us to the left towards the Strada dell' Abbondanza. 
At the corner is a fountain with head and cornucopia of Abundan- 
tia, whence the name of the street. On the wall of the Chalcidicum 
public advertisements used to be painted (album), but little of them 
now remains. 

On the opposite side, nearer the Forum, Ins. VIII. 3, No. 8, 
House of the Boar Hunt (PI. 67) , named from the mosaic in the 
passage. The peristyle has fourteen Ionic columns. The border of 
the large mosaic in the atrium represents an ancient town-wall. 
On the wall next the Vicolo (PI. 68) are represented the twelve 
gods with their attributes, almost effaced. 

We continue to descend the Str. dell' Abbondanza, and enter 
the Theatre Street to the right ( Via Srj-tu, between Insulse VIII. 
4 and VIII. 6), leading to the Forum Triangulare. Near the latter 



Great Theatre. POMPEII. 9. lioule . 1 47 

is a portious with six Ionic columns. The street to the left, which 
leads to the Stabian Street, is the Street of Isis (p. 148), which 
should now be visited before the theatres by those who purpose 
omitting the amphitheatre. 

This S. quarter is the oldest in the town, and has preserved 
many of its characteristics. 

The so-called Forum Triangulare (PI. 75) is bounded on three 
sides by a porticus of a hundred columns of the Doric order, 
destined chiefly for the use of the frequenters of the theatre. 
On the N. side is a pedestal for a statue, with an inscription. The 
side next the sea was open. On a basement here, approached by 
five steps , stood a * Temple in the ancient Greek style (styled, 
without the slightest foundation, a Temple of Hercules), 101 ft. in 
length and 67 ft. in breadth. It was surrounded by columns, eight 
being in front and eleven at each side , and in the centre was the 
shrine. The whole building was in the ancient Doric order of about 
the 6th cent. B.C. A few capitals, two broken columns, and some 
fragments of the wall of the cella are now the sole remains of this 
once imposing structure. It was doubtless overthrown by the earth- 
quake of 63 ; and, if so, the inhabitants of the stuccoed buildings 
of the imperial age would never dream of restoring it in its massive 
and simple dignity. — The enclosed space in front of the temple 
was perhaps used for the slaughter of the victims. To the left of 
it are three altars. 

Beyond the temple, No. 32, is a *Bidental (PI. 81), a unique 
relic of its kind. It consists of the large embouchure of a foun- 
tain (puteal), enclosing a spot struck by lightning, such places 
being regarded as sacred, and calling for atonement. Around it 
was erected a small , circular temple, 12 ft. in diameter , with 
eight Doric columns. 

On the other side of the temple is a semicircular seat, where 
there was once a sun-dial, now much decayed. 

Below the Theatre are the so-called Soldiers' or Oladiators' 
Barracks (to which a flight of steps descends from the Forum 
Triangulare), the real object of which is not ascertained. The 
court is surrounded by a porticus of seventy-four columns ; length 
151 ft. , breadth 125 ft. Around it are a number of detached 
cells. The edifice had a second floor , as the imitation on the 
S. side shows, which contains the rooms of some of the custodians 
and a small chapel. In a chamber used as a prison were found three 
skeletons and iron stocks for the feet. Sixty-three bodies in all 
were discovered in this building. 

Adjoining the Forum Triangulare is the *Great Theatre (PI. 77), 
the walls of which protruded from the rubbish even before the re- 
discovery of Pompeii. It is situated on rising ground, and is a 
building of very early origin. About the beginning of the Christian 
era it was restored by the architect M. Artorius. at the expen-e 

10* 



148 Route 9. POMPEII. Temple of Isis. 

of M. Holconius Rufus and M. Holconius Celer. After the earth- 
quake of 63 it underwent repair, but the restoration was far 
from complete at the time of the final catastrophe. The space 
for the spectators consists of three ranks (ima, media, and summa 
cavea); the first contains four tiers for the chairs of persons of 
rank, the second twenty, and the third four. Corridors and stair- 
cases led to the different parts of the building. It is estimated 
that 5000 spectators could be accommodated. Behind the orchestra 
is the long and narrow stage, in front of which is an opening in 
the ground for the rising and falling of the curtain. The poste- 
rior wall of the stage, once adorned with statues, is provided with 
three doors, according to the rules of the ancient drama. Behind 
these was the dressing-room. On the summit of the outer wall 
are seen the stone rings for the poles which supported an awning 
in sunny weather. Behind the theatre is a square reservoir, the 
water of which was used in hot weather for refreshing the specta- 
tors by means of a slight sprinkling. 

The adjacent *Small Theatre (PI. 78) is better preserved 
than the great. An inscription records that it was roofed in 
(theatrum tectum, probably a wooden roof). Number of specta- 
tors 1500. The seats are cut out in such a way that the feet 
of the spectator did not inconvenience the person sitting on the 
tier below him. The building dates from about B.C. 75. The 
marble pavement of the orchestra was, according to an inscription, 
presented by M. Oculatius, a duumvir. 

From the Small Theatre we emerge on the Stabian Street, 
which we re-ascend. On the left, at the corner of the Street of 
Isis, Ins. VIII. 8, No. 25, the *Temple of JEsculapius (PI. 79), the 
smallest in Pompeii , 68 ft. long , 22'/2 ft- broad. The anterior 
court contains an archaic altar of tufa, recalling the sarcophagus of 
Scipio in the Vatican. The cella is approached by nine steps. The 
name of the temple is merely conjectural. 

Nearly opposite the temple (Ins. I. 4, No. 5) is the Casa del 
Citarista (PI. 89), named after the Apollo in the style of Pasiteles 
found here (p. 71). This is one of the largest houses at Pompeii, 
comprising two atria and three peristyles. 

We now enter the Street or Isis to the left. 

Here, on the left, Ins. VIII. 8, No. 28, rises the *Temple of 
Isis (PI. 73), which, as the copy of the inscription over the en- 
trance informs us, was restored after the earthquake of 63 by N. 
Popidius Celsinus, a boy six years of age, at his own expense, who 
in recognition of this service was received into the rank of the 
decuriones. Length 98 ft., width 60 ft. The court is surrounded 
by a portions; between the columns are several altars, and an 
ancient aperture for the reception of the remains of sacrifices, 
now used as an air-shaft of the Sarno tunnel. On the left is a 
small shrine, the so-called Purgatorium, in which ablutions were 



Amphitheatre. POMPFJI. 9. Route. 149 

performed ; a staircase here descended to a well ; the walls are 
tastefully adorned with reliefs in stucco. Within the temple 
itself was found the statuette of Isis, now in the museum (p. 65). 
The chambers adjoining the wall on the left were occupied by the 
priests. Several bodies were found here; and on the fire-place 
were remains of food. 

The next door on the left in the Street of Isis, No. 29, leads 
into a court surrounded by columns, with a curious balustrade in 
the centre, the object of which is unascertained. The place was a 
palaestra of the Oscan period, and was afterwards shortened. 



We return through the Stabian Street to the Strada dei Dia- 
dumeni, and proceed past the Casa dei Diadumeni to the platform 
mentioned at p. 145 , from the upper end of which a cart-road 
leads over the unexcavated part of the town in 8 min. to the last 
important relic of ancient Pompeii, the — 

* Amphitheatre , situated at the S.E. end of the town, and 
detached from the other ruins. Outwardly the building looks 
somewhat insignificant, as a great part of it, as high as the second 
story, was excavated in the earth for the purpose of simplifying 
the construction. Round the exterior runs an uncovered gallery, 
to which stairs ascend for the use of the spectators in the upper 
places. The principal entrance descends considerably. Whole length 
148, width 114 yds. ; number of spectators 20,000. Three different 
series of seats are distinguished, the first with five, the second 
with twelve, and the third with eighteen tiers ; above these also 
ran a gallery. The seats are cut out in the same manner as in 
the small theatre. The building was begun in B.C. 70, and after- 
wards continued at intervals. For several decades before the year 
79 the amphitheatre had not been used , so that the story of the 
people having been surprised by the eruption while witnessing a 
gladiator combat here is a pure myth. 

The excavations of last century led to the discovery of other buildings 
near the amphitheatre , but these owing to the absence of any system at 
that period, were afterwards covered up again. 

On leaving the Amphitheatre we may return to the railway-station 
in l /i hr., either by the high road, or by traversing the mounds of ashes 
and passing part of the town-wall. Those who have driven from Naples 
should order the carriage to wait for them at the Amphitheatre. 

10. Castellamare, Sorrento, and Capri. 

Comj). Map, p. 34. 

Railway from Naples to Castellamare, 17 M., in 1 hr. ; fares 3 fr. 10, 
2 fr. 15, 1 fr. 25 c. ; nine trains in summer, fewer in winter. — Carriage 
from Castellamare to Sorrento, 10 M., in l'/ahr. ; tariff, see p. 150. A 
seat ('un posto' , I-I72 fr.) may easily be obtained by a single traveller 
in one of the numerous carriages frequenting this road. 

Steamboat of the Societa Attonima Procidu-I&chia direct from Naples 
across the bay to Sorrento, 15 M. (and thence to Capri), in l 3 /4 hr., 
daily in Jan., Feb., and March; during the rest of the year on Mondays, 



150 Route 10. CASTELLAMARE. From Naples 

Wednesdays, and Fridays. The vessel starts from S. Lucia (at the foot of 
the steps, see p. 35) at 8, 8. 30, or 9 a.m.; fare 6 fr. ; return -ticket, 
available for one day only, 10 fr. (comp. p. 157; office, Str. Nuova 14, see 
p. 40). Another small steamer now plies daily between Naples and Sor- 
rento at much more moderate fares (1 fr. or 50c), leaving Naples at 

2 p.m. and returning from Sorrento at 7 a.m. (office, Strada Piliero 10, 
near the Immacolatella, PI. 24). — Gentlemen may cross to Sorrento by 
the Market Boat which usually leaves the Porta di Massa by the Molo 
Piccolo (PI. F, 5) every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday at 2 p.m., re- 
turning from Sorrento the following mornings at 6 a.m. ; passage about 

3 hrs. ; fare 1 fr. ; civil people. 

Those whose time is limited should make little stay at Castellamare, 
in order to arrive at Sorrento early enough for an excursion to the Deserto 
or other interesting point in the environs. The night should he spent at 
Sorrento, and Capri visited next day ; Naples may then be regained on the 
third , or , if necessary , on the evening of the second day. — This route 
may also be combined with the following, in which case it is better to 
begin with the latter (p. 163). The steamboat trip across the Bay of 
Naples is so beautiful in fine weather that it should be made once at 
least. 

The Castellamare train follows the main line to Salerno and 
Baragiano as far as Torre deW Annunziata (see R. 7) , where our 
line diverges to the right. Skirting the coast, it crosses the Sarno 
(on the right is the rocky islet of Revigliano, with an old castle) ; 
and in 12 min. it reaches the Castellamare station at the N. end 
of the town. 

Castellamare. — Hotels. 'Hotel Royal , in the main street, near 
the station, D. 5, R. 3, A. 1, B. 11/4 fr. ; Hotel de la Paix, on the quay, 
new ; Antica Stabia, also on the quay, second class. Beautifully situated 
above the town, on the road to Quisisana, commanding a charming view 
of Vesuvius and the bay : ,: H6tel Quisisana, on the left; a little beyond 
it, Gkan Bkettagna, on the right. Pension at all these hotels, 7-12 fr. — 
'Pension Anglaise , Mme. Baker, Villa Belvedere, pens. 7-9 fr. per day, 
40-60 fr. per week, 200 fr. per month; "Pension Weiss, Villa Cotticelli, 
7-8 fr. ; both commanding fine views. 

Caffe deW Europa and Trattoria del Convmercio (with a few rooms; pen- 
sion), both in the Largo Principe Vmberto, which opens towards the sea, 
and where a band plays in the evening 1-3 times a week according to 
the season. 

Carriages (comp. p. xviii). Drive in the town with one horse '/zfr. , 
with two or three horses 1 fr. — Outside the town, not exceeding 2 kilo- 
metres (l'/i M.): first hour with one horse l'/s fr., with two or three 
horses 2'/2 fr. ; each additional half-hour 60 c. or 1 fr. — To Quisisana or 
Puzzano l'/2 or 3 fr. ; there and back with halt of 2 hrs. 2>/2 or 5 fr. ; to 
Vico Equense l l /4 or 2 l /i fr. ; to Meta 2>/2 or 4i/ 4 fr. ; to Sorrento 3 or 
6 fr. (after 3 p.m. 4 or 8fr.); to Torre Annunziata 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Pom- 
peii 2 or 3'/2 fr. ; to Naples (before 3 p.m.) 8 or 15 fr. — In all these last 
cases the traveller may keep the carriage about 3 hrs., after which the 
return-fare is the same as for the single journey. Bargaining, however, is 
necessary. — Carriages with one donkey are still cheaper conveyances, but 
are unsuitable for more than one person; if used for two persons the 
driver has to walk or run by the side of the vehicle. 

Donkeys, very good, generally 1 fr. per hour, or 4-5 fr. per day. 

Boat to Capri in about 5 hours, 30 fr. 

Castellamare, a busy trading and fishing town with 27,700 
inhab., lies in the E. angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning 
of the peninsula of Sorrento, at the base and on the slope of a spur 
of Monte 8. Angela. It occupies the site of the ancient Stabiae, 
which was destroyed in A.D. 79, at the same time as Pompeii, and 




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to Sorrento. CASTELLAMARE. 10. Route. 151 

thence derives its official name of Castellamare di Stabia. It -was 
here that the elder Pliny perished while observing the eruption 
(p. 118). Excavations of the ruins of Stabiae, which lay to the 
left, by the entrance to the town, towards the heights, have not 
been undertaken since 1745. 

The town extends along the coast for upwards of 1 M., consist- 
ing of one main street and a second running parallel with it. About 
1 /3 M. from the station we reach the Largo Principe Umberto, a 
small piazza embellished with flower-beds and trees , where the 
Caffe Europa is situated. Farther on we come to the animated 
Harbour, which is protected by a molo. Adjoining it is an Arsenal 
with a dockyard. — On the hill to the S. of the town are the ruins 
of the Castle to which the town owes its name. It was built in the 
13th cent, by Emp. Frederick II. and strengthened with towers 
and walls by Charles I. of Anjou. 

Castellamare is a favourite summer resort of the Neapolitans. 
The attractions are sea-baths, mineral waters (impregnated with 
sulphur and carbonic acid gas) , beautiful shady walks, and a cool 
northern aspect. 

Turning to the S. by the Largo Principe Umberto, and ascend- 
ing the Salita Caporiva (inclining to the right after 5 min.), we 
pass the Hotel Quisisana and reach a winding road, shaded by fine 
chestnut-trees higher up, which leads to the royal — 

Villa Quisisana (1 M.). The chateau (Casino) occupies the 
site of a house ('casa sana') erected here by Charles II. of Anjou 
about 1300, which was occupied by King Ladislaus and his sister 
Johanna II. while the plague raged at Naples. In 1820 Ferdi- 
nand I. of Bourbon restored the building and gave it its present 
name ('one recovers health here'). Permesso for the chateau and 
garden, see p. 36; but there is little to see except the charming 
view from the terrace (1 fr. ; gardener Y2 fr-)- 

The *Bosco di Quisisana, or park belonging to the villa, which 
is open to the public, affords delightful walks. Ascending from the 
town, we pass through a gate to the right, opposite the entrance to 
the 'R. Villa di Quisisana', turn to the left at the first bifurcation 
(while the road in a straight direction goes to Puzzano, see below), 
and then pass behind the garden of the villa, from which there is 
another entrance to the park. — Above , to the left , rises the 
Monte Coppola , which may he ascended by beautiful wood-walks, 
winding upwards and crossing several ravines , and commanding 
admirable views of the bay and Vesuvius (there and back 2- 
2'/2 hrs. ; donkeys admitted to the park). — The traveller may 
return from Quisisana to Castellamare by S. Maria a Puzzano , a 
monastery founded by Gonsalvo da Cordova (V 2 nr - longer ; beauti- 
ful views). 

Excursions may be also be made to 0/2 hr.) Gragnano to the E., 
where an excellent red wine is produced (osteria without a sign, second 
bouse in the village, on the left), and to Lettere (, 3 /« hr. farther), beauti- 



152 Route 10. META. From Aaptes 

fully situated on the slope of the mountains which were once named 
Monies Lactarii, with a ruined castle and magnificent prospect. Lastly 
to the summit of the — 

"Monte Sant' Angelo, the ancient Oaurus, 5000 ft. above the sea- 
level, the highest point near the bay, which commands a noble pro- 
spect, stretching from Monte Circello far into Calabria and to the Abruzzi. 
The mountain is clothed to the summit with wood, chiefly chestnut- 
trees. Fragments of pumice-stone (rapilli) from eruptions of Vesuvius 
are occasionally observed. 

The ascent, which should not be attempted without a guide, requires 
4 hrs. (on donkey-back 3 hrs. ; donkey and guide 5 fr.). The guides should 
be expressly directed to conduct the traveller to the highest peak crowned 
by the chapel, which commands an uninterrupted panorama. Otherwise 
they ascend another peak, with extensive deposits of snow, the view from 
which is partially intercepted by the higher summit. The path leads 
through the park of Quisisana to the mountain village of Pimonte 
(H/tz hr.), whence the ascent of the Mte. S. Angelo begins. The traveller 
should start early, so as to return to Castellamare before dusk. The 
excursion may also be made from Amalii or Sorrento. 

From Castellamare to Aniulfi by the lesser Monte Sanf Angelo, see 
p. 174. 

The **Road from Castellamare to Sorrento (10 M. ; by- 
carriage in l'/j hr. ; tariff, p. 150) is one of the most beautiful 
excursions in this delightful district. "We pass below the monastery 
of !•>. Maria a Puzzano (p. 151) to the Capo d' Orlando. The three 
rocks on the coast are cailed / Tre Fratelli. We next reach (3'/oM. ) 
Vico Equense ( Pension Anylaise, Mine. Dawes), a town with 1 '2, '200 
inhab., situated on a Tocky eminence, the ancient Vicus /Equensis. 
Vico was erected by Charles 11. on the ruins of the ancient village, 
and was frequently visited by him. The Cathedral contains the 
tomb of the celebrated jurist Gaetano Filangieri (d. 1788). In the 
Villa Oiusso are several modern works of art. 

Beyond Vico is a deep cutting, crossed by a bridge. On the 
right we next observe Marina di Seiano, a village with a hand- 
some campanile, beyond which the road ascends between vineyards 
and olive plantations on the slope of the Punta di Scutolo. After 
having rounded this promontory, the road descends towards Meta, 
and the view changes. Before us stretches the famous Piano di 
Sorrento, a plain sheltered by the surrounding mountains, and 
intersected by numerous ravines, remarkable for its salubrity and 
its luxuriant vegetation. Orange and olive groves, mulberry-trees, 
pomegranates, figs, and aloes are beautifully intermingled. This 
has been a favourite retreat of the noble and the wealthy from a 
very early period. Augustus, M. Agrippa, Antoninus Pius, and 
others frequently resided here, and at the present day visitors of 
all nationalities are met with. The space is limited, and the 
villages are neither large nor handsome, but the district generally 
is pervaded with an air of peaceful enjoyment. 

Meta (Hotel de Meta, with garden, new, iirst-class ; Trattoria 
delta Villa di Sorrento) is a town of 7400 inhab., possessing two 
small harbours. The modern church of the Madonna del Lnuro, on 
the high road, occupies the site of a temple of Minerva, (lloute to 



to Sorrento. SORRENTO. 10. Route. 153 

Camaldoli di Meta, see p. 157. ) — The Ponte Maggiore leads across 
the deep ravine of Meta. We next reach Cttrotto, a large village, 
extending in nearly a straight line from the hills on the left to the 
Marina di Cazzano on the right. Then Pozzopiano, surrounded by 
"beautiful orange gardens, and lastly Sunt' AgnellOj ] /4 M. from 
Sorrento (*Albergo delta Cocumtlla, on the quay, with beautiful 
view, quiet, pension 6-7 fr.). The road then passes the (1.) Villa 
Guarracino , now Hotel Bcllevue (see below), and (r. ) the Villa 
Rubinacci or Rotonda (pension, see below), traverses the long 
suburb, and soon reaches the Piazza of Sorrento. 

Sorrento. — Hotels. La Sirena , between the small and the large 
Marina, situated on an abrupt rock rising from the sea, belonging to the 
Fro tell i Gargiulo, proprietors of the above mentioned Hotel Bellevue. 
'Hotel Tuamontano , with dependency Croce di Malta, and *Albergo 
del Tasso, bolh situated near La Sirena, and belonging to G. Tramontane, 
much frequented by English travellers; high charges. :: Vittokia, above 
the small Marina, entered from the market-place, B. l l /u, D. 5 fr. ; a little 
more to the E. of the small Marina, Gran Eketagna (formerly S. Severitia) ; 
both belonging to the brothers Fiorentino, proprietors of the Hotel de la 
Ville at Naples, with several dependencies: R. from 2 l ji, pension 9-10 fr. 
— In the same situation, Hotel it Pension Lorelei (Villa Ficcola Sirena)^ 
with dependencies, pens. 7 fr., for stay of more than two days 6 fr. All 
these hotels, situated in gardens, have private stairs descending to the sea 
and small bathing-establishments (also warm baths), and command magni- 
ficent views of the bay. Previous enquiry as to charges had ,better be 
made. A room towards the N. with a balcony and unimpeded view should 
be obtained if possible. -- Then, above the town, on the side of the gorge, 
Hotel d'Angleterre, D. 4, pens. 7-10 fr., well spoken of. — To the E. of 
the town, 'Pension Allemande (Villa Rubinacci, see above), 6-8 fr. per 
day, also for occasional travellers; Alb. della Cooumella, see above. — 
The locandas of the E. suburb are unpretending: "Villa Attanasio, 
moderate; adjacent, Rosa Magea, R. V-j-i fr. (rooms only at these). — 
Whole villas and furnished apartments may also be procured for a prolonged 
stay. (Information at the larger hotels.) 

Trattoria della Villa di Sorrento, in the E. suburb, on the road to 
Meta, unpretending. — Gaffe Europa, in the Piazza. In the Piazza is also 
the C-ircolo di SorrentOy a club with reading-room, etc., to which strangers 
are admitted gratis for a week (tickets at the hotels), per month 5 fr. 

Sea-Baths on the Piccola Marina, 3 /4 M. distant, l /a fr. — Physician, 
Dr. L. Galano (enquire at the Farntacia Griff a, Corso Duomo). 

Boats, Carriages, and Donkeys may be hired at the hotels at fixed 
charges, but these rates may generally be reduced by treating directly 
with the boatmen and drivers. Fees extra. Boats (mostly at the Piccola 
Marina) 1-1 ^ fr. per hour; to Capri with 2 rowers 6-8, 3-4 rowers 12, 5-S 
rowers 16 fr. ; to Castellamare about the same. Donkeys and carriages in 
the piazza : donkey generally 1 fr. per hour ; for excursions of 2-3 hrs. 
2-2 ! /2 fr., and trifling fee to attendant; to Scaricatojo (p. 174) 2-3 fr. and 
fee. Carriage to Massa and back, with one horse 2-3, with two horses 
3-4 fr. ; to Castellamare, p. 150. 

Silk Wares (in imitation of the Roman), Inlaid "Wood ('tarsia -1 ), and 
Wood Carving, are good and cheap at Sorrento. The tarsia work has 
lately become one of the staple products of the place, employing no fewer 
than 500 workmen. The quantity exported is valued at 150,000 fr. per 
annum. The chief depots of these articles, which are well adapted for 
souvenirs and presents, are kept by Luigi Garyiulo, in the Corso Princ. 
TJmberto; Michel Grand ville , Strada del Tass<> ; Grits. Gargiulo & Co., in 
the same street. The oldest firm of silk-mercers is Casola, in the Piazza; 
other good houses are the F rat-ell i Mic.cio, Strada del Tasso, Maresca, etc. 

SorrentOj the ancient Surrentum, a small town with 7500 inhab., 



15-1 Route 10. SORRENTO. History. 

and the residence of a bishop , lies amid luxuriant lemon and 
orange-gardens on rocks rising precipitously from the sea, and is 
enclosed on the other sides by deep ravines which popular super- 
stition has peopled with dwarfs (monacelli). The E. ravine, by 
which the traveller arriving from Meta crosses from the suburb to 
the Piazza, terminates in the Piccola Marina, or small harbour. 
The W. ravine opens into the Marina Grande, or large harbour, 
where there are numerous fishing-boats and a quay for larger ves- 
sels. The walls and towers of Sorrento, which during the middle 
ages carried on a considerable trade, have long since fallen to decay; 
and nothing remains of the Roman Surrentum except a few frag- 
ments and substructions, which have been dignified with such 
names as the 'Temple of Neptune', 'Amphitheatre', and 'Villa 
of Pollius Felix'. At the entrance to the cathedral (about 5 min. 
walk from the market-place, by a chapel on the left) are several 
ancient bas-reliefs and inscriptions. 

Torquato Tasso , the poet (b. 1544, d. at Rome 1595) was a 
native of Sorrento. The house in which he was born, together with 
the rock on which it stood, has been swallowed up by the encroach- 
ing sea ; its ruins are still visible beneath the clear azure flood 
below the Albergo del Tasso. The residence of his attached sister 
Cornelia, however, is still pointed out (Pal. Sersale , Strada S. 
Nicola) , where , after a glorious but chequered career, he was 
received by her, disguised as a shepherd, in 1592. A marble statue 
of the poet has recently been erected in the Piazza. 

Sorrento is admirably adapted for a summer residence on 
account of its cool northern aspect. It is chiefly frequented during 
the bathing -season. Visitors generally bathe in the morning, 
devote the hot part of the day to the 'dolce-far-niente', make 
short excursions in the beautiful environs late in the afternoon, and 
after sunset lounge in the Piazza. 

As most of the neighbouring roads run between high garden 
walls, and are very dusty in summer, there is a great lack of walks. 
The most popular is the Massa, Road (see below), which is frequent- 
ed in the evening by numerous carriages , riders , and walkers. 
The traveller is also recommended to visit some of the villas, most 
of which command beautiful views: thus, Villa Correale or La 
Rota, Villi Majo, and Villa Massa, all on the coast, to the N.E. 
of the town. (Application is made to the porters, '/2 fr- i many of 
the villas are to let.) 

Excursions by Boat are very pleasant. Thus (there and back in 
l 1 /2"2 hrs., with one rower 2fr.) to Capo di Sorrento, at the W. end 
of the bay, opposite the Punta di Scutolo (p. 142) to the S.W., 
passing between cliffs where remains of Roman masonry, baths, 
and a so-called temple of Hercules are visible. The traveller should 
not omit to row into the large ancient piscina , now called Bagno 
delta Regina Giovanna. A trip by boat to Meta (p. 152), where 



Road to Massa. SORRENTO. 10. Route. 155 

there are several fine grottoes in the lofty cliffs of the coast (il Pe- 
coriello , la Piccola Azzurra , etc.), may be made in the same 
time and at the same cost. 

The **Road to Massa (3!/ 4 M.), like that from Castellamarc, 
of which it is a continuation, commands a series of beautiful views. 
A few hundred yards beyond the last houses of Sorrento it crosses 
the ravine of La Conca by a bridge. To the left, '/ 4 M. farther, 
the 'Strada Capodimonte' ascends to the left (to the Deserto , see 
p. 156). The road skirts the base of the Capodimonte, which has 
for ages been a famous point of view, and commands retrospec- 
tively nearly the same prospect. It then ascends the Capo di Sor- 
rento, where the Villa Correale is situated (to let). About 21/4 M. 
from Sorrento we reach Villazzano , a group of houses at the foot of 
the telegraph hill (p. 156), which the road makes a bend to avoid. 
A magnificent view towards Capri is now suddenly disclosed. On 
the right is the rocky islet of Lo Vervece. About 1 M. farther we 
reach the town of Massa Lubrense (a cafe at the entrance), with 
8500 inhab., overshadowed by the castle of S. Maria. On the coast 
are the remains of a Roman aqueduct and other antiquities. The 
church of S. Francesco is said to occupy the site of a temple of 
Juno. On 15th Aug. a festival which attracts the inhabitants of 
the whole neighbourhood is celebrated here annually. 

From Massa we may proceed in 3 /i hr. by S. Maria to the village of 
Termini, to which a very beautiful road also leads from Sorrento past the 
suppressed monastery of S. Francesco di Paola (admirable views). Ter- 
mini lies at the foot of the Monte S. Coslanzo, the highest point of the 
outer part of the peninsula (a fine point of view ; ascent somewhat fatiguing ; 
a hermit at the top). Beyond Termini the road gradually descends to the 
Funta di Gampanella, the extremity of the peninsula, l 3 /4 hr. from Massa. 
This was the ancient Cape of Minerva , so named after a temple which 
is said to have been erected here by Ulysses in honour of that goddess. 
The promontory owes its modern name to the bells of one of the watch- 
towers erected along the coast by Charles V. as a protection against 
pirates. So lately as the beginning of the 19th cent, numerous inhabitants 
of the Italian coast were carried off as slaves by barbarian marauders. 
From this sequestered spot, which is crowned with a Lighthouse and 
overgrown with olives and myrtles, we enjoy a magnificent distant view 
of the sea , the coast , and the island of Capri , 3 M. distant. Beyond 
the lighthouse are considerable remains of a Roman villa. (Donkey 
from Massa to the Punta Campanella, the summit of the Mte. 8. Costanzo, 
and back by Termini about 5 fr. — Those who make the excursion from 
Sorrento to the Punta Campanella should allow for it 7-8 hrs. in all.) 

From Termini the traveller may descend to the S. to Nerano and the 
Marina del Cantone, whence the ruins of Crapolla , 2 M. to the E., may 
be visited by boat. On this trip we obtain a beautiful view of the three 
Islands of the Sirens, also called / Galli, fortified in the middle ages, 
but now deserted. At the landing-place of Crapolla we observe remains 
of a wall with a fountain in the centre, and traces of an aqueduct; higher 
up the hill are the ruins of the monastery and early Romanesque basilica 
of *S. Pietro, the eight marble and granite columns of which are probably 
derived from some ancient temple. The interior of the church shows 
traces of frescoes. Good walkers may ascend from this point to S. Agata 
(see below) and return thence to Sorrento. 

Tie Heights aboye Sokrento afford many fine points of view, 
the paths to which are generally steep, narrow, and viewless, and 



156 Route 10. SORRENTO. Deserto. 

most conveniently reached on donkey-back. Walking is, however, 
not unpleasant in the cool season. 

A very favourite point is the Deserto, l'/V-l 1 /^ hr. from the 
Piazza of Sorrento. We first follow theMassa road, and then ascend 
to the left by the Strada Capodimonte (p. 155). Beyond (3 min.) 
the second bend we take the Strada Priora to the left. Farther on 
(10 min. J we avoid the Crocevia road to the left and go straight on 
between garden-walls. In !/ 4 hr. we turn to the left to Priora, 
which we reach after an ascent of 5-10 min. ; we now pass through 
a gateway, cross the Largo Priora, the small piazza in front of the 
church, to the left, turn to the right opposite the Campanile (and 
again to the right), and follow the paved path. The red building 
on the hill before us is the Deserto, i / 2 hr. from Priora. — The 
*Deserto is a suppressed monastery, in which an establishment for 
destitute children has recently been fitted up by monks. In return 
for the refreshments offered to visitors, a contribution to the funds 
of the institution is expected. The roof of the building commands 
a charming prospect of both bays , and the island of Capri ; in 
front of the latter rises the hill of S. Costanzo (p. 155), to the left 
of which is the solitary little church of S. Maria delta Neve. — 
From the Deserto we proceed to the E. to the neighbouring vil- 
lage of S. Agata, the cathedral of which contains a high-altar of 
inlaid marble. The descent thence to Sorrento through the beautiful 
chestnut wood of La Tigtiana is very steep. 

Another interesting excursion is to the Telegrafo, an optic 
telegraph on a somewhat steep hill, communicating with Capri, 
'2'/2 M. to the W., and commanding an admirable view. The route 
to it is the same as to the Deserto as far as where the road to 
Priora diverges to the left (30 min.). From that point we proceed 
in a straight direction to (10 min.) a guard-house of the Uffizio 
Daziario of MassaLubrense, about 30 paces beyond which we enter 
the second gate on the right leading through the yard of a cottage 
('2-3 soldi). In 6 min. more the path leads in a straight direction 
to the telegraph. — At the foot of the hill -lies the *Valle delle 
Pigne, which derives its name from a number of handsome pines. 
The view of Capri hence is justly celebrated. Quails are captured 
here and in other parts of the peninsula of Sorrento, and in the 
sland of Capri , in large numbers in May, June, September, and 
•October, affording considerable profit to the inhabitants. 

An admirable survey of the Piano di Sorrento is afforded by the 
""Piccolo S. Angelo, l'/ 2 hr. to the S.E. of Sorrento. The route 
ascends from the Piazza of Sorrento along the E. margin of the E. 
ravine, passing Cesarano and Baranica. At the top is a deserted 
cottage. From this point over the hill of the Tore di Sorrento to S. 

Agata (see above) 1-1 '/a nr - 

Tim Conti delle Fontanelle, a chain of hills l'/a lir. to the E. of Sor- 
rento, the path to which diverges to the right from the Meta road by the 
white summer-house of the Villa Cacuce between the villages of Pozzo- 



Steamboats. CAPRI. 10. Route. 157 

piano and Carotto, command a survey of the bays of "Naples and Salerno. 
Having reached the top of the hill, we proceed to the left by a footpath 
leading in ! /4 nr - to the Area Naturale , a natural rocky archway on the 
S. coast, which was partially destroyed in 1841. We may now ascend 
hence to the *Telegrafo di Marecoccola t the hill to the W., and an admi- 
rable point of view. 

Above Meta (p, 152) lies the suppressed monastery of :: Camaldoli di 
Meta, now a country-seat of the Marchese Giussi, commanding an excellent 
view. It is reached in 2 l /n hrs. from Sorrento: dusty road to Meta 3y 4 M. ; 
ascend to the right to Arbore or Albert, l J2 hr. ; turn to the right beyond 
the village, and in 20 min. more the yellow building is reached. As the 
view is finest towards sunset , the excursion should not be made at too 
early an hour (gardener V2-I fr-) 

A fatiguing, but interesting excursion is the ascent of the Vico Alvano 
(1600 ft.), the path to which also diverges from the Meta road by the 
above-mentioned Villa Cacace. Is then crosses the heights of the Conti 
di Geremenna. (From Sorrento, there and back, 6-7 hrs., with guide.) 

We may also walk in 2 hrs. by Meta, Arbore (see above), Fornacelle, 
and Preazzano to the village of S. Maria a Castello , where from a pro- 
jecting rock a view is obtained of Positfuto , 2000 ft. below, to which a 
path descends in steps. On 15th Aug., the occasion of a great festival at 
Positano (comp. p. 174), many visitors ascend from Sorrento to S. Maria 
for the sake of seeing the illumination below; after which, however, 
they have to return in the dark by a bad road. 

Capri. 

Comp. Map, p. 150. 

From Naples to Capri. Steamboat (via, Sorrento), see p. 149. It 
starts from the steps of S. Lucia (p. 35; PI. E, 6) at 8, 8.30, or 9 a. m., 
but in bad weather does not sail at all. — After touching at Sorrento 
(l 3 /4 hr.), the steamer proceeds direct to the Blue Grotto. After visiting 
the latter, the passengers are then conveyed to the Marina of Capri, 
arriving about 12 or 12.30. The vessel starts again about 3 p.m. and 
reaches Naples about 6 p.m. — The fares vary according to the compe- 
tition, but are at present as follows: from Naples to Capri 8 fr., return- 
tickets (available for one day only) 12 fr. ; from Sorrento to Capri 6 fr. \ 
embarcation and landing at Naples and at Capri 30c. each person (50 c. 
usually demanded); boat into the Blue Grotto I1/4 fr., paid on board the 
steamer on returning. — Unless the traveller is much pressed for time, 
this is a most unsatisfactory mode of visiting beautiful Capri, as, in ad- 
dition to the Blue Grotto, he will barely have time to visit the Villa of 
Tiberius. The view from the latter, moreover, is far less attractive in 
the middle of the day than by evening light. One whole day at least 
should be devoted to the island, as there are many other beautiful points 
besides the two just mentioned. 

As the trips of the steamer are neither very regular nor punctual 
(the weather, number of passengers, etc., often deciding the question), 
enquiry on this subject should be made at the hotels, or, better still, at 
the office, Strada Nuova 14. It should also be observed that when 
the wind is in the E. or N. the Blue Grotto is nut accessible — a fact, 
however, which the captain of the steamer is careful not to mention. On 
such days, moreover, the roughness of the water is apt to occasion sea- 
sickness. 

A Market Boat also plies between Naples and Capri , starting in 
summer on Mon., Wed., and Frid., returning the same day; in winter 
leaving Naples on Mon. and Frid., returning on the following days. The 
length of the passage depends of course on the weather (3-4 hrs. ; fare 
1 fr.). It generally starts from the Porta di Massa, by the Molo Piccolo 
(PI. F, 5) at Naples, at noon. 

From Sorrento to Capri. Steamboat (see above) , starting from the 
Piccola Marina. — By Small Boat the pnssage takes 2-272 hrs. (fares, see 



158 Route 10. CAPRI. 



Hotels. 



oA In ) ' fonr-oared boat for the excursion to Capri and Amalfi costs 
30-40 fr., the night being spent at Capri. Fine weather [is indispensable 
but a perfect calm is neither necessary nor desirable. — The cheapest way of 
reaching Capri from Sorrento is by the Barca Poslale of Michele Desiderio 
starting from Capri ever)' morning at 6 or 7 o' clock, and returning from 
the Piccola Manna at Sorrento about noon (fare, with luggage, 2 fr.). 

Order is now tolerably well maintained at the landing-place at Capri 
and the begging nuisance has greatly abated. One soldo is sufficient 
payment for assistance rendered to passengers on landing. 

Disposition of Time. For steamboat-passengers, see above. Travellers 
who make the excursion from Sorrento by small boat and desire to return on 
the same day (which, however, is not advisable) had better first visit the 
Blue Grotto, then order dinner at one of the inns on the Marina, ascend 
to Capri and go direct to the Punta Tragara, or the Villa di Tiberio if 
time and energy permit, and finally return direct to the beach. — Those 
who spend the night on the island can of course accomplish all this with 
greater leisure. On the following morning they should then descend (20 
mm.) to the Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, and take a boat 
to the Green Grotto (li/a fr. ; li/ 2 hr. there and back); or, still better, 
perform the Giro of the whole island by boat (3-4 hrs.). — If a longer 
stay be made, Anacapri may also be visited, and Monte Solaro ascended. 
The advice in the visitors' book at Pagano's hotel should in any case be 
taken to heart: 'iVe quittez pas la grotte cVAzur sans voir Capri!\ 

Hotels in Capri. At the Marina. "Hotel du Louvre (Stanford), ad- 
mirably situated on a height a little to the W. of the landing-place, pen- 
sion 6-9 fr., with baths (table d'hote on the arrival of the vessel, 4 fr.): 
Hotel de la Grotte Bleue, adjacent; Gran Bretagna, the nearest to 
the landing-place, D. 3'/ 2 -4, Dej. 3, R. 2>/ 2 , B. 3/ 4 , L. %, A. i/ 2 , pension 
b- 1 fr., well spoken of. — In the Village of Capri. *Albergo Quisisana, 
on the way to the Certosa (see p. 159), English landlady (widow of Dr. 
Clark), an excellent house, pension 7 fr. ; "Alberso Pagano ( Vittoria), 
nearer the Piazza, pension 6 fr. ; the garden contains a handsome palm- 
tree. "Hotel de France, to the left of the Piazza, higher up, at the 
foot of the castle to the E., with small garden and dependency, pension 
6 fr.; -Pension Cavour (conducted by Mine. Lawrence), in the same road, 
nearer the Piazza, 5-6 fr.; the proprietor, Dr. Fischetti, also provides lodg- 
ings in several villas. — Wine, Beer, etc., at "Michele's, next door to 
the Alb. Pagano, moderate prices. 

Donkey from the Marina to the village of Capri l'/ 4 , Horse I1/2 fr-, 
in the reverse direction 1 or iy 4 fr. ; to the Villa di Tiberio and back 
21/2 or 3 fr., and a small fee; per day 5 or 6 fr., and the same for the 
ascent of the Monte Solaro. — Guides are quite unnecessary unless time 
is very limited. A boy to show the way may be engaged for several 
hours for '/2-I fr. 

Boats (bargaining necessary) about ii/2 fr. per hour ; trip to the Blue 
Grotto, see p. 161 ; 'giro', or tour of the island (p. 162), 6-8 fr. To Sorrento, 
see p. 153; the hotels Quisisana and Pagano possess in common a very 
comfortable boat for 8 pers., which is hired for the trip to Sorrento with 
six rowers for 14 fr. ; boats with four rowers for smallers parties are also 
provided (S fr.). — The Piccola Marina on the S. side of the island, where 
the Green Grotto is situated, is reached in 20 min. (starting from the Piazza 
at Capri we diverge after 7 min. to the right from the road to Anacapri 
by a white house, and immediately turn to the left and pass under the 
road). Boat hence to the Green Grotto and round the K end of the 
island to the Marina about 4 fr. 

Capri, the ancient Capreae ('island of goats'), is a small, moun- 
tainous island of oblong form. Its picturesque outline forms one 
of the most charming points in the view of the Bay of Naples. The 
highest point is the Monte Solaro on the W. side, 1980 ft. above 
the sea-level; towards the E. huge cliffs, about 900 ft. in height, 
rist? abruptly from the sea. Koats can land safely at two places only. 



Village of Capri. CAPRI. 10. Route. 159 

The island contains about 4200 inhab. and two important villages 
only, those of Capri and Anacapri. The inhabitants, who support 
themselves chiefly by agriculture and fishing, still retain some old 
peculiarities of habits and costume. One of their chief pursuits is 
coral-fishing, in which maiy of them are engaged in summer on 
the African coast. The island yields fruit, oil, and excellent red 
and white wines in abundance. The indigenous flora comprises 
800 species. 

The island first came into notice under Augustus, who showed a great 
partiality for it, and founded palaces, baths, and aqueducts here. Tiberius 
erected twelve villas, in honour of the twelve gods, iu the principal parts 
of the island, the largest of which was the Villa Jovis (Tacit. Ann. iv. 
67), after he had surrendered the reins of government to Sejanus and 
retired hither (A.D. 27). He remained here almost uninterruptedly till 
his death in 37, even after the fall of Sejanus in 31. Exaggerated accounts 
are given of the cruelty and prolligacy of the emperor, even towards the 
close of his career. The tranquillity and inaccessibility of the island, as 
well as the geniality of the climate, were the attractions which induced 
him to spend so many years in it. Considerable remains of the buildings 
of Tiberius are still extant. 

In 1803 , during the Napoleonic wars , Capri was captured by the 
English under Sir Sidney Smith, fortified, and converted into a miniature 
Gibraltar. Sir Hudson Lowe was afterwards the commandant. In Oct. 
1808, however, the island was recaptured by the French under Lamarque 
by a brilliant coup-de-main. 

The Marina Grande , or principal landing-place , where the 
steamers and most of the small boats land their passengers, is on 
the N. side of the island, where there are several hotels (p. 158), 
and a number of fishermen's cottages. Two paths ascend hence to 
the village of Capri. The easier leads to the right (W.) and ascends 
past the hotels in windings (20-25 min.). The shorter, but 
steeper path to the left (E.) ascends in steps. They both run 
between garden-walls the greater part of the way, and are far from 
pleasant in the middle of the day. 

Capri (460 ft.), the capital of the island, with 2400 inhab., 
lies on the saddle which connects the E. heights of the island (Lo 
Capo) with the western (Mte. Solaro), and is commanded by two 
lower hills crowned with dilapidated castles. Nearly in the centre 
of the village is the small Piazza , to which the paths from the 
Marina lead, and from which the road to Anacapri starts. To the 
S. of it (5 min.) is the Certosa, founded in 1371, now a barrack. 

Leaving the Piazza by a vaulted passage to the left ot the flight 
of steps opposite the campanile, then turning to the right and 
passing the hotels of Pagano and Quisisana, and turning to the left 
again (the path straight on leads to the Certosa), we are led by 
a path which ascends slightly the greater part of the way to the 
(20 min.) *Punta Tragara, the S.E. promontory. This point com- 
mands a picturesque view of Capri and the S. coast, with three 
precipitous cliffs called the Faraglioni. On the summit of the one 
nearest the land are remains of a Roman tomb. 

The E. promontory, called Lo Capo, is supposed to have 



160 Route 10. CAPRI. Villa di Tiberio. 

been the site of the Villa Jnvis , to which Tiberius retired for 
nine months after the fall of Sejanus. This is a beautiful point 
of view (3/4 hr. from the village of Capri). The path cannot 
be mistaken. From the Piazza we pass to the left through 
the archway bearing the sign of the Hotel de France and fol- 
low the paved track, which soon ascends a little. It then becomes 
level, and at length skirts the slope to the right. On the right, 
a few minutes before reaching the last hill, we pass a clean tav- 
ern called 'Salto of Tiberio', after the rock from which, accord- 
ing to a purely mythical story, the tyrant precipitated his vic- 
tims. A projecting platform with a railing affords a view of the 
sea below. 

To the right are the remains of an old Lighthouse ("View"). 

After a slight ascent we reach the *Villa di Tiberio (pronounc- 
ed Timberio by the natives), part of the extensive ruins of which 
are now used as a cow-stable. They consist of a number of vault- 
ed chambers and corridors , the uses of which cannot now be as- 
certained. On the highest point is the small chapel of S. Maria 
del Soccorso (1050 ft.), with the cell of a hermit, who for a 
trifling donation allows the visitor to inscribe his 'testimonium 
prsesentia'. This point commands a noble prospect of the island 
and the blue sea, of the barren Punta di Campanella opposite, and 
the two bays; even P;estum and the Ponza Islands (to the N.W.) 
are visible in clear weather. 

In returning we take the path which diverges to the left by a house 
on the road-side, 1/4 hr. from the Salto of Tiberio ; we then cross the 
yard diagonally towards the left, ascend a few steps, and traverse gardens 
and fields in the same direction. In 1/4 hr. we reach the so-called Val 
di Mitromania , sometimes called Matrimonio by the islanders, a valley 
descending eastwards to the sea at the base of the Tuoro Grande or Tele- 
grafo. To the left in this valley, 8 min. farther, and reached by a path 
which is rather rough towards the end, rises the "Arpo Naturale, a mag- 
nificent natural archway in the rock, where we obtain a striking view of 
the imposing and rugged cliffs. A visit to the Qrotta di Mitromania, or 
grotto of Mithras , a shrine of the Persian god of the sun , to which 130 
steps descend, may be combined with this excursion. 

The ruins on the Tuoro Grande are supposed to belong to the second 
villa of Tiberius. On the coast are numerous ruins under water; among 
others, to the S. of Capri, by the Camerelle, is a long series of arches, 
perhaps belonging to an ancient road. 

From Capri to Anacapri (2>/ 4 M.). A road in long windings 
hewn in the rock, constructed in 1874, now supersedes the steep 
and fatiguing flight of f)3f> steps (to the foot of which 249 more 
ascended from the Marina) which used to form the chief approach 
to the higher parts of the island. This road commands beautiful 
views. Above it rise the ruins of the medieval Castello di Bar- 
barossa, named after the pirate who destroyed it in the 16th cen- 
tury. At the entrance to Anacapri is the Ristoratore di Barbarossa, 
a small tavern. The road to the right leads into the village ; that 
to the left to the Monte Solaro. 

Anacapri (HSO ft.), the second village in the island, with 



Blue Grotto. CAPRI. 10. Route. 161 

1800 inhab., is scattered over the lofty plain which slopes towards 
the W. On the left side of the street, before the church is reached, 
is a small Cafe. The tower of the church commands a fine view. 
There are Roman ruins in this neighbourhood also, particularly at 
the village of Damecuta, on the N.W. side, where a villa of Ti- 
berius once stood. 

The *Ascbnt of Monte Solaro (1 hr.) is recommended to toler- 
able walkers, as the mountain commands two beautiful and entirely 
different views, viz* that from the hermitage, and the panorama 
from the summit. The route is easily found. By the above-named 
Ristoratore di Barbarossa at the beginning of Anacapri we follow 
the paved path to the left, and after 60 paces the footpath to the 
left, which passes the cypress - shaded cemetery. Beyond the 
cemetery we take the second path diverging to the left, which 
immediately afterwards turns to the right ; 70 paces farther we 
turn to the left and ascend through a hollow (10 min. from the 
Ristoratore). On the crest of the hill (Y 2 hr.) which connects the 
summits of La Crocella and Monte Solaro we pass through a gate- 
way, and then follow the bridle-path to the right to the white wall 
of the *Hcrmitage (1624 ft ; good wine, for which Pater Anselmo, 
the hermit, expects a trifling fee), where a projecting platform 
commands a most picturesque view of the village of Capri and 
the whole of the beautiful island. After a fatiguing ascent of 
20 min. more we reach the summit of the *Monte Solaro (1980 ft.), 
which rises abruptly from the sea, on the S. side of the island, 
and is crowned by a ruined fort. The view is superb, embracing 
Naples with the whole of its bay, as well as that of Salerno as far 
as the ruins of Psestum. Towards the N. the Bay of Gaeta is visible, 
and towards the W. the group of the Ponza Islands. The spectator 
also obtains a survey of the chain of the Apennines, hounding the 
Campanian plain in a wide curve, and culminating in the Monte 
Vergine (p. 176) near Avellino. Capri itself and the peninsula of 
Sorrento lie in prominent relief at the spectator's feet. 

BLUB GrtOTTO. — A visit to the Blue Grotto from the Marina at 
Capri, where suitable light boats will be found, occupies l'.'.|-'> hrs. The 
best light, is between 10 and 12 o'clock. The authorised fare for the trip 
(there and back) is l l /4 fr. for each person, but almost no boatman will 
undertake it without an additional fee of 1-2 fr. The skiffs are not allowed 
to take more than three passengers. If the wind blows strongly from 
the K. or X. access to the grotto is impossible. 

The Blue Grotto is situated on the N. side of the island, about 
1^4 M. from the landing-place of Capri. The row along the base 
of the precipitous rocky shore is exceedingly beautiful. The sea 
swarms with gaily coloured sea-stars and jelly-fish, many of which 
float on the surface of the water. In 1/4 hr. we reach the ruins of 
the Baths of Tiberius, where a fragment of an ancient wall and 
part of a column in the water are to be seen, and in Y2 h r - rnore 
we arrive at the entrance of the **Blue Grotto (Orotta Azzurra), 

Baedekeb. Italy III. 7th Edition. \\ 



162 Route 10. CAPRI. 

which is scarcely 3 ft. in height. Visitors must lie down in the 
boat on entering. In the interior the roof rises to a height of 41 ft.; 
the water is 8 fathoms deep. Length of the grotto 175 ft., great- 
est width 100 ft. The effect of the blue refraction of the light on 
every object is indescribable, and at first completely dazzles the 
eye. Objects in the water assume a beautiful silvery appearance. 
One of the boatmen usually offers to bathe in order to show this 
effect, and is sufficiently rewarded with 1 fr., although he generally 
makes the exorbitant demand of 2-3 fr. Near the middle of the 
grotto, to the right, is a kind of landing-place, leading to a passage 
with broken steps, but closed at the upper end, once probably an 
approach from the land to the grotto, which was perhaps connected 
with the villa of Tiberius at Damecuta. The grotto, which was 
known to the ancients, fell into oblivion in the middle ages, but 
since 1822, when it was re-discovered by fishermen, it has justly 
been a favourite attraction. 

Anacapri is reached by a tolerable path , beginning near the Blue 
Grotto, which before the construction of the new road formed one of 
the chief routes between that village and the Marina of Capri. 

The Blue Grotto is the most celebrated of the caverns with 
which the rocky shores of Capri abound, but some of the others 
are also well worth visiting. The Giro, or *Voyage round the 
Island, occupies 3-4 hrs. (boats see p. 158). Steering from the 
Marina towards the E., we first reach the Orotta delle Stalattite, 
with its stalactite formations. We then round the promontory of 
Lo Capo, and visit the Orotta Bianca, named like the others from 
its predominating colour. The most striking part of the trip is at 
the Faraglioni (p. 159), which rise majestically from the water. 
The central cliff is undermined by an imposing archway , through 
which the boat passes, but not visible from the land. We next 
pass the Piccola Marina (p. 158) and in 25 min. more reach the 
Qrotta Verde, at the base of the Monte Solaro, a cavern of a beauti- 
ful emerald-green colour, and the most interesting after the Blue 
Grotto (best light about, noon). The voyage hence round Ana- 
capri to the Blue Grotto is less attractive, but this cavern may 
now be visited as an appropriate termination to the excursion 
(in which case a skiff for the grotto should be previously ordered 
to meet the traveller). Lastly we pass the lighthouse and sev- 
eral fortifications dating from the English occupation of 1808. 

11. From Naples to Salerno, Psestnm, and Amalfl. 

Compare Afap, p. 166. 
The Bat of Salerno cannot indeed compete with the Bay of Naples; 
towards the S. its shores are ilat and monotonous; hut the N. side, where 
tin; mountains of the Sorrentine peninsula rise abruptly some thousands 
of leet I'roni the sea, is replete with beauty and grandeur. Here are sit- 
uated the towns of Halervo and Amalfi, conspicuous in the pages of 
inedia;val history, and still containing a few monuments of their former 
greatness. Further S., in a barren, desolate situation, are the temples of 



PAGANI. 7 7. Route. 163 

Paestum, usually the extreme point of the Italian peninsula visited by 
northern travellers. All these recal the golden period of Greek history 
and art more forcibly than any other localities in Italy. 

This route may conveniently be combined with the preceding (p. 150) 
as follows: First Day: La Cava and Salerno. Second Dat : Paestum. 
Third Day: Amalfi. Fourth Day: By boat to Positano or Scaricatojo, 
and across the hills to Sorrento (or, better, by boat direct to Capri, and 
next day to Sorrento). Fifth Day: By the Barca Postale at noon to Capri. 
Sixth Day : Back to Naples by steamer. The passage across the moun- 
tains to Sorrento , as well as the excursion to Psestum , were formerly 
not unattended with danger from brigands, but these routes are now con- 
sidered safe. 

Railway from Naples to Salerno, 34 M., in 2'/3 hrs.; fares 6 fr. 15, 
4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 c. (Vietri is the station for Amalfi); to Eboli, 50 M., in 
31/4-31/2 hrs. ; fares 9 fr. 5, 6 fr. 35, 3 fr. 65 c. 

From Naples to Pompeii, 15 M., see R. 7. The train, after 
quitting the Bay of Naples, traverses the fertile plain of the 
Sarno. Cotton and tobacco are extensively cultivated here. 17 M. 
Scafati. The festival of the Madonna del Bagno takes place here 
on 15th Aug. (see p. 29). 

19'/2 M. Angri, near which Teias, the last king of the Goths, 
was defeated by Narses in 523, after having descended from 
Lettere on Monte Sant' Angelo to the plain. The district gradually 
becomes more mountainous, and the scenery is picturesque the 
whole way. 

21 M. Pagani, with 12,600 inhabitants. In the church of 
S. Michele, under the altar of a chapel to the left of the choir, 
are preserved under glass the relics of Alphonso de' Liguori, born 
at Naples in 1696, bishop of S. Agata in 1762, and founder of 
the order of the Redemptorists , who died at Pagani in 1787, 
and was canonised by Gregory XVI. in 1839. The place contains 
nothing else to detain us. From Pagani to Amain, see p. 170. 

22Y-2 M. Nocera de' Pagani, a town of some importance but no 
great interest, near the ancient Nuceria Alfaterna, where Hugo de' 
Pagani, founder of the order of the Templars, and the painter Fran- 
cesco Solimena were born, and where i'aulus Jovius, the historian, 
was bishop. To the left of the line, above the extensive Capuchin 
monastery, rise the ruins of the ancient Castello in Parco, the 
scene of the death of Sibylla, widow of King Manfred, and her 
youthful son after the battle of Benevento (1266). At the close 
of the 14th cent, the castle was one of the principal strongholds 
of the house of Anjou. Fine view from the summit. 

On the right, shortly before the train reaches the small village 
of (25 M.) S. Clemente, we observe the ancient baptismal church of 
*S. Maria Maggiore, similar to 8. Stefano in Rome. The basin in 
the centre is surrounded by eight granite columns, enclosed by 
a circular passage with sixteen pairs of handsome columns of pavo- 
nazetto with rich capitals , all antique. The walls are decorated 
with frescoes of the 14th century. 

Beyond 8. Clemente the line ascends considerably. On emerg- 
ing from a outting the train reaches — 

11* 



164 Route 11. CORPO DI CAVA. From Naples 

28M. La Cava {*Albergo di Londra , well -managed and 
moderate ; Hotel (Iran Brettagna ; Hotel Vittoria ; *Pension Suisse, 
5 fr. per day ; good furnished lodgings) , situated in a charming 
valley, a favourite summer and autumn resort, and a good centre 
for excursions to Amalfl, Paestum, Pompeii, etc. (carr. according 
to tariff). The town consists of a long street with arcades, as at 
Bologna. The main street leads from the station to the left to the 
Piazza , where a church and a large fountain are situated. Pop. 
of the 'commune' 21,000. 

'Excursion to Cokpo di Cava, l'/ 4 hr. to the S.W., situated on a 
wooded height, very pleasant, especially on a summer afternoon (donkey 
l'/2-2 fr., there and back 2-3 fr.; carriages may also be hired). Leaving 
the Piazza we ascend the road to the left by the church. After 5 min., 
when the road turns to the right round the public garden, we ascend by 
the shorter path to the left by a church, and farther on between walls, past 
the red-painted tobacco manufactory, to <S. Giuseppe, a church with a few 
houses. Here we again quit the road, which goes to the right, and follow the 
path to the left. It descends, crosses a ravine (beyond the bridge a small 
church to the left), and again gradually ascends, commanding a view of the 
village to the right. For a time the path is enclosed by walls, but a view is 
soon obtained of the valley of La Cava to the left, and, higher up, of the Bay 
of Salerno. In 1/2 hr. (from S. Giuseppe) we arrive at the church of Pietra 
Santa (so called from a rock in front of the high altar, on which the pope 
sat in 1816), whence a fine view is obtained of the mountain slopes of Cava, 
studded with numerous white houses , and the Bay of Salerno to the 
right. In the narrow valley about twenty mills are propelled by the 
brook. The slender round towers on the hills about Cava are erected for 
the capture of wild pigeons in October. Beyond Pietra Santa we skirt the 
wood for 8 min. and reach the high road, which soon afterwards crosses 
the viaduct to Corpo di Cava. Here the road divides, leading to the village 
to the right, and to the monastery in 5 min. towards the left. 

The village of Corpo di Cava ("Michele Scapolatiello and Ferdinando Adi- 
nolfi , both rustic) stands on the rock against which the monastery is built, 
above a beautiful narrow valley with several mills. The air is pure and the 
situation beautiful, so that travellers often make a prolonged stay here. 

The famous Benedictine abbey of "La Trinita della Cava , founded in 
1025 by Waimar III. , a Lombard prince of Salerno , is now condemned 
to dissolution, but still contains a few monks. The Church (with two 
ancient, sarcophagi at the entrance) contains the tombs of S. Alferius, the 
first abbot, of Queen Sibylla, wife of Roger, who died at Salerno, and 
of several anti-popes, among whom was Gregory VIII. The organ is one 
of the best in Italy. — The Archives of the monastery (shown in the 
forenoon only) are of great value , and contain a number of important 
documents on parchment in uninterrupted succession; the catalogue com- 
prises 8 vols. Among the valuable MSS. are the Codex Legum Longo- 
bardorum of 1004 , a prayer-book with miniatures of the school of Fra 
Angelico da Fiesole, the Latin Biblia Vulgata of the 7th cent., etc. The 
small Pinacoteca, or picture-gallery, contains two line altar-pieces of the 
early Umbrian school (Resurrection and Adoration of the Magi), revealing 
the influence of Raphael. 

The train now traverses a beautiful district, and soon affords 
a view of the Bay of Salerno; in 10 min. it reaches — 

30'/ 2 M. Vietri, charmingly situated, with several villas. Pop. 
8600. Above the town a promenade, commanding beautiful views, 
has lately been constructed. 

f'assengers may alight here and take a carriage (drive of V2 hr.) down 
to Salerno (2 fr. , single seat '/» fr.). The road descends, commanding a 
view of the sea, and affords a pleasant walk. High above, along the rocks 



to Salerno. SALERNO. 11. Route. 165 

of Monte Liberatore to the left, runs the railway. Carriage to Amalfi 
(p. 170) leas expensive here than at Salerno (a drive of 2-2'/'.> hrs. ; with 
one horse 4, with two t> fr. , and fee of 1 fr.). 

The railway, supported by galleries, and passing through four 
tunnels , the last of which penetrates the castle-hill , descends 
rapidly hence to Salerno. 

34 M. Salerno. — The Railway Station lies at the E. end of the 
town, a considerable way from the principal hotels. 

Hotels. "Hotel Vittokia, at the entrance to the town from Vietri, 
on the left, the farthest from the station, K. 3, B. 1'/*, D. 5, L. and A. 
2 fr., pension according to arrangement; "Hotel l/Angleterre , on the 
Marina; both these houses command a fine view. — Albekgo Americano 
and Albergo di Patella, also on the Marina, unpretending (charges ac- 
cording to bargain). 

Cafes. Several on the quay, now the Corso Garibaldi. 

Sea-Baths near the Marina, similar to those at Naples (p. 2(i). 

Carriages. From the railway to the town with one horse 50 c., with 
Itwo horses I fr. \ at night 70 c. or I 1 /? fr. ; one hour 1 or 2 fr., at night 
|l l /2 or 2'/'j fr. — For drives in the neighbourhood a previous agreement 
jbhould always be made, gratuity included, although even in this case 
f l-2 fr. above the fare is ;ilways expected. The charges made at the hotels 
are as follows (but the carriage-owners take less when treated with 
directly): To Paestum with two horses 20-25 fr. ; with three horses, for 
4-5 persons, 25-30 fr., and a fee of about 2 fr. ; with one horse to Amalfi 
(p. 170) 5-6, with two horses 8-10 fr. — Single travellers may avail them- 
selves of one of the swift but uncomfortable rorricoli (two-wheeled, rustic 
vehicles ; driver stands behind the passenger), but a stipulation should be 
made that no second passenger be taken up by the way; to Amalfi 
(tutto compreso), according to circumstances 2 l /-j-4 fr. 

Rowing or Sailing Boat (according to bargain) 1-1 '/u fr. per hour. Boat 
to Pgestum 20-25. to Amalfi 8-10 fr., according to the number of rowers. 

Popular Festival on the eve and day of St. Matthew, 20th-21st Sept., 
with fireworks and illumination which are best seen from a boat (4-5 fr.). 

Salerno , the ancient Salernum , delightfully situated at the 
N. extremity of the bay, and bounded on the E. by fertile 
plains, is the seat of the local government and of an archbishop, 
and the chief residence of the numerous local aristocracy (pop., 
with the adjoining villages, 30,000). The old town, rising on the 
slope of the so-called Apennine, with narrow and irregular streets, 
recals the 9th and 10th centuries, when the Lombards occupied 
it, the 11th cent, when it belonged to the Normans, and lastly 
the period when the houses of Hohenstaufen and Anjou were 
masters of the place , and when Salerno enjoyed the reputation 
of being the greatest medical school in Europe. 

The *Mnrina, or quay, 1 1/ 2 M. in length, now called the Corso 
Garibaldi, affords a beautiful walk, especially on summer evenings. 
The once excellent harbour is now choked with sand. At the W- 
end of the Marina is a large new Theatre , with some flower-beds 
adjacent. Nearer the E. end of the Marina stands the monument 
of Carlo Pisacana, Duke of S. Giovanni, 'precursore di Garibaldi', 
a Genoese , who participated in the attempts to revolutionise Italy 
in 18f>7, landed in Calabria, and perished while attempting to 
escape. (Giovanni Nicotera, a member of the Italian administration 
in 1876-77, was wounded and taken prisoner here on the same 



166 Route 11. SALERNO. From Naples 

occasion.) The large building between the two sentry-boxes, about 
100 paces farther, is the Prefettura, past which a narrow street 
to the left leads to the — 

*Cattbdkalb S. Matteo, erected in 1084 by Robert Guiscard, 
and adorned with works of art from Paestum. The restoration of 
1768 has deprived the edifice of much of its simple grandeur, 
but it still merits a visit. The steps ascend to an atrium, sur- 
rounded by twenty-eight antique columns. In the centre formerly 
stood a granite basin which is now in the Villa Reale at Naples. 
Along the walls are ranged fourteen ancient Sarcophagi , which 
were used by the Normans and their successors as Christian burying- 
places. The bronze doors , executed at Constantinople, were pre- 
sented by Landolfo Butromile in 1099. 

The nave contains two ambos or reading-desks, and an archiepiscopal 
throne, richly decorated with mosaic by Giovanni of Procida. On the right are 
two antique sarcophagi with Bacchanalian representations, now used as 
burial-places for archbishops. The 'X'rppt beneath, richly decorated with 
marble and mosaics, is said to contain the remains of the Evangelist St. Mat- 
thew, brought here from the East in 930. In theN. aisle is the "Tomb of Mar- 
garet of Anjou, wife of Charles of Durazzo and mother ofLadislaus and Jo- 
hanna II., by Baboccio da Piperino, with the painting almost intact; then 
the tombs of Sigelgaita, second wife of Robert Guiscard, of their son 
Roger Bursa, and of "William, son of the latter, with whom the direct 
line of the Norman dukes became extinct. — The chapel to the right by 
the high altar contains the tomb of Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory 
VII., who died here on 25th May, 1085, after he had been banished from 
Rome by Henry IV. The monument was restored in 1578 by Archbishop 
Colonna, and furnished with an inscription. The monument of Arch- 
bishop Carafa is adorned with a relief from Peestum : Rape of Proserpine. 
In front of a side-altar is the stump of a column, on which three saints 
are said to have been beheaded. The Cappella del Sacramento contains 
a Pieta by Andrea da Salerno, the composition of which is open to 
criticism. The choir contains a pavement and balustrade of ancient 
mosaic and two columns of verde antico. On the altar in the Sacristy 
(in the N. transept) : "Scenes from the Old and New Testament, on numer- 
ous carved ivory tablets, dating from 1200. 

In S. Lorenzo some frescoes recently discovered under the 
whitewash are also ascribed to Andrea (Sabbatini) of Salerno. 
Authentic works by this master, the most eminent Renaissance 
painter in S. Italy, may be seen in the churches of S. Giorgio 
(Madonna with saints and donors, dated 1523 ; 2nd altar on the 
right) and S. Agostino (Madonna with two saints, 2nd altar to the 
left; the SS. Augustine and Paul at the sides of the high-altar 
are school - pieces) . Sabbatini's style reflects the influence of 
Raphael. 

On the hill (900 ft.) lie the ruins of the ancient Castle of the 
Lombard princes, which was taken by Robert Guiscard after a siege 
of eight months. The view repays the ascent. (A little beyond the 
cathedral we turn to the right; farther up, the path becomes steep; 
at the top, 3 /4 hr., is a cottage; fee of a few soldi.) 

The train as it proceeds affords a charming view of the bay to 
the right, and of the mountains to the left. 39 M. Pontecagnano ; 




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to Pa stum. VMSTUM, 11. Route. 167 

44 M. Bellizzi; 45'/ 2 M. Battipaglia, whence two great routes di- 
verge , one to Calabria ( R. 20) , and the other, descending and 
skirting the coast, to Psestum (see below). 

49'/2 M. Eboli (Albergo del Vozzo, on the road, about 200 paces 
from the town, tolerable, bargaining necessary), a town with 8900 
inhab., situated on the hill-side, with an old chateau of the Prince 
of Angri, enjoys a fine view of the sea, the oak-forest of Persano, 
the towns at the foot of Monte Alburno , the temples of Paestum, 
and the valley of the Sele, the ancient Silarus. The sacristy of 
S. Francesco contains a large Madonna by Andrea da Salerno. 
From Eboli to Pastum, see below. — Continuation of the railway, 
see R. 19. 

Paestum. 

An excursion to Psestum is most conveniently made from Salerno, 
where the previous night should be spent. Distance 26 M., a drive of 4 hrs. 
(carriages, see p. 165). Most travellers, however, take the early train to 
Battipaglia (12V2 M., in 41 min. ; fares 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 50, 85 c. ; return- 
tickets 3 fr. 75, 2 fr. 65 c), to which they send a carriage from Salerno to 
await their arrival. This is, however, scarcely necessary if the early train 
from Naples be used, as carriages will then be found waiting at Batti- 
paglia (two-horse 15-18 fr., corricolo for one, or at most two persons, 
8-10 fr. ; a stipulation should be made that the driver admit no other 
passenger). The drive thence to Pjestum takes little more than 2 hrs. 
Refreshments (which the landlords provide at 3 fr. each person, with 
wine) should be taken from Salerno, as the osteria at Psestum is ex- 
tremely poor, and the drinking-water bad. A long day is necessary for 
this excursion, as even those who travel by train to and from Battipaglia 
take 6 hrs. for the journey alone ; and 4-5 hrs. should be allowed for the 
stay at Psestum. The hot summer months are unfavourable for the excur- 
sion owing to the prevalence of malaria in this district ; but if the tra- 
veller is not deterred by this drawback he is particularly cautioned against 
indulging in sleep (comp. p. 11). 

From Eboli (see above) the excursion is less pleasant, as there is no 
good inn at that town for spending the previous night. Carriages will 
be found waiting at the station to meet the early train from Naples (fares 
and time the same as from Battipaglia). 

By Water. In fine weather the excursion may also be made from 
Salerno by boat (p. 165). Travellers land at the influx of the Salso, about 
l'/a M. from the ruins. 

In the season parties (p. 25) are frequently formed at Naples for the 
purpose of visiting PEestum. See advertisements at the hotels. A party of 
three or four friends, however, will perform the journey as cheaply and 
more pleasantly. 

From Salerno our route is by the great Calabrian road as far 
as (I2Y2 M.) Battipaglia on the Tusciano. It then turns to the S. 
and traverses marshy plains, enlivened only by a few herds of buf- 
faloes and other cattle. Agriculture, however, has been making 
some progress here of late years, and the malaria is diminishing in 
consequence. About 6 M. beyond Battipaglia our road is joined 
by that from Eboli (7y 2 M. distant), which skirts the oak-forest of 
Persano for some distance. About l 1 ^ M. farther the road crosses 
the impetuous river Sele , the ancient Silarus, by a stone bridge 
which has frequently been rebuilt. This used to be considered 



168 Route 11. PAESTUM. Temple of Neptune. 

the most dangerous part of the road in 1860-70, when the neigh- 
bourhood was haunted by the daring brigand Manzi. Above the 
road, on the left, are Capaccio Vecchio and Nuovo. The carriage 
drives through the old gate between the town walls, passing the 
Temple of Ceres and several poor hovels, and stops at the entrance 
to the Temple of Neptune. The custodian is under the control of 
the same authorities as the guides at Pompeii (1 fr. on leaving). 

Paestum, according to Strabo, was founded by Greeks from Sybaris 
about the year B.C. 600, and its ancient name of Poseidonia (city of 
Neptune) sufficiently indicates its Greek origin. In the 4th cent, the 
town was in possession of the Lucanians who oppressed the inhabit- 
ants ; and at that period the citizens used to celebrate a festival an- 
nually in memory of their Greek origin and their former prosperity. 
After the defeat of Pyrrlius , Poseidonia fell into the hands of the 
Romans, who in B.C. 273 founded the colony of Paestum here. In 
the war against Hannibal the town remained faithful to Rome. At 
a later period it gradually fell to decay, and as early as the reign of 
Augustus was notorious for its malarious air. Christianity took root 
here at an early period. When the Saracens devastated Pffistum in 
the 9th cent., the inhabitants fled with their bishop to the neigh- 
bouring heights, and there founded Capaccio Vecchio. In the 11th 
cent, the deserted town was despoiled by Robert Guiscard of its 
monuments and sculptures, and remained in this desolate condition 
for many centuries, till in modern times attention was again 
directed to the antiquities still remaining. Those who appreciate 
the simple majesty of Greek architecture should endeavour , if 
possible, before quitting Naples, to pay a visit to Prestum. 

The ancient Town Walls, forming an irregular hexagon, on 
the river Salso, not far from the coast, about 3 M. in circum- 
ference, constructed of blocks of travertine, are preserved al- 
most entire; also a gate on the E. side towards the mountains, 
with two bas-reliefs on the key-stones representing dolphins and 
sirens. Outside the latter are fragments of an aqueduct, the pave- 
ment of the road, and several towers. Without the N. gate, by 
which we enter the town, was a Street of Tombs. Several of those 
which have been opened contained Greek weapons ; and in one of 
them, examined in 1H54, were found fine mural paintings, repre- 
senting warriors taking leave of their friends. Most of the ob- 
jects discovered in the course of the excavations, which are still 
continued, are preserved in the Museum at Naples (p. 63), but 
a few are also shown at the neighbouring Villa Bellelli. 

The Temples at Paestum, built in the ancient Greek style, are, 
with the single exception of those at Athens, the finest existing 
monuments of the kind. They are three in number. The largest 
and most beautiful is that in the centre, the so-called ** Temple 
of Neptune, 63yds. in length, and 2Hyds. in width. At each end 
are six massive, fluted Doric columns, 2H ft. in height; on each 



Temple of Ceres. P^STUM. 11. Route. 169 

side twelve, in all thirty-six columns of l^J^ ft. in diameter, all 
well-preserved. In the interior of the Cella are two series of eight 
columns each (about 6 ft. in diameter), with a second row of 
smaller columns above, which supported the roof. The latter are 
preserved on one side only. The stone is a kind of travertine, to 
which age has imparted a mellow tone. It contains fossil reeds 
and aquatic plants. The whole was once covered with stucco, in 
order to conceal the imperfections of the stone. The temple was 
a hypasthron , i. e., the cella, where the image stood, was un- 
covered. The proportions of the symmetrically tapering columns, 
whether viewed from the vicinity or from a distance, are perfect. 
This temple, as its whole character betokens, is one of the most 
ancient specimens of Greek art. Photographs and models of it 
are frequently seen (comp. Introd., p. xxvij. A stone basis in 
front of the E. facade probably belonged to a large sacrificial altar. 

A little to the S. rises the second temple, the so-called *Basi- 
lica fa misnomer), of more recent origin, but also of great an- 
tiquity. It is 60 yds. in length, and 2Q l /.> yds. in width, and its 
fifty columns are each 6'/2 ft- in diameter, but its proportions are 
less majestic than those of the temple of Neptune. At each end 
are nine columns, and on each side sixteen, all of travertine 
stone. The shafts of the columns taper upwards in a curve; the 
capitals are of a peculiar form which does not occur elsewhere. A 
series of columns in the central long wall, by a singular arrange- 
ment, divided the temple into two halves , so that it contained 
two 'cellae '. 

In front of these temples probably extended the Forum of 
the ancient town , basements for altars or statues being still 
distinguishable here. 

Farther N., near the entrance from Salerno, stands the small 
* Temple of Ceres, or of Vesta according to others, with a 
peristyle of thirty-four columns, six at each end, and eleven on 
each side. Length 35yds., width 15yds.; columns 5ft. in diameter, 
tapering upwards in straight lines. The columns of the vestibule 
are distinguished from those of the principal part of the structure 
by the difference of the fluting. This temple is another fine ex- 
ample of the simple and majestic Greek style. (A few soldi to 
the doorkeeper.) 

Between the Temple of Ceres and that of Neptune a few frag- 
ments of Roman building have been discovered, a Theatre and 
Amphitheatre, it is believed. The latter is intersected by the 
road. A Roman Temple was also discovered here in 1830. 
Concealed among the underwood near it are two metopae, adorned 
with high reliefs. These remains, however, are insignificant 
compared with the ruins above mentioned. — Of the 'rose-gardens' 
of Psestuni, so much extolled by Roman poets, no traces now exist. 
The temples are adorned with a luxuriant growth of ferns and 



170 Route 11. MAIORI. 

acanthus, enlivened solely by the chirping grasshopper, the rustl- 
ing lizard, and the gliding snake. 

A walk on the town-wall, perhaps from the N. gate round the 
E. side to the S. gate, towards Salerno, will enable the traveller, 
better than a olose inspection , to form an idea of the imposing 
grandeur of these venerable ruins. The finest general * View of 
the temples is obtained from the terrace of the first tower to the 
E. of the road, on the S. side of the town-wall. 



Amalfi. 

Cornp. the Map, p. 166. 

From Sorrento to Amalfi , see p. 174. From Castellamare to Amalfi 
by the Little St. Angelo, see p. 174. 

From Pagani (p. 163) a bridle-path ascends the W. slope of Monte di 
Cliiunzo. Near Torre di Cliiunzo, an ancient fortress erected by Raimondo 
Orsini, the path divides : that to the left leads through the Val Tramonti 
by Figlino and Paterno to Maiori (see below) ; that to the right by Capiti, 
Vesarano , and Scala to Alrani (p. 171). Each of these routes is a walk of 
5-6 hrs., but neither is much used by tourists. A few years ago they were 
considered unsafe. 

The '"High Road from Saleeno to Amalfi, Vi'/iM., is the finest route 
of all (by carriage in 2'/2-3 hrs.). This magnificent road, completed in 
1852, hewn in the cliffs of the coast, and frequently supported by galleries 
and vast viaducts 100-500 ft. above the sea-level, skirts the coast, pass- 
ing through thriving villages, and affording a succession of charming land- 
scapes. The slopes are generally somewhat bare, but are in many places 
laid out in terraces, and planted with vines, olives, lemons, and fruit-trees. 
The promontories of the coast are occupied by massive square watch- 
towers, erected under Charles V. as a protection against pirates , now 
converted into dwellings. This route is still more attractive than that 
from Castellamare to Sorrento. 

From Salerno the road ascends, and near Vietri (p. 164) crosses 
the valley by a stone bridge. To the left in the sea rise two 
conical rocks, / Due Fratelli. On the hill to the right is Ratto. 
The next place is the picturesquely situated fishing-village of 
Cetara, extending along the bottom of a narrow ravine ; it is 
frequently mentioned in the history of the invasions of the Sara- 
cens, and was the first place where they settled. The road now 
ascends to the Capo Tumolo, whence a beautiful prospect of the 
coast on both sides is enjoyed, and descends thence by the Capo 
d'Orso, where the fleet of Charles V- was defeated by Filippino 
Doria, to the small town of — 

Maiori, at the mouth of the Val Tramonti (see above), with 
terraced lemon-plantations, at the base of the ruined monastery 
of Camaldoli deW Avvocata (founded in 1485). Still higher lie 
the ruins of the ancient castle of S. Nicola, of which the Pic- 
colomini were the last proprietors. The road ascends slightly to 
the next village of Minori, nearly adjoining which are Atrani and 
Amalfi. 

Minori , a clean little village, with lemon-gardens, most beau- 
tifully situated, once the arsenal of Amalfi, lies at the mouth of 
the sometimes turbulent Reginolo. 



AMALFI. 11. Route. 171 

Atrani lies at the entrance to a ravine, on each side of which 
the houses rise picturesquely. The church of S. Salvatore di 
Biretto contains handsome bronze doors , of Byzantine work- 
manship of the 11th cent., monuments of the Doges of Amalfl, 
and others of the Saracenic period. Above Atrani is the village 
of Pontone; farther on, to the left, lies Ravello (p. 173). 

Near Pontone is the house where Masaniello (i. e. Tommaso Aniello, 
son of Cecco d' Amalfi and Antonia Gargano) is said to have been born in 
1620. On 7th July, 1647, he headed a formidable insurrection at Naples 
against the Spaniards, but, after a short period of snecess, fell into a 
kind of insanity, and on 17th July was shot in the pulpit of a church 
by one of his former adherents. These events have been utilised by Scribe 
in his text for Auber's opera, 'La Muette de Portici'. 

A lofty rocky eminence , bearing the extensive ruins of the 
castle of Pontone, separates Atrani from Amalfi. 

AmalfL. — Hotels. : 'Albeego dei Cappuccini, on the Marina, small, 
R. 3, B. I74, dej. 2'/2, D. 5, A. 1 fr. ; a quieter house is the "Albeego 
della Luna , formerly a monastery , charmingly situated between Atrani 
and Amalfi, about x ji M. from the Marina, similar charges; pension at 
both. — Alb. d'Italia, unpretending, but clean and well spoken of. 

Boats l'/z-l'A fr. per hour; to Scaricatojo (p. 174) with 2 rowers 
7-8 fr. ; to Capri in about 6 hrs. with 4-6 rowers 20-25 fr. ; to Sorrento 
with 4-6 rowers 30-45 fr. (preferable in fine weather to the land-route, 
comp. p. 174) ; to Salerno with 2 rowers 6-8 fr. — A market-boat also starts 
for Salerno every afternoon. 

Donkey per hour l-l 1 /* fr. ; to Castellamare by the Little S. Angelo 5-6 fr. 

Ouide among the tortuous lanes, with their frequent flights of steps, 
necessary only when time is very limited ; for a visit to the cathedral, 
mill-valley, and Capuchin monastery l l /2-2, whole day 5 fr. 

Amalfi, a small hut lively town with 7100 inhab., whose chief 
occupations are the manufacture of paper, soap, and maccaroni, is 
situated at the entrance of a deep ravine, surrounded by imposing 
mountains and rocks of the most picturesque forms. In the early 
part of the middle ages , it was a prosperous seaport , rivalling 
Pisa and Genoa, and numbered 50,000 inhabitants. 

Amalfi is mentioned for the first time in the6thcent., whenitenjoyed the 
protection of the Eastern emperors ; it afterwards became an independent 
state, under the presidency of a 'doge 1 . The town was continually at 
variance with the neighbouring princes of Salerno, and even defied the 
Norman sovereigns of Naples, till King Roger reduced the place in 1131. 
United with the royal forces, Amalfi carried on a war with the Pisans ; 
and it was during this struggle that the celebrated MS. of the Pandects of 
Justinian, now one of the principal treasures of the Laurentian library at 
Florence, fell into the hands of the Pisans. The place then became subject 
to the kings of the houses of Anjou and Arragon. In the 12th cent, the 
sea began gradually to undermine the lower part of the town, and a ter- 
rible inundation in 1343 proved still more disastrous. After that period 
Amalfi steadily declined. The town boasts of having given birth to 
Flavio Oioja, who is said to have invented the compass here in 1302, 
but he was probably the author of some improvement only, as the 
instrument was in use among the Chinese in the early centuries of the 
Christian era. — The Cavaliere Camero possesses rich collections illustrat- 
ing the history of Amalfi, and also an admirable cabinet of coins, which 
he very obligingly shows to interested visitors. 

From the Marina a short street leads past the Albergo dei 
Cappuccini to the small Piazza, on the right side of which rises the 
cathedral. The entrance adjoining the crypt (see below) may 



172 Route J I. AMALFI. 

also be reached by the steps to the right of the fountain on the 
Marina. 

The *Cattkdrale S. Andrea, approached from the Piazza by 
a broad flight of steps, is still, in spite of modern alterations, 
an interesting structure of the 11th cent., in the Lombard Nor- 
man style. The portal , built of alternate courses of black and 
white stone, and resting on seven antique columns from Pxstum 
and several buttresses , having become insecure , was removed 
in 1865, but has been re-erected. The campanile dates from 1276. 

The Bronze Doors, executed by Byzantine masters in the 11th cent., 
hear two inscriptions in silver letters, one of which runs thus : 'Hoc 
opus fieri jussit pro redemptione animaa suaj Pantaleo Alius Mauri de 
Pantaleone de Mauro de Maurone Comite 1 . 

The "Interior consists of a nave and two aisles, with a series of 
chapels on each side. Behind the chapels on the N. side is a third aisle, 
connected with the N. aisle by several entrances. On the left, close to 
the principal entrance, is an ancient vase of porphyry, formerly used as a 
font. Near this, to the left, in the first passage to the outer aisle, are 
two ancient sarcophagi with sculptures, unfortunately damaged, supposed 
to represent the Kape of Proserpine, and the Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis 
(according to others, the marriage of Theseus and Ariadne) ; a third bears 
the inscription : 'Hie intus homo verus certus optumus recumbo Quintus 
Fabritius Rufus nobilis deeurio\ — The choir contains ancient columns 
decorated with mosaic from Ptestum. — From the S. aisle a flight of steps 
descends to the Crypt (verger 20c. ), where the body of the apostle St. Andrew 
is said to have reposed since the 13th cent, when it was brought hither 
from Constantinople. The relics, from which an oily matter (manna di 
S. Andrea) of miraculous power is said to exude, attract numerous de- 
votees. The colossal statue of the saint by Micliael Anrjelo Maccarino was 
presented by Philip III. of Spain. The altar was executed from a design 
by Domenico Font-ana. — The cloisters contain an ancient Christian relief of 
the Twelve Apostles, and a Madonna of more recent date. 

From the Piazza, opposite the cathedral, the Supportico Fer- 
rari leads us to a small piazza, in the left corner of which we 
ascend the steps under the house to the right. After 43 steps 
we turn to the left and ascend the covered flight of steps , at 
the top of which , high above the sea , our route is level for a 
little way. After another ascent we at length reach ('/ 4 hr.) 
the *Capuchin Monastery, which was founded by Cardinal Pietro 
Capuano for the Cistercians, but came into possession of the Ca- 
puchins in 1583, and is now a naval school. The building stands 
in the hollow of a rock which rises abruptly from the sea to a 
height of 230 ft. It contains fine cloisters, a charming verandah, 
and magnificent points of view. A large grotto to the left, for- 
merly used as a Calvary, or series of devotional stations , com- 
mands a prospect towards the E. (fee 25 c). 

A cool and pleasant Walk may be taken in the narrow 
Valle de' Molini, or mill-valley, at the back of Amalfl , which 
contains sixteen paper-mills driven by the brook. (From the 
Piazza we follow the main street, which ends in 4 min.; we 
then go straight on through the Porta dell' Ospedale, a covered 
passage opposite the fountain.) On the right rise lofty cliffs, 
crowned by the ruins of the Custello Pontone. The solitary tower 



RAVELLO. 11. Route. 173 

dates from the time of Queen Johanna. — To Amain belong the 
five villages of Pogerola, Pastina, Lene, Vettica Minore, and To- 
vere, all situated to the W. of the town in a district which yields 
wine, oil, and fruit in abundance. The coast is overgrown with 
the aloe and cactus opuntia. 

From Amalfi to Ravello, an ascent of iy 4 hr. (donkey 1 fr. ; 
guide 2-3 fr., unnecessary), a most attractive excursion, affording 
beautiful views , and interesting also to the student of art , partic- 
ularly if as yet unacquainted with Moorish architecture. 

We return to Atrani; beyond the viaduct and the projecting rock 
round which the road leads we ascend a broad flight of steps to the left; 
cross the small Largo Maddalena in front of the church of that name; 
turn to the right and go on in the same direction, passing through several 
covered lanes , ascending steps , and sometimes descending. Farther on, 
we skirt the right (E.) slope of the valley, ascend in windings, and at 
length pass through a gateway to the piazza in front of the cathedral of 
Ravello (nearly opposite the cathedral is a rustic osteria). 

Ravello, a celebrated old town in a lofty situation , when in 
the zenith of its prosperity possessed thirteen churches, four mon- 
asteries, numerous palaces , and a population of 36,000 souls, but 
now numbers 1900 inhabitants only. 

The * Cathedral, founded in the 11th cent., is almost entirely 
modernised. The bronze doors, with numerous figures of saints, 
date from 1179. The magnificent *Ambo, in marble, embellished 
with mosaics, was presented in 1272 ; it rests on six columns sup- 
ported by lions ; inscription, 'Nicolaus de Fogia marmorarius hoc 
opus fecit'. Opposite to it is the pulpit, in a simpler style, 
with a representation of Jonah being swallowed by the whale. 
In the choir is the episcopal throne, adorned with mosaics. On 
the left is the Cappella di S. Pantaleone , containing the blood of 
the saint. In the Sacristy is a Madonna by Andrea da Salerno. 

Turning to the left on leaving the cathedral , passing the foun- 
tain , and walking for 100 paces between garden-walls , we reach 
the entrance to the *Palazzo Bufalo (visitors ring a bell on the 
right), now the property of a Mr. Reid. This edifice, built in the 
Saracenic style and dating from the 12th cent., was once occupied 
by Pope Adrian IV., King Charles II., and Robert the Wise. In 
the centre is a small, fantastic court with a colonnade. The gate- 
way has a Saracenic dome. A verandah in the garden (1115 ft. above 
the sea-level) commands a delightful *View (a contribution for the 
poor of the place is expected ; gardener '/a fr.). 

Returning to the piazza and ascending a lane to the left of the 
cathedral, we come in 5 min. to the church of S. Giovanni, a mod- 
ernised basilica borne by columns , and containing a fine old 
pulpit. — The adjacent garden (1220 ft. above the sea), formerly 
the property of the d'Afflitto family, affords a fine *View of the 
valley of Minori , of the small town of that name at its mouth, 
and of the more distant Maiori and the Capo Tumolo beyond 
it (fee of a few soldi; refreshments to be had). 



174 Route 11. POSITANO. 

S. Maria Immacolata is a picturesque little church. 

Another point commanding a very extensive view is the Bel- 
vedere Cembrone. Passing in front of the cathedral, we go straight 
through a gateway, turn to the left after 8 min., pass the portal of 
the church of S. Chiara, reach a door on the left, and walk straight 
through the garden. — Other picturesque points in the environs 
may be visited if time permits. 

Our excursion to Amain may he pleasantly extended by 2-3 
hrs. by visiting Scala, a village with an episcopal church and the 
ruined castle of Scaletta, and Pontone , and descending thence 
to the mill-valley. This is an interesting , but fatiguing walk. 
A donkey should not be taken farther than Ravello, as riding is 
scarcely practicable beyond it. 

From Amalfi to Sorrento. The route across the hills is on the whole 
rather tedious, as the ascent is very steep and the view at the top limited. 
It is preferable to go by water as far as Positano, or better still Scariea- 
tojo (2-2 l /y hrs.), and thence on foot or donkey-back across the hills (from 
Positano 4'/4, from Scaricatojo 2V-J-3 hrs.). 

The voyage (boats, see p. 171) along the picturesque coast (cost/era 
occiclentale) , passing the Capo di Coiica , the precipitous cliffs of Furore, 
the village of Prajavo with its luxuriant vines and olives , and Veilira 
Maggiore in the vicinity, is very beautiful. In about 2 hrs. we reach — 

Positano, picturesquely situated on the mountain-slopes, with 2600 
inhab. , an important harbour during the Anjou dynasty. Many of the 
natives of this place (like those of Secondigliano and Montemurro) leave 
their homes and travel through the ex-kingdom of Naples as hawkers. 
They assemble at their native places annually to celebrate their principal 
church-festival , and again return thither in later lii'e to spend their 
declining years. With the exception of a few boatmen, the population 
therefore consists chiefly of old men, women, and children. 

|From Positano to Sorrento 4'/4 hrs. (guide advisable, 2-3 fr.). The 
route ascends for nearly l 1 /! hr., and at the top of the hill inclines to the 
left. It then leads through (40 min.) Picciano, (20 min.) Preazzano , and 
Fornacelle, and passes to the right of the hill on which the yellow build- 
ing of Camaldoli di Meta (p. 157) lies. The next places are Arborc and 
(I hr.) Mela (p. 152), whence Sorrento is 2 M. distant by the high road.] 

The voyage to Lo Scaricatojo only takes '/z hr. more than the passage 
to Positano, although situated much farther to the W., as the boat steers 
from the Capo Sottile straight across the bay. The landing at Scaricatojo 
is not very easy, especially if the sea is at all rough, in which case the 
boatmen generally propose to go to Positano instead. The traveller may, 
however, prefer going direct to Scaricatojo, and if he finds the landing 
impracticable he may then return to Positano. 

From Scaricatojo to Sorrento (2'/2-3 hrs. ; guide desirable). The 
path ascends, at first by a fatiguing series of steps in the rocks, to the 
(l'/2 hr.) height of the Conti di Qeremenna , where there are several 
scattered houses. We follow the path in a straight direction , avoiding 
that to the left. Immediately after crossing the crest of the hill, we obtain 
a view of the Bay of Naples, Capri, Ischia, and Procida. After 5 min. we 
go straight on, avoiding the stony path to the left; after 25 min., nearly 
at the base of the hill, the unpaved path leads to the right between walls ; 
after 5 min., to the left; after 5 min. more, to the left by the narrow path 
to Sorrento (to the right to Carotto , p. 153); again, after 5 min., to the 
left between walls, and then by the high road to the left; 25 min., Hotel 
Bellevue (p. 153|; '/i hr. Sorrento (p. 153). 

From Amalfi to Castellamare over the Little S. Angelo (7 hrs. ; don- 
keys, see p. 171), a fatiguing walk which hardly repays the trouble, as 
an unobstrucl.'il view is seldom obtained. The safety of the route was 



NOLA. 12. Route. 1 75 

moreover doubtful, until quite recently. The path leads by Pastina aud 
Vettica Minore in the Val Vettica, a picturesque ravine. Farther on, 
to the left , at the base of the mountain slope , lies Conca , consisting of 
a few scattered houses , where the long Capo di Conca (p. 174) extends 
into the sea. The path, now steep and unshaded, next leads in >/« nr - 
to S. Lazaro , a fort with a small garrison , and the finest point on the 
route , which will repay a visit from Amalfi. The terrace below com- 
mands a strikingly beautiful survey of the fertile coast as far as Positano 
(p. 174); to the N. rises the Monte S. Angelo (p. 152). Beyond the fort 
the path, shaded by walnut and cherry-trees, and leading partly through 
wood , ascends by Agerola to the top of the pass of S. Angelo a Ouida. 
On the summit we traverse a wild district; to the left is the crest of La 
Parala, to the right the slight eminence of Piano di Perillo , overgrown 
with brushwood. From the summit to (3 hrs.) Qragnano a fatiguing de- 
scent by a stony and precipitous forest-path. From Gragnano to (3 91.) 
Castellamare, a dusty high-road (p. 150). 



12. From Naples to Nola and Avellino. 

From Cancello, a station on the Naples and Rome railway, a branch- 
line runs to Nola, and skirts the Apennines to Avellino. From Naples four 
trains daily: to Nola in iy 2 -l 3 / 4 hr. (fares 3 fr. 35, 2 fr. 10, 1 fr. 5c); to 
Avellino in 3-3 3 / 4 hrs. (fares 8fr. 80, 5 fr. 50, 2 fr. 75 c). 

From Naples to Cancello, 13 M., see p. 10. 

20y 2 M. Nola, with 11,900 inhab., an ancient Campanian city, 
was almost the only one which successfully resisted the attacks of 
Hannibal after the battle of Cannae , B.C. 216; and the following 
year its inhabitants under the command of the brave M. Marrellus 
succeeded in repulsing the invader. The Emperor Augustus died 
here on 19th Aug. A.D. 14, in his 76th year, in the same house 
and apartment where his father Octavius had breathed his last. In 
ancient times Nola was not less important than Pompeii. It is now 
an insignificant place and devoid of interest. In the 5th cent., 
St. Paulinus, an accomplished poet and Bishop of Nola (b. at Bor- 
deaux in 354, d. 431), is said to have invented church-bells at this 
Campanian town, whence the word 'campana' is derived. On 
26th July a festival , accompanied by processions and games, is 
celebrated in his honour. In the middle of the 16th cent, the 
free-thinker Giordano Bruno was born at Nola, who, on 17th Feb. 
1600, terminated his eventful career at the stake in Rome. 
Qiovanni Merliano, the sculptor of Naples, known as Giovanni di 
Nola, was also born here in 1488. 

Nola is celebrated as an ancient cradle of the plastic art. 
The magnificent vases with shining black glazing and skilfully 
drawn red figures, which form the principal ornaments of the 
museums of Naples and of other places, were executed here. 
Numerous coins of Nola with Greek inscriptions have also been 
found. Scanty remains of an amphitheatre still exist. 

About '/■! M. to the N.E. of the town is situated the Seminary, where 
several Latin inscriptions and the so-called Cippus Abellanua, a remarkable 
inscription in the Oscan language found near Abella, are preserved. Above 
the seminary (5 min.) is the Franciscan monastery of S. Angelo, command- 
ing a view of the fertile and luxuriant plain : to the left is Monte Somma, 



176 Route 12. AVELLINO. 

behind which Vesuvius is concealed; to the right rise the mountains of 
Maddaloni. A little to the E. is a Capuchin monastery, above which the 
ruined castle of Cicala picturesquely crowns an eminence. 

To the W. of Nolu, lies (5 II.) the small town of Avella, or in Latin 
Abella, near which there are extensive plantations of hazel-nut, the 'nuces 
Avellanpe' of antiquity. 

25 M. Palma, picturesquely situated on the slopes of the 
Apennines opposite Ottajano , with 7300 inhab. and an ancient 
chateau, is commanded by an extensive ruined castle on a height. 

30 M. Sarno, a town with 16,300 inhab., lies on the Sarno, 
which flows hence towards Scafati and Pompeii. Above it towers a 
ruined stronghold, once the seat of Count Francesco Coppola, who 
took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Fer- 
dinand of Arragon (1485). 

The view now becomes more limited. 35 M. Codola ; 37 M. 
San Oiorgio. 40 M. San Severino (poor inn), on the road from 
Avellino to Salerno. The principal church contains the tombs of 
Tommaso da San Severino, high constable of the kingdom of Naples 
in 1353, and of several princes of Salerno. A road leads from 
S. Severino to Salerno (about 10 M ; railway projected), via Baro- 
nisi, the scene of the capture of Fra Diavolo. 

The line now turns to the north. 43 M. Montoro ; 51l/ 2 M - 
Solofra; 54 M. Serino. 

59M. Avellino (Albergo Centrale , well spoken of, obliging 
landlord, who provides guides for Mte. Vergine; * Albergo delle 
Puglie), with 21,100 inhab., the capital of a province, situated on 
the old post-road from Naples to Foggia. The name is derived from 
the ancient AbeUinum, the ruins of which are 2'/2 M. distant, near 
the village of Atripalda. Another road leads hence to (14 M. ) 
Montesarchio and Benevento (p. 185). 

From Avellino we may visit Monte Vergine, a famous resort of 
pilgrims (donkey 4-5 fr. and fee). The route is tolerably well 
shaded as far as (5 M.) Mercogliano, beyond which a steep moun- 
tain-path leads in l'/ 2 Ar - t0 the shrine of Monte Vergine, founded 
in 1119 on the ruins of a temple of Cybele. 

The Church contains a miraculous picture of the Virgin , and the 
tombs of Catherine of Valois, who caused the picture to be brought 
hither, and of her son Louis of Taranto, second husband of Johanna I. 
Their effigies repose on a Roman sarcophagus. On the left side of the 
high altar is the chapel erected for himself by King Manfred, which, 
when that monarch fell at lienevento, was given by Charles of Anjou to 
one of his French attendants. 

We may ascend hence to the top of the mountain (4292 ft.), 
commanding a magnificent survey of the bays and the extensive 
mountainous district. The abbot and the older monks occupy the 
Loreto, or I'Ospizio, a large octagonal structure near Mercogliano, 
erected from a design by Vanvitelli. The archives have been incor- 
porated with the government archives at Naples. Great festivals, 
attended by numerous pilgrims in their gayest costumes, are cele- 
brated here at Whitsuntide (see p. 29). 



EASTERN AND SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF 
S. ITALY. 



Those parts of Italy have, until recently, been beyond the reach of the 
ordinary traveller. The W. coast is, moreover, by far the richer and more 
picturesque, as well as more replete with historical interest. The E. 
districts can boast of no such names as those of Florence, Rome, and 
Naples, but, they are not devoid of attraction, and have been endowed by 
nature with a considerable share of the gifts she has so bounteously 
lavished on other parts of Italy. 

The Apennines, rising at a short distance from the coast, send forth 
a series of parallel ramifications, forming a corresponding number of par- 
allel valleys, whose communication with the external world is maintained 
by means of the coast to which they descend. To the S. of Ancona, from 
about the 43rd to the 42nd degree of N. latitude, stretch the Central 
Ape/mines, embracing the three provinces of the Abruzzi (Chieti, Teramo, 
and Aquila), the ancient Samnium. They culminate in the Montctgna 
delta Sibilla (8123 ft.), the Gran Sasso cT Italia (9816 ft.), and the Majella 
(9121 ft.) , groups which are connected by continuous ranges , and which 
are clad with snow down to the month of July. These mountains abound 
in fine scenery (R.R. 15-17), but until recently they have been well-nigh 
inaccessible owing to the defectiveness of the means of communication 
and the badness of the inns. The mountains to the S. of 42° N. lat., 
receding gradually from the sea, are called the Neapolitan Apennines. 

The last spur which projects into the sea is the Mte. Gargano (5118 ft.), 
which, however, is separated from the chief range by a considerable plain. 
Beyond this stretches the Apulian plain, an extensive tract of pasture and 
arable land, bounded by an undulating district on the S. About the 41st de- 
gree of N. latitude the Apennines divide; the main chain, extending towards 
the S., forms the peninsula of Calabria; the lower chain, to the E., that 
of Apulia. 

The Coast (Provinces of Ancona , the Abruzzi, Capitanata , Terra di 
Bart, and Terra d^Otranto) is flat and monotonous, and destitute of good 
harbours. The estuaries of the small rivers afford but scanty protection 
to the vessels of the coasting trade. Even at Ancona the prominent 
Af. Conero (1880 ft.) alone renders the anchorage tolerable. The villages 
and towns, in which local peculiarities often prevail in a marked degree, 
are generally situated on the heights, and conspicuous at a great distance. 
Farther to the S., however, in the ancient Apulia and Calabria (x»- 184), 
the coast scenery improves, and there are three important harbours, those 
of Ban', Brindisi, and Otranto. Since the construction of the railway the 
most direct route between Western and Central Europe and the East has 
passed this way, and this district is gradually attracting more attention 
from travellers. As yet, however, it is only the larger towns which boast 
of tolerable inns. 

In the S. and S.W. districts, the former province of Basilicata y the 
ancient Lucania (less interesting than most other parts of Italy), and in 
Calabria, civilisation has made extremely slow progress, and the inns in 
particular are grievously behind the requirements of the age. In these 
respects Calabria, a district replete with striking scenery, is specially 
unfortunate. The shores of the Gulf of Taranto , whose waters bound 
both of these provinces, were once studded with numerous flourishing 
Greek colonics, and the whole district bore the name of Magna Graecia; 
but the traces of that prosperous epoch are now scanty. The period of 

BAEDEI'™ Tt«l,r TTT 7*h T?HU:,.« ^ 



1 78 Route 13. FERMO. 

decline began with the Roman supremacy. The art and culture of the 
middle ages never penetrated to these remote regions. The fields once 
extolled by Sophocles for their richness and fertility are now sought for 
in vain, and the malaria now exercises its dismal sway throughout the 
whole of this neglected district. The soil belongs to the nobility , who 
let it to a miserably poor and ignorant class of farmers. The custom of 
carrying weapons is universally prevalent here (comp., however, p. xiv), and 
brigandage was carried on until quite recently. The villages are generally 
wretched and filthy beyond description. No one should therefore attempt to 
explore the remoter parts of this country unless provided with letters of 
introduction to some of the principal inhabitants (comp. p. 226). It is, 
however, expected that the condition of the country will speedily improve 
when the railway-system is more developed, and the dormant capabilities 
of the soil are thus called into action. 

13. From Ancona to Foggia (Brindisi). 

201 M. Railway in 61/4-12'/, hrs.; fares 36 fr. 35, 25 fr. 50, 14 fr. 35 c. 
(3rd class by express 18 fr. 20 c). — Ancona is 347 M. distant from Brin- 
disi, to which an express train runs daily in 14 hrs. in correspondence 
with the quick trains from Milan and Bologna (fares 62 fr. 50 c, 44 fr., 
31 fr. 40 c); also once weekly (Sun.) in 10 3 /4 hrs. (from Bologna to 
Brindisi 15 hrs.), in connection with the English mail to India, carrying 
passengers to Brindisi only. The local trains stop for the night at Pescara 
or Foggia. 

The line skirts the coast, affording a sea view to the left, and an in- 
land view to the right. The towns, generally situated on the heights, at 
some distance from the railway, communicate regularly with their stations 
by diligence ; but these vehicles have little pretension to comfort. 

Ancona, see Baedeker's Central Italy. The train passes through 
a tunnel under the hills surrounding Ancona ; to the left rises 
the promontory of Monte Ouasco ; on a hill to the right lies the 
ancient town of Osimo, the Roman Auximum. 10 M. Stat. Osiino 
is 51/2 M. from the town. On the right we soon obtain a view of 
Castelfidardo, where the papal troops under Lamoriciere were utterly 
defeated by the Italians under Cialdini in 1860. 

15 M. Loreto, 17>/2 M. Becanati (see Baedeker's Central Italy). 
The train crosses the Potenza. 23 M. Potenza Picena is named 
after a Roman colony which once lay in the neighbourhood, but 
of which not a trace now exists. On the hill, about 4>/ 2 M. inland, 
lies the village of Montesanto. 

27 M. Porto Chitanova lies at the mouth of the Chienti. The 
town of Civitanova lies l 1 /4 M. inland. The train crosses the 
Chienti. 31 M. S. Elpidio a Mare. The village of S. Elpidio lies 
several miles inland. — The Tenna is next crossed. 

37 M. Porto S. Giorgio, with an imposing fort. 

On the hill, 3 M. inland, is situated Fermo (Locanda delV Aqnila; 
seat in a carriage 50 c), the ancient Firmum Picenvm, with 18,900 inhab., 
and the seat of an archbishop. It became a Roman colony after the begin- 
ning of the First Punic War, and has continued since that period to be a 
town of some importance. At the Porta S. Francesco, by which the town 
is entered, are seen remnants of the ancient wall, constructed at a very 
remote period. The streets ascend somewhat precipitously to the height 
on which the handsome Piazza is situated-, the Town Hall here contains 
some inscriptions and antiquities. Antiquarians should visit the collection 
of the Arvocato de Minicis. Outside the town we obt;iiii fine views of the 
fertile district, the Apennines, and the sea. 



ASCOLI. 13. Route. 179 

The train next crosses the brooks Lete Vivo and Aso. 43 M. 
Pedaso, 48 M. Cupra Marittima (Marano). Near the latter once 
lay the ancient town of that name , with a celebrated temple 
dedicated to the Sabine goddess Cupra, and restored by Hadrian 
(in A.D. 127). 50 M. Orottammare. On the hill, about 4'/ 2 M. 
inland, is Ripatransone (6000 inhab.). The inhabitants of these 
districts greatly resemble their Neapolitan neighbours in manners 
and appearance. 

53 M. S. Benedetto (inn at the station), a village on the coast. 

Ascoli Ficeno (* Locanda delV Aquila), tile ancient Asciilinti Picemim, with 
22,800 inhab., the seat of a bishop and capital of a province, is situated in 
the fertile valley of the Tronto, 19 M. from the S. Benedetto station (diligence 
twice daily in 4 hrs., fare 2'/2 fr.). The road ascends on theN. side of the 
valley and then crosses to the S. side, where the town lies. The valley is 
here contracted and enclosed by lofty mountains. To the N. rises the 
jagged M. delta Ascensione, to the W. the Sibilla, and more to the S. the 
Pizzo di Sevo. Mountain roads lead hence by Norcia to Spoleto, and others 
through the valleys of the Velino and Aterno to Aquila (p. 190) and the 
interior of the Abruzzi. Ascoli, an ancient town in a commanding situation, 
the capital of the tribe of Picentines, took a prominent part in the Social 
War against Rome, and was captured and destroyed by Pompey. Interesting 
remains of the ancient walls, a bridge, and a *Gate at the W. end of the 
town. The town-hall contains a few inscriptions, and other relics are 
encountered in other parts of the town, e.g. insignificant vestiges of a 
theatre and amphitheatre. The architecture of the churches and palaces 
dates chiefly from a period anterior to the Renaissance, materially en- 
hancing the interest of the town, which is indeed the most attractive mi 
the E. coast. The "Cathedral is said to have been founded by Constan- 
tine on the site of a temple of Hercules. The original substructions are 
still traceable. A chapel on the right in the interior contains good pictures 
by Crivelli. 

Beyond S. Benedetto the train crosses the Tronto, the ancient 
Truentus, formerly the boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 62 M. Tortoreto. 68 M. Giu- 
lianova, a dirty village on the hill , l 1 / 4 M. from the coast, built 
in the 15th cent, by the inhabitants of the ancient Castrum Novum 
on the Tordino, and then named S. Flavia.no. 

Teramo , the ancient Interamna, the capital of a province and seat 
of a bishop, with 20,100 inhab., 15 M. distant (post-omnibus 2 fr., in 2';V 
3 hrs.), is situated on the left bank of the Tordino. The Gothic cathedral 
is now modernised. The valley commands a succession of line views of 
the imposing Gran Sasso. The town contains several inns , the best in 
the Piazza, where the Cafe d^/talia is also situated. 

A new road ascends the valley of the Vomano from Teramo to Aquila 
(comp. p. 191). 

The train crosses the Tordino, the ancient Batinus, and then 
the Vomano (Vomanus). To the right a fine view is obtained of 
the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 191), which is here visible from base to 
summit. TO 1 /.? M. Mutignano. 

Atri (''Albergo di Vine. Marcone) , 6 M. inland (diligence daily, 1 fr. 
25c, other conveyances rarely obtainable), the ancient Hadria, an epis- 
copal residence, with 10,000 inhab., is a town of great antiquity, and was 
once celebrated for its copper coins. Numerous ruins bear testimony to 
its ancient importance. The Gothic cathedral with its frescoes merits a 
visit. It rests on extensive foundations of ancient origin, perhaps those of a 
temple. Several large grottoes near the town are also of very remote date. 

12* 



180 Route 13. PESCARA. From A neon a 

The train now crosses the Piomba, the ancient Matrinus, 5 M. 
inland from which is situated Citta Santangelo (6800 inhab.). 
Si M. Silni; 87 M. Montesilvano. 

Penne, 16 M. inland, the capital of the district, with 9900 inhab., was 
the Pinna of the ancients, and chief town of the Vestini, of which period 
various relics still exist. 

91 M. Fescara (Leone d'Oro ; Railway Restaurant), a fortified 
town with 5400 inh., situated in an unhealthy plain on the N. 
hank of the Pescara, is one of the principal stations on the line. 
The mountain-group of the Majella, culminating in Monte Amara 
(9121ft.), and 55 M. in circumference, now becomes visible on the 
right. The train crosses the river by an iron bridge, below which 
are a wooden bridge and a small harbour, and then describes a curve 
round the town. — Branch-line to Solmona and Aquila, see R. 15. 
96 M. Francavilia, a village on the hill to the right. Beyond 
it a mountain-spur projects into the sea. Four short tunnels. Be- 
yond the third the fort of Ortona becomes visible on the left. 

105 M. Ortona. The town (Caprera; Cafe in the Piazza), t/ 2 M. 
from the station , the ancient Orton , capital of the Frentani , is 
now a tolerably clean and well-built place (12,200 inhab.), situated 
on a lofty promontory, with a small quay on the shore below. 
Beautiful views towards the S. as far as the Punta di Penna (see 
below), especially of the ancient and dilapidated fort. The archi- 
tecture of the cathedral should be inspected. 

Beyond Ortona the train passes through another tunnel and 
crosses two brooks. 109'/2 M. &• Vito Chietino is the station for Lan- 
ciano , 6 M. inland, with 17,300 inhab., the ancient Anxanum. 
It may also be reached from the next station (52 M.) Fossacesia. 
Between S. Vito and Fossacesia three tunnels, beyond which we 
obtain a pleasing survey of the peninsula, terminating in the Punta 
di Penna. 

The train crosses the Sangro, Lat. Sangrus. 122 M. Casalbor- 
dino. Three tunnels, beyond which Vasto becomes visible, on an 
olive-clad hill on the right. 131 M. Stat. Vasto. The town lies on 
the hill, li/ 4 M. from the station. 

Vasto (*Locanda del Pesce ; the others dirty ; Cafe Nazionale), 
the ancient Histoniurn , with 14,400 inhab., lies high, and com- 
mands tine views as fnr as the Tremiti islands (p. 181) and Monte 
G.irgano. The small cathedral with a Gothic facade bears a memo- 
rial tablet to General 'Carlo Antonio Manhes, distruttore de' bri- 
ganti, primo cittadino del Vasto', date 1810. A small museum in 
the town-hall contains inscriptions and other relics found here. In 
the environs are extensive olive plantations. 

The train crosses the Trigno , Lat. Trinius. 147Y2 M. Termoli 
(Venezia, in the suburb), a fortress close to the sea, with mediae- 
val walls, excessively dirty. Charming survey of the Majella and 
Ahruzzi. The cathedral, with a Gothic facade, contains a number 
of quaintly decorated saints. 



to Fogg ia. FOGGIA. 13. Route. 181 

From Termoli a diligence runs daily via, Campobasso in about 20 his. 
to (94 M.) Solopaca , on the Foggia and Naples railway (thence by rail- 
way to Maddaloni , on the Rome and Naples line). A railway follow- 
ing the direction of this road is projected. The first half of the route 
is monotonous. The first important place is (22 M.) Larino, in a valley, 
near the ruins of the ancient Larinum. The road continues to ascend 
through a bleak district. Campobasso, 37'/2 M. farther , the capital of a 
province, and a place of some importance, with 14,000 inhab., is noted 
for its steel wares. A halt of some duration is made here. 

From Campobasso to Solopaca, 34'/2 M., by diligence in 6 hrs. (fare 
6 fr.). The road, after traversing the mountain, descends into the valley 
of the Tamaro. The country becomes more attractive. Post-station &e- 
pino; the town lies 2 M. higher. About 2'/4 M. from this point are situ- 
ated the extensive ruins of the ancient Saepinnm, now Altilia. A little 
to the left of the road, 14'/2^t. farther, is the village of Pontelandolfo, the 
inhabitants of which in 1861 cruelly and treacherously assassinated thirty- 
six Italian soldiers and four carabineers, whom they had received with ap- 
parent hospitality and induced to lay down their arms. General Oialdini 
caused the troops to take a summary and sanguinary revenge. Then the 
village of Guardia S. Framondi. The road now descends to the beautiful 
valley of the Galore, crossing it by an iron bridge, and at stat. Solopaca 
reaches the Foggia and Naples railway, by which Maddaloni is 17 M. 
distant (R. 14.) 

The Tremiti Islands, 25 M. N.E. of Termoli, the Insulae Diome- 
deae of ancient mythology, the largest of which is S. Domenico, are 
used, as in ancient times, as a place of imprisonment. 

Beyond Termoli, sphere the cactus first makes its appearance, 
the scenery is less attractive. The train crosses the Biferno, Lat. 
Tifernus. 152 M. Campomarino , 158 M. Chieuti, once Albanian 
colonies. We next cross the Fortore, the ancient Frento. 

165 M. Ripalta. 

Near Ripalta, on 15th June, 1503, the Normans defeated ami captured 
Pope Leo IX., and then, falling on their knees, implored his blessing. 
Leo, relenting, imparted it, and subsequently conferred Apulia, Calabria, 
and Sicily on the brothers Humfred and Robert Guiscard, a grant which 
was ultimately fraught with consequences so important to Rome and the 
papal throne, as well as to the Normans. 

To the N.E. is the Lago di Lesina, which communicates with 
the sea. The train now proceeds inland, in order to avoid the 
promontory of M. Gargano (j>. 183), a buttress of the Apennines 
projecting into the sea, with several peaks nearly 5000ft. in height. 
1741/4 M. Poggio Jrnperiale ; 177 M. Apricena ; 184 M. San Severe, 
a dirty town with 17,000 inhab., which, after a gallant resistance, 
was taken and almost entirely destroyed by the French in 1799. 
The cholera committed fearful ravages here in 1865. 191 M. M0W1. 
201 M. Foggia. — Restaurant, with several good rooms, at the station. 
The town is '/s SI. distant; cab 1/2 fr. — In the Town: Alberou Centrai.k 
and Trattoria Cavour, at the entrance to the town, R. 2, L and A. 1 fr. 
Locanda E Ristor. di Roma , in the main street. 

Foggia, the capital of a province formerly called the Capitanatu, 
and the junction of the coast railway and the line to Benevento and 
Naples (R. 14), is a clean, thriving town, with 38,500 inhabi- 
tants. It is well situated in a commercial point of view, and forms 
the central point of the great Apulian plain. On the left, opposite 
the first houses of the town, V4 M. from the station, is a colonnade 



I 82 Route 13. MANFREDONIA. From Ancona 

forming the entrance to the Oiardino Pubblico, which is adorned 
with several busts, lieyond these public grounds is a botanic gar- 
den. The main street which we follow now takes the name of Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele. To the left in the piazza planted with trees 
rises a monument to Vincenzo Lanza (1784-1860), a physician and 
patriot, who was born at Foggia. After 5 min. we cross the Corso 
del Teatro and reach the Piazza Federico II., adorned with a foun- 
tain (Pozzo dell' Imperatore), situated in the older part of the town. 
The name is a reminiscence of the Emperor Frederick II., who pa- 
tronised and frequently visited Foggia. The side-street immediately 
to the right also contains a gateway belonging to the old palace of 
the emperor, bearing an inscription of the year 1223 relative to the 
foundation. Leaving the Piazza Federico II. and turning to the 
left, we soon reach the Cathedral, which was originally erected by 
the Normans, partly destroyed by an earthquake in 1731, and after- 
wards re-erected in a modern style. Part of the old facade only now 
exists. 

A great part of the spacious, treeless plain around Foggia is used as 
a sheep-pasture (Tovoliere delta Puglia). During the summer the flocks 
graze im the mountains, and in October return to the plain by three great 
routes (Tratture delle Pecore). These migrations, during which hundreds 
of flocks may be encountered in one day , date from the Roman period. 
Alphonso I. , who introduced the merino sheep , converted the pastures 
into a royal domain in 1445. The number of sheep supported by these 
pastures amounted to 4 ! /2 million at the close of the 16th cent., but owing 
to the progress of agriculture, is now reduced to less than half a million. 

About 3 M. to the N. of Foggia arc the scanty remains of the ancient 
town of Arpi , or Argyripe , said to have been founded by Diomedes , and 
afterwards replaced by Foggia. 

Fkom Foggia to Manfkeuonia , 25 M., diligence once daily in 4 hrs. 
13 fr.); carriage there and back 16 fr. and fee; railway projected. The 
country traversed is bleak and monotonous, but presents several points of 
interest to architects. The road passes S. Leonardo, 19 M. from Foggia, a 
church and convent, converted into a commandery of the Teutonic Order 
in the time of Hermann von Salza, with two line portals, now used as a 
'Masseria', or farm-house, and very dilapidated. — About 2 M. from Manfre- 
donia the road passes the 'Cathedral of S Maria Maggiore di Siponto, a 
tine example of the Romanesque style, with a crypt. The interior, un- 
fortunately restored, contains a 'miracle-working' Madonna and numerous 
votive tablets. This church is part of the scanty remains of the old Sipon- 
/«/«, which was a Roman colony in B. C. 194. Other interesting remains 
of the old town have been brought to light in recent excavations. This 
district sutlers from malaria. 

Manfredonia (Locanda di Donna Peppina), a quiet town with 8201) in- 
habitants, was founded by King Manfred about 1263, and destroyed by the 
Turks in 1620. It now contains no buildings of importance , but part of 
the. mediaval fortifications is still well preserved. Owing to the sheltered 
situation of the town, to the S. of Monte Gargano, the vegetation is very 
luxuriant, resembling that of Sicily in character. 

A road, at first traversing olive-plantations, and then ascending in 
windings, leads hence to (10'/2 M.) Monte Santangelo (2824 ft.), with a pic- 
turesque castle, and a famous old sanctuary of S. Michele, where a great 
festival is celebrated on 8th May. The chapel consists of a grotto to 
which 55 steps descend, and where, as the legend runs, St. Michael appear- 
ed to St. Laurentius , Archbishop of Sipontum, in 491. In the 11th cent, 
the warlike Normans undertook pilgrimages to this sacred spot before they 
became masters of the country. The bronze doors, with scenes from Script- 



to Foyyiit. MELFI. 13. Route. 183 

ure, bear the inscription : 'Hoc opus completum est in regia urbe Constan- 
nopoli adjuvante Dno Pantaleone qui fieri jussit anno ab incarnatione Dni 
Millesimo Septuagesimo Sexto 1 (crimp, p. 172). — From this point M. Calvo, 
the culminating point of Monte Gargano (5118 ft.), is most easily ascended. 
Ilctwecn Monte S. Angelo and Vico lies the extensive and beautiful beech- 
forest called Bosco deW Umbra-, which stretches towards the sea. Farther 
to the N. is Ischitetla; towards the E., on the coast, is Viesli. The roads 
are bad, and suitable for riding and walking only. 

From Fougia to Luckka, 10'/-2 M- , diligence twice daily in l'/ 2 br. 
(fare l 1 /^ fr.)i carriage there and back about 10 fr. — The road, which 
is enlivened with busy traffic, ascends gradually through arable land. Rail- 
way projected. 

Lucera (Albergo d^Jtalia), a town with 14,200 inhab., the ancient Lu- 
c< ria , was regarded as the key of Apulia, owing to its situation. It is first 
heard of during the Samnite wars, and in B.C. 314 it became a Roman 
eulnny. It continued to be an important and prosperous town down to the 
7th cent, after Christ, but was destroyed in u'G3. It was at length restored 
by Frederick II. , who in 1223 transplanted a colony of Saracens hither 
from Sicily, bestowing on them entire religious freedom. They were in 
consequence staunch adherents of the Hohenstaufen family, and accorded 
an asylum to the wife and children of Manfred after the battle of Bene- 
venlo. They were, however, subdued by Charles of Anjou in 1269, and 
in 1300, after an attempt to throw off the yoke of Charles II., were com- 
pelled to embrace Christianity. 

The town lies on a lofty plain, which slopes imperceptibly towards 
the S. and E., and abruptly towards the N. and W. On the W. side the 
plateau projects, forming a kind of peninsula, on which stands the ad- 
mirably preserved ''Castle (keys at the Municipio), erected by Frederick, 
hut daling in its present form from the reign of Charles I. It is an in- 
teresting example of a mediaeval stronghold, and occupies the site of the 
ancient arx. The : View embraces the plain bounded by the Apennines 
and Monte Gargano; to the N. lies the town of S. Severn, and to the E. 
stretches the sea. The isolated mountain to the S. is the Monte Vulture 
near Melfi, the summit of which commands a survey of the whole of Apu- 
lia. — The old Cathedral^ which had fallen into ruin in the time of Fre- 
derick II., was restored in the Gothic style after the conversion of the 
Saracens hy the Anjous. The pilasters of the nave are in verde antico. 
The right transept contains a beautiful figure of the Madonna in marble, 
on a monument of 1605. Below the choir is a crypt. — A few inscriptions 
dating from the ancient municipiuni, which far exceeded the modern town 
in extent, are, preserved in the library of the municipio, or town-hall. 
There are slight traces of an amphitheatre on the E. side of the town. 

On the road to S. Severo, 6 M. from Lucera, lay the Castel Fiorenlino y 
where Frederick II., after a reign of 38 years as a German king, died in 
1250, in his 56th year. 

IntoM Foggia to Candrla, 24 ! /2 M M bran ch-railway in I'^hr. 
(Hi. 40, 3fr. 10, lfr. 80 c ). Stat." Ceroaro, see p. 185; Ordona, 
the ancient Herdonia, with an ancient bridge, amphitheatre, tombs, 
etc. ; Ascoli Satriano (Albergo di Roma, clean), l 1 ^ ^- from the 
station (cab ^2 l' r « )i charmingly situated , the ancient Ausculum 
Apulum, famed for the victory gained here by Pyrrhus over the 
Romans, B. G. 279 ; lastly, Candela. 

From Candela diligence twice daily in 4'/2 nr s. to — 

Melfi [Albergo Basil, by the Vescovado ; Trattoria del Sole, with 

a few bedrooms), with 11,600 inhab., picturesquely situated on the 

slope of Monte Vulture. It possesses an old castle of the Norman 

sovereigns, who often resided here, now restored by Prince Doria 



184 Route 13. VENOSA. 

as a chateau. The upper portion of the town was totally destroyed 
by the earthquake ; a great part of the remainder has been re- 
erected. Here, in 1059, Pope Nicholas II. invested Robert Guiscard 
with the duchies of Apulia and Calabria. The magnificent Ca- 
thedral of 1155, almost entirely destroyed by an earthquake in 
1851 , has since been modernised. The town-hall contains a 
fine Roman sarcophagus. 

From this point the conspicuous Monte Vulture, an extinct volcano, 
may be visited. Horace mentions it as the 'Apulian Vultur' ; at that 
period it formed the boundary between Lucania and Apulia. Calabria 
extended hence in a S.E. direction to the lapygian or Salentinian pro- 
montory, the modern Capo di Leuca (p. 205); and S.W. lay the land of 
the Bruttii, as far as the Sicilian straits. Since the middle ages, however, 
the latter district has been named Calabria, while the ancient Calabria is 
now the Terra d'Otranto. 

The former crater of 31. Vulture is densely overgrown with oaks and 
beeches, among which two small and deep lakes are situated. By one of 
these are the Capuchin monastery of S. Ificliele , most picturesquely 
situated, and the ruined church of S. lliirio. On the farther side of the 
principal crater rises the summit of the mountain, 11 PUzitlo di Mel.fi' 
(4359 ft.). The circumference of the whole mountain is about 37 M. 

A road leads from Melfi to the K. to (15'/2 M. ; or by a bridle-path, a 
pleasant, sequestered route, T'/a M. only) Venosa (poor inn), the ancient 
Venusia , colonised by Home after the Samnite war, now a small town 
with 7400inhah., picturesquely situated on the slope of Dlonte Vulture, not 
far from the Fiumara , the 'pauper aqua? Daunns 1 of Horace (Carm. iii, 
30, 11) , and near the more considerable Ofanlo, l.at. Aufidus. The Castle 
was erected by Pirro del Balzo in the 15th cent. The abbey and church 
of S. Trinita, consecrated by Pope Nicholas II. in 1058, contain the tombs 
of the founder Robert Guiscard and his iirst wife Aberarda, mother of 
Bohemund. Frescoes of the 13th and 14th cent, have recently been discovered 
in the church. The three principal chapels are still distinctly recognised. 
The nave is 76 paces in breadth. The handsome court contains numerous 
inscriptions , columns , and other relics of an amphitheatre, which lay in 
the neighbourhood. The church has recently undergone restoration in 
questionable taste. 

Near Venosa, on the road to the Fiumara, Jewish Catacombs con- 
taining inscriptions in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek, were discovered in 1853. 
History also records that Jews were numerous here in the 4th and 5th 
centuries. 

An ancient structure of 'opus reticulatum' here is called the Casa di 
Orazio, but without the slightest authority. Horace, the son of a freedman, 
was born at Venusia, on 8th Dec. B.C. (if), and there received his elementary 
education, after which his father took him to Home in order to procure 
him better instruction. He frequently mentions the 'far resounding Aufidus' 
in his poems, as well as the villages in the vicinity (Carm. iii. 4, 14j, such as 
the lofty Ar/ieroittia, now Aeerenza (p. 207), 9 M. to the S.K., the woods of 
llanlia, N. of the latter, now Ahbadia de' Jlanzi % near Gen/.ano, and the 
fertile meadows of the low-lying Fereulnm (probably Forenza). Near Palazzo, 
b' M. to the E. of Venosa, to the right of the road to Spinazzola, rises an 
abundant spring, now called Fontaua Qrande, believed to be identical with 
the Fons liandusiue so highly praised by Horace (Carm. iii. 13). 

On the wooded heights between Venusia and Bantia, in B.C. 208, 
M. Claud. Marcellus, the gallant conqueror of Syracuse, and the first gen- 
eral who succeeded in arresting the tide of Hannibal's success (at Nola, 
215), fell into an ambuscade and perished. 

Lavello, where King Conrad died in 1255, lies 9'/ 2 M. to the N. of 
Venosa, beyond the wooded slopes of the Monte Vulture. The traveller 
may proceed thence by (19 )!.) t'anosu (p. 199) to the railway. 



1S5 



14. From (Ancona) Foggia to Naples. 



Railway. Shortest route from Germany and from N. and E. Italy to 
Naples. From Bologna to Naples lO 1 /^ hrs. — From Ancona to Foggia 
(201 31.), see R. 13. From Foggia to Naples (J24 M.l liv ordinary train 
in 8, by express in hV 3 hrs. ; fares 22 fr. 40, 15 fr. 70, 8 fr. 95 e. — The 
slow trains are always behind time. 

The train (finest views to the left) traverses the Tavoliere di 
Puglia (p. 182J. From (j) 1 ^ M.) Cervaro diverges the branch-line 
to Candela, mentioned at p. 183. 

17 M. Oiurdinetto is the station for 1'roja , 7 M. to the N. 
(diligence U/jfr.), a colony founded in 1017 by the Greek prefect 
Bugianus (p. 200); to the eleventh cent, belongs also the interest- 
ing cathedral with its ancient bronze doors. At Ponle di llorinn the 
train crosses the Cervaro. 

21 M. Bovino, the ancient Vibinum , whose inhabitants were 
formerly notorious for brigandism, lies on the hill to the left. 

The train follows the left bank of the Cervaro. Three tunnels. 
29'/o M. Montaijuto-I'imni . Montaguto lies on the left bank of 
the Cervaro; Panni lies high up among the hills to the left. 
'■>?) ,Y1 . Savianono-Creei, two villages loftily situated on opposite 
sides of the Voile di Bovino, or ravine of the Cervaro. Then 
a long tunnel. '"W 1 /.) M. Ariano ; the town is not visible from 
the line. Three tunnels , beyond which we cross the watershed 
between the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Adriatic. 42 M. Storza. 
Then a tunnel more than l'/.> M. long, and a shorter one. 
f>0 ,VI. Kuontilbergo. Near (of) M.) Apiee the train enters the 
narrow valley of the Colore and follows its uninteresting N. bank 
to (!')9'/2 M.) Ponte Valentino. It then crosses the Tamuro, a 
tributary of the Calore. 

64 M. BeneventO. — The Station lies 3 / 4 31 . to the N. of the town; 
one-horse cab 50 c, two horse J fr. , after dnsk GO c. or 1 fr. 30 c. — 
Jittm. Locanoa l>l Oaeta, in the Piazza, dirty; l»l Benevknto in the 
Largo S. Antonio, small, but elean. - Caft'e National?, opposite the pre- 
fecture near the cathedral. "Trattoria in the new street leading from 
the station to the town, last house on the right. 

The sights of the town may be visited in 3 hrs., or less if ,a cab is 
taken. 

Benerento, a town with 21,100 inhab., situated on a hill bound- 
ed by the two rivers Sabnto and Colore, was formerly the capital 
of a papal province of the same name. The narrow and dirty streets 
are gradually undergoing improvement. 

Be/ieiu-nti/m, founded according to tradition by Diomedes, or by the son 
of Ulysses and Circe, was originally called Mahrfiitinu , but the name 
was changed when it became a Roman colony, B.C. 268. It lay on the Via 
Appia, and became one of the most important places in S. Italy. In the 6th 
cent, after Christ Beneventum became the seat of a powerful Lombard 
duchy. In the 11th cent. Emp. Henry III. ceded it to Pope Leo IX., after 
which it belonged to Rome. In 1241 the town was partly destroyed by 
Frederick II. From 1806 to 1815 Benevento was capital of the short-livid 
principality of that name, which Napoleon I. granted to Talleyrand. 

'Trajan's Triumphal Arch, or the Porto Aurea, on the E. side 
of the town, dating from A. 1). 114, is one of the finest and 



1-S6 Route 14. BENEVKNTO. From Foggia 

best preserved Roman structures in S. Italy. It was dedicated 
to the emperor by the Roman senate and people, in recognition 
of Ms having completed a new road to Brundisium , and some- 
what resembles the arch of Titus at Rome. It is constructed of 
Greek marble, and is 50 ft. in height, the passage being 27 ft. 
high. A quadriga with a statue of Trajan once crowned the 
summit. The reliefs relate to the history of the emperor. 

Outside. Over the arch are two rivers, the Danube and Euphrates 
(or Rhine). The frieze represents the triumph of Trajan over the 'Ger- 
manic tribes. Above, on the left, assembly of the gods, resolving on the 
adoption of Trajan by Nerva; on the right, conquest of Dacia, King Dece- 
balus at the emperor's feet. On the left Trajan triumphing over Dacia; on 
the right the marriage of Hadrian and Sabina; 1. Armenia constituted a 
Roman province; right an Oriental ambassador in Trajan's presence. — 
Passage: 1. Trajan sacrificing to Jupiter; r. Trajan bestowing a 'congiariunf 
or largess on the people after his triumph. On the ceiling Trajan crowned 
by Victory. — Inner Side. On the frieze a Parian triumph. Reliefs: 
Trajan sacrificing, Procession to the t'apitol, Adoption of Trajan, Entry 
into Rome, Trajan administering justice, Trajan in the Basilica Ulpia. 

Following the Town Walls, which, as well as the town itself, 
contain many relics of antiquity, we proceed towards the 8. to the 
Castle, erected in the 14-th cent. , now partly used as a prison. 
The promenade in front of it , which is embellished with a hand- 
some obelisk , commands an excellent survey of the valley of the 
Sabato and of the mountains. 

From this point we follow the main street to the Piazza I'api- 
uiana. Another obelisk, re-erected here in 1872, is a memorial of 
the Egyptian worship of Isis, which was very prevalent here towards 
the end of the pagan period. — On the right is a suppressed Bene- 
dictine monastery with the church of Santa Sofia, a circular edifice 
of the Lombard period, erected about 732-74. It is now partly 
modernised. The vaulting of the dome is borne by six ancient 
Corinthian columns. Handsome cloisters. 

We next pass the Episcopal Palace, where there is another obe- 
lisk, and reach the piazza in front of the cathedral. 

The *('alhedrul, dating from the 12th cent., is a beautiful 
edifice in the Lombard-Saracenic style. In the wall of the clock- 
tower is a relief in marble, representing a wild boar, the cogni- 
sance of Benevento. The principal door of the cathedral is of 
bronze, adorned witli basreliefs of New Testament subjects. It is 
said to have been executed at Constantinople in 1150. The interior 
is in the form of a basilica, with double aisles borne by ancient 
columns. Ambos and candelabra of 1311. Valuable treasury. 

Descending to the right of the church, we reach the Prefecture. 
Continuing to descend to the ri^ht, we pass through an old gate- 
way to the site of the ancient Theatre, now concealed by other 
buildings. — Returning to the cathedral and going straight past 
it , and passing the street leading to the station , we come to a 
piazza embellished with an Apis, another relic of the ancient worship 
of Isis , which the local savants have pronounced to be an emblem 



to Saples. L'ONTI DELLA VALLE. U.Routt. 187 

of the Samnite League. The traveller may now continue his route 
along the bank of the Sabato, planted with poplars, to the ancient 
Ponte Lebroso, by which the Via Appia once led to the town. It 
is now the site of a mill. Near it, to the W., lie the ruins of 
Santi Quaranta, an extensive structure of brick with a 'crypto- 
porticus' and colonnades , once probably belonging to a bath- 
establishment. 

The road to the station crosses the Galore by a handsome bridge. 

"Near this, according to tradition , was the temporary grave of the 
young King Manfred, who on 26th Feb., 1266, in a battle with Charles I. 
of Anjou on the neighbouring plains, had lost his throne and his life 
through the treachery of the Barons of Apulia and the Counts of Caserta 
and Acerra. Shortly afterwards, however, the body of the ill-fated prince 
was exhumed by order of Bartolommeo Pignatelli, Archbishop ofCosenza, 
conveyed beyond the limits of the kingdom, and exposed unburied on the 
bank of the Rio Verde. Dante records this in his rurgatorio (iii. 134). 

The Railway follows the right bank of the Calore, and passes 
through a tunnel. 36 M. Vitulano ; another tunnel. The valley 
expands ; to the left on the hill lies Torrecuso. 73 M. Ponte 
di Renevento , where the high road to Benevento crosses the Ca- 
lore by an iron bridge. Another tunnel. 76 M. 8. Lorenzo May- 
yiore, on the hill to the right ; the line here crosses the high- 
road from Naples to Campobasso and Termoli. 80'/2 M. Solopaca; 
the small town (5100 inhab.) is pleasantly situated at the foot 
of Monte Taburno (4095 ft.), V/ 2 M. to the left. Before reaching 
(84 M. ) stat. Telese, we observe on the left the Lago di Telese, a 
malarious marsh which poisons the neighbourhood. Telese, a poor 
village on the hills to the right, is visited in summer for its min- 
eral springs by the inhabitants of the district. Near it are a few 
remains of the ancient Telesia, a Samnite town, once occupied 
by Hannibal , but taken and destroyed by the Romans. It was 
afterwards colonised by Augustus. In the 9th cent, the town 
suffered severely from an earthquake, and was at length entirely 
destroyed by the Saracens. 

Near (86 M.) Amorosi the train enters the broad and fertile 
valley of the Voltumo, which is first crossed above, then below 
the influx of the Calore. 90'/2 M- Dugenta, 2'/ 2 M. above which, 
on the Isclero, is situated <S. Agnta de' Goti, on the site of the 
ancient Saticola. The defile between S. Agata and Mojano is 
supposed by some to be the Caudine Forks , as the locality cor- 
responds better with Livy's description than the pass near Arpaia 
(p. 10). 

94y 2 M. Valle. The train ascends, and passes under the 
*Ponti delta Valle, an imposing aqueduct in three stories, about 
210 ft. in height, and 25 M. in length. It was constructed 
by Vanvitelli by order of Charles III. and his son, for the pur- 
pose of supplying the gardens of Caserta with water from Monte 
Taburno. The towers connected with it are seen on the hill to 
the right. 



188 Route 15. CHIETI. TheAbruzzi. 

The train now descends to (97 '/ 2 M.) Maddaloni; the town 
lies below the line; to the left a view of the Campanian plain. 
Two tunnels. 

1021/2 jM. Caserta, see p. 9. 

Beyond Caserta the train traverses the most fertile and highly 
cultivated part of the Terra di Lavoro (p. 7), a vast plain covered 
with vineyards, poplars, and various crops. 1 08 !/ 2 M- Marcianise. 

112M. Aversa, a town with 20,800 inhab., probably occupies 
the site of the ancient Atella, where the Fabula Atellana, or 
early Roman comedy , first originated. In 1029 it was the first 
settlement of the Normans , who afterwards became so powerful. 
On 18th Sept. 1345 King Andreas of Hungary, husband of Queen 
Johanna 1. of Naples, was assassinated by Niccolo Acciajuoli in the 
palace of Aversa. The light and rather acid wine of Aversa, call- 
ed Asprino, is frequently drunk at Naples. 

114>/ 2 $■ Antimo, llb l / 2 M. Frulta-Grumo, 118 M. Casoria. 
Glimpses of Vesuvius to the left. The train passes through a 
tunnel, and describes a curve round the city towards the S. W. 

1'24 Al. Naples, see p. 20. 

15. From Pescara to Solmona and Aquila in the 

Abruzzi. 

79 M. Railway in G1/2 lirs. (fares 14 fr. 40, 10 fr. 5, 5 fr. 75 c); to 
Solmona, 47 M., in 3 Ins. (fares 7 fr. 00, 5 fr. 30, 3 fr. 5 c). 

Pescara, see p. ISO. — The train ascends on the right bank of 
the Pescara, the valley of which gradually contracts. 

9 l / 2 M. Chieti. — The Station is about 4 M. from Hie town, which 
lies on the heights to the S. (omnibus 90 c, in the reverse direction 
1)0 c); about halfway the road passes a ruined baptistery. 

Hotels in the town: "Ai.Bkitoi, i>ei. Sole, It. J 1/2 fr., good trattoria; 
Alberoo Kl;(ivo; Palomba d 1 Oho. 

Chieti, the ancient Teate Mamtcinorum, capital of a province, 
with 23,900 inhab., is a clean and busy town. From the Piazza 
Vittorio Emanuele a promenade leads round the town, affording 
magnificent *Views of the Majella group, the course of the Pescara, 
and the hill country extending to the sea (the finest from the 
drilling-ground on the IS. ). The order of the Theatines, founded 
in lf)f)!*> by Paul IV., who had been Archbishop of Chieti, derives 
its name from this town. 

15 M. Mtmoppello ; 18 M. Alanno. — 20 M. San Valentino. 

The Monte Amara (9121 ft. J, the highest, peak of the Majella, is con- 
veniently ascended from San Valentino. Carriages are in waiting at the 
station, in which the traveller drives to (15 M.J Cttramanico (5 fr.), where 
the night is spent in the locanda of Antonio Diurio, Parruehia di S. 
Maria, Sir. del Popolo 1 (unpretending). Next morning the slart should 
lie made in guod time, as it takes 6 lira, to reach the top. The descent 
may Ijc made by Cmiipo di (//ore to Solmona in 8 hrs. (com p. p. 189). 

24 1 /., M. Torre, de' I'asseri, picturesquely situated. 

( 'nnuoisseurs of early Christian architecture should visit the abbey 
of S. 1'lfineiite di I'asa/tria, 25 min. from Torre de 1 Passeri, a basilica of 



The Abruzzi. SOLMONA. 15. Route. 189 

the 12th cent. , with ancient sculptures. This was the site of the ancient 
Interpromtiim, relics from which are still preserved in the church. 

The valley of the Pescara now contracts to a narrow ravine, 
enclosed by abrupt cliffs. 31 M. Bussi. 

33 M. Popoli (Locanda dell' America, moderate; Postd), a town 
with 7100 inhab., situated at the junction of the roads from Pescara, 
Aquila, Avezzano, and Solmona, and commanded by the ruined 
castle of the Cantelmi, who were once masters of the place. A little 
above the town the Oizio and Aterno unite to form the Pescara; the 
former, coming from the S., flows through the beautiful valley of 
Solmona. 

The train now traverses the richly cultivated valley, enclosed by 
the Majella on the E. and the mountains of the Lago di Fucino 
on the W. The strong, racy wine of the district is much esteemed. 

36 M. Pentima. A short distance hence is the Cathedral of 
*S. Pelino (keys kept by the canon at the village), an editice of the 
13th century. The architecture is very interesting, but the interior 
has unfortunately been modernised. Old pulpit. Chapel of St. 
Alexander of the 16th century. 

On the lofty surrounding plain lie the ruins of the extensive ancient 
city of Corjfnium, once the capital of the P8eli;4ni. In B.C. 90 it was consti- 
tuted the federal capital of the Italians during their struggle against the 
Romans for independence, and called Italica, but a few years later it had 
to succumb to the Romans. The arches of an aqueduct are the most con- 
spicuous of the ruins. 

Beyond (39'/2M.) Pratola, a considerable place, the train passes 
the ancient cathedral of S. Panfilo. 

42 M. Solmona (1568 ft.; omnibus to the town, 3 M., fare 
40 c. ; Albergo delle Strade Ferrate Toscane , moderate hut indif- 
ferent; Trattoria delta Forchetta , in the main street), with 15,900 
inhab., the ancient Sulmo of the Padigni, the birthplace of Ovid, 
who was much attached to this his 'cool home, abounding in water', 
as he calls it, is picturesquely situated, being commanded on two 
sides by mountains, and contains several mediaeval buildings of 
architectural interest. The *TownHatl, of the 16th cent., isahand- 
some Renaissance edifice with a strong leaning to the late-Gothic 
style ; the facade is adorned with statues of popes. The palace of 
Baron Tabassi, in a side-street, and numerous others, most of them 
with Gothic windows, deserve examination. The church of S. 
Maria Annunziata, and the facades of the churches of S. Francesco 
d'Assisi and S. Maria delta Tomba, though all more or less injured 
by the earthquake of 1803, are also interesting. The church of S. 
Francesco was built on the site of an older church, a Romanesque 
portal of which, opposite the above-mentioned hotel, is still pre- 
served, and serves as an entrance to the meat-market. Many of the 
buildings destroyed by the earthquakes of 1803 and 1804 still lie 
in ruins. 

The Monte Amara (p. ISKj may also be ascended from Solmona. A 
good mule will carry the traveller all the way to the top. The route is 
by Pacentro and Campo di Giove (3-4 hrs.), whence the summit is reached 



190 Route 15. AQUILA. The Ahrut-zi. 

in 5 hrs. more. The start from Solmmia should he made very early, if 
possible even before sunrise. 

About 16 M. to the S.W. of Solmona lies Scanno, reached on a mule 
in about 6 hrs. The picturesque route passes several villages, and then 
ascends the wild and rocky ravine of the Sagittario. The latter part of 
it skirts the lake of Scanno. The women of Scanno wear a peculiar costume. 

48 M. Raiano. The line now turns to the N.W. (views chiefly 
to the right), and follows the picturesque valley of the Aterno, 
which is enclosed by lofty mountains. The train passes several 
unimportant villages, traversing three tunnels and running some- 
times at a dizzy height above the stream. Numerous caverns have 
been discovered in the rocks. — 53 M. Molina; 56 M. Acciano. The 
train now ascends a steep gradient through a narrow ravine. 59 M. 
Beffi, with a large castle (to the left) ; 62 M. Fontecchio, pictur- 
esquely perched high amid the rocks to the right ; 65 M. Fugnano- 
Campana. — The valley now expands. 69 M. S. Dtmetrio; 74 M. 
Payanica. 

79 M. Aquila. — The Station lies at some distance from the town ; 
omnibus up to the town 60 c, down to the station 50 c. 

Hotels. Albergo del Teatro Nuovo , tolerably comfortable; Sole, 
bolh moderate, K. 1-lVa fr. — Caffe adjoining the Alb. del Teatro Nuovo. 

Aquila (2398 ft.), founded by Emp. Frederick II. about 1240 
as a check on papal encroachments, destroyed by Manfred in 1259, 
and rebuilt by Charles I., now the capital of the province of the 
same name, with 17,600 inhab., spacious streets, and handsome 
palaces, is the most attractive and interesting town in these pro- 
vinces. It enjoys a pure and healthy atmosphere owing to its lofty 
situation, and is commanded by the Gran Sasso d'ltalia (p. 191), 
which rises abruptly to a height of 6000 ft. 

From the Piazza del Palazzo, on the left side of which is the 
post-office, the Strada del Princ. Umberto to the right leads to the 
Corso, which we follow in a straight direction to the church of 8. 
Bernardino di Siena. The *Facade was executed with great artistic 
taste in 1525-42 by Cola dell' Amatrice. In the interior, on the 
right, is the *Monument of the saint, decorated with arabesques 
and sculpture, executed by Silvestro Sulviati in 1505. The 
1st Chapel on the right contains a Coronation of the Virgin and a 
Resurrection by della Robbia. 

From S. Bernardino we descend a flight of steps and, passing 
through the Porta di Collemaggio to the left, arrive in 5 min. at 
the opposite monastery of S. Maria di Collemaggio. The Romanesque 
*Facnile, inlaid with coloured marble, consists of three portals ami 
three corresponding rose-windows. The niches of the principal 
portal contain several statuettes of saints. Contiguous to the 
church is an ancient and remarkably small clock-tower. Interior 
gaudily modernised. To the left is the Chapel of Celesiine (keys at 
the Municipio). (elestine V. was elected pope in 1294. His life 
and acts have been represented in a series of pictures by the Cele- 
slini.iii monk Huter, a pupil of Rubens. 



The Abruzzi. GRAN SASSO. 15. Route. 191 

The handsome *Town Hall in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele 
contains, in the passage and on the walls of the staircase , a 
valuable collection of Roman inscriptions; also portraits of natives 
of the place who acted a prominent part in the history of Italy 
in the 16th and 17th centuries. Several pictures of the old Aquilan 
school, most of them restored, will interest the connoisseur. 

The * Palazzo Torres, below the Piazza Grande, contains a 
picture-gallery with an admirable *portrait of Cardinal Torres by 
Domenichino ; Stoning of St. Stephen by the same master, on 
copper; Eucharist, by Titian, on marble. The Palazzo Drayo- 
netti also contains pictures, the best by Pompeo a" Aquila of 
the 16th cent. 

Ascending the Corso, a gate on the right leads us to the Citadel, 
a massive square edifice with low round towers, constructed by a 
Spaniard in 1543 under Charles V., surrounded by a moat. This 
point affords the best view of the Gran Sasso, the town, and the 
mountainous environs. (Application for admission must be made 
to an officer.) 

Between Aquila and the hill of S. Lorenzo, Braccio Fortebraccio 
da Montone, the dreaded rival of Sforza, was defeated and wound- 
ed by the united armies of Queen Johanna II. of Naples, Pope 
Martin V. and the Duke of Milan, commanded by Jacopo Caldora, 
on 2nd June, 1424; and three days later he died of his wound. 

About 3 M. to the E. is the village of S. Vittorino on the Aterno, occupy- 
ing the site of the celebrated ancient Sabine town of Amiternum, where 
the historian Sallust was born. On an eminence which was once crowned 
by the ancient Arx, or citadel, stands an old tower with inscriptions and 
sculptures built into the walls. At the foot of the hill are remains of 
a theatre, an amphitheatre, and other buildings of the imperial epoch, where 
antiquities are frequently found. 

A new road leads from Aquila through the Aterno valley, the wild 
passe- of Mte. San Franco, the ravine of Totta, by Senarircia, and then 
on the left bank of the Vomano to (47 M.I Teramo on the Tordino (p. 179). 

The Ascent of the Gran Sasso d'Italia , l l /o day there and back, 
is most conveniently undertaken from Aquila. Information is kindly given 
by some of the members of the Italian Alpine Club, whose addresses may 
be procured of the Sindaco , or at the Casino. (Letters of introduction 
desirable. Simplice and Carbone are good guides.) We drive in 2V-j \ lrSt 
to Assergi , ride thence (mule 4-5 fr.) in 3 hrs. to the Ciunpo Pericidu, 
where a refuge-hut is being built, and ascend thence to the summit on 
foot in 2V'.r3 hrs. The Gran Sasso d'ltalia, or Monlo Curno (9816 ft.) is 
the highest, peak of the Apennines. In formation it resembles the limestone 
Alps of Switzerland. The view is strikingly grand, embracing the Tyrrhenian 
Sea, the Adriatic, the rocky Dalmatian coast, and the whole of Central Italy. 



From Solmona to Caianiello (Naples). 

80 M. Diligence once daily in 10 hrs., starling from Solmona in the 
evening, from Caianiello in the morning. At Caianiello it corresponds 
with the quick train to Naples. — From Solmona to Crist el di Sangro, 
25 M., two-horse carr. 12 fr. 

The road traverses the plain as far as (f> M.) Pettorano, and then 
ascends in long windings to Roccn Valloscura, a village situated 
in a rocky ravine. Beautiful retrospects of the valley of Solmona. 



192 Route 16. ISERNIA. The Abruzzi 

After a farther ascent we reach the culminating point (4200 ft. ) 
of the road, the Piano di Cinquemiglia, a table-land enclosed by 
mountains, and of the extent indicated by the name. In winter it 
is frequently rendered impassable by snow for several months, and 
in summer the temperature is generally low. Beyond this plain 
the road inclines to the left, and Rivisondoli becomes visible. It 
then leads to the right past Roccarasa, 2'/2 M. beyond which it 
descends by long windings to the valley of the Sangro, the ancient 
Sangrus. The village to the left is Rocca Cinquemiglia. "We now 
cross the river to — 

Castel di Sangro (Hotel du Commerce, in the Piazza), on the 
right bank of the broad and turbulent Sangro, picturesquely situated 
at the foot of lofty mountains. Except the old church of <S. Nicola 
by the bridge, and the ruins of a castle, the place contains nothing 
noteworthy. 

Diligence hence every evening to (35 M.J Lanciano (p. 180). 

From Castel di Sangro to Isernia, 22 M. (diligence in 5 hrs., 
fare 6 fr.). The road ascends the heights which separate the valley 
of the Sangro from that of the Vandra, a tributary of the Volturno. 
Picturesque view from the summit; to the left, below, the town of 
Forli is visible. The road then descends by the villages of Rionera 
and Vandria, crosses the valley, and ascends a second chain of hills. 
The summit commands a survey of the extensive valley of the 
Volturno and Isernia. 

Isernia (Locanda di Pettorossi), the ancient AZsemia of the 
Samnites , formerly important on account of its secure position 
on an isolated eminence, is now a closely built, dirty town, con- 
sisting of one long main street. A few Roman antiquities are seen 
near S. Pietro and elsewhere; and there are fragments of the an- 
cient walls in the polygonal style. In the autumn of 1860 a suc- 
cessful insurrection of the Bourbonists, characterised by many ex- 
cesses, took place here, but was soon put down by Cialdini. 

Archaeologists may from this point visit the ruins of the ancient 
Samnite Boviainim (a theatre and temple), near PietrabbondanU. Road to 
Pearolanciano 9 M., c.orricolo 6 fr. ; thence a bridle-path in 2 hrs. 

From Isernia diligence daily to Campobasso tp. 181) by Boiano, the 
ancient Bovianum Undecimanorrim. One-horse carr. from Isernia to Ve- 
nafro 6 fr. 

From Isernia to the railway-station of Caianiello, 31 M. The 
road at fir?t traverses a hilly district, passing Macchia on the 
right, and then enters the valley of the Volturno, which it crosses. 
It traverses the broad valley on the right bank, and (15 M.) reaches 
Venafro, the ancient Venafrum, a small town rising on a hill and 
commanded by a ruined castle. The road continues to skirt the 
mountains; the Volturno at length turns to the S., and we soon 
reach the small village of Caianiello (poor inn, not suitable for 
spending the night), a station on the railway from Rome to Naples. 

From Caianiello to Naples, see R. 1. 



193 
16. From Terni to Aquila in the Abruzzi. 

About 56 M. Diligence twice daily in lOhrs., fare 13 fr. Those who 
wish to visit the falls of Terni and catch the diligence above them, should 
start about 2'/2 hrs. before it, taking care to reach the top not later than 
3 /4 hr. after the coach has left Terni. 

This route, replete with very picturesque scenery, traverses the 
mountainous district in the centre of Italy. The road crosses the 
Nera just outside the gate of Terni, and begins to ascend at a 
point (IV2 M-) where a narrower road diverges on the left to 
Papigno and the *Cascate delle Marmore (falls of the Velino). At 
the top of the hill, about 4y 2 M. from Terni , a footpath leads to 
the left to the uppermost fall (comp. Baedeker's Central Italy). 
The road then traverses a mountainous and wooded district on the 
left bank of the Velino. Where it reaches the plain of Rieti, it 
describes a long curve at the foot of the heights, as far as the point 
where the mountains approach the river (a short cut, available in 
dry weather only, leads straight across the plain). The road now 
crosses the Velino by the Ponte di Terria, to the left of which is 
the influx of the Turano, and follows the right bank to (3 M.J Rieti. 

Another road, a little longer, but far more picturesque, diverges from 
the height above the waterfalls to the left and crosses to the right bank 
of the river. It soon reaches the beautiful mountain-lake of Piedilngo and 
leads along its spacious bays to the village of the same name, this being 
the shorter half of the route. The remaining part traverses mountain 
and forest till it reaches the plain of Rieti, where it crosses the Fiumarone, 
a tributary of the Velino, fed by several small lakes. On the right is the 
lake of Ripa Sottile, on the left that of Capo d^Acqua. 

Rieti (Campana; Caffe d' Italia), on the right bank of the Velino 
(16,400 inhab.), the ancient Reate, was once a settlement of the 
Umbri, and subsequently the capital of the Samnites, but no traces 
of the ancient city remain save a few inscriptions preserved in 
the town-hall. The cathedral, dating from 1456, contains a S. 
Barbara by Bernini , and the monument of Isabella Alfani by 
Thorvaldsen; tine view in front of the edifice. Near Rieti is a 
beetroot sugar manufactory , where the attempt was first made to 
introduce this branch of industry into S. Italy. 

From Rieti to Rome diligence daily at 9 a. m. via Poggio Mirteto to 
Passo di Correse, a station on the line from Orta to Rome; and thence by 
railway. 

Excursions may be made from Rieti to the picturesque mountain scenery 
of the Central Apennines, though not unattended by difficulties on account 
of the indifferent character of the inns and roads. Thus to Leoiwssa, 19 51. 
distant, erected in a lofty mountain ravine about the year l'J5'2 ; thence to 
(9'/i! 31.) Cascia, said to be the ancient seat of the Casci, or aborigines of 
the district; 7 M. farther to Xorcia, the ancient Ni/rsia, nearly destroyed 
by an earthquake in 1857, with walls of great antiquity, birthplace of 
Yespasia Pollia, mother of the emperor Vespasian, whose family monu- 
ments were situated at Vespasia, 7 M. distant. St. Benedict and his sister 
Scholastica were also natives of Nursia. 

From Norcia mountain-roads lead to Spoleto and Ascoli Piceno (p. 179). 
The return route may also be accomplished by A'-riunoli and Civila Reale 
through the valley of' the Velino to Anlrudoco, or by Aceumoli, Amatrice, 
and Montereale to Aquila (p. IHii). 

From Rieti to Antrodoco (20 M.) the road winds upwards 
Baeuekek. Italy III. 7th Edition. 13 



194 Route 17. ANTRODOCO. The Abruzzi. 

through a picturesque district in the valley of the Velino. Near 
Casotta di Napoli is the hill of Lesta, with traces of very ancient 
fortifications , said to have once heen the capital of the fabled 
aborigines. Cittaducale, 5'/2 M - from Rieti, founded in 1308 by 
Robert, Duke of Calabria, was formerly the frontier - town of the 
Neapolitan dominions. The country between this point and An- 
trodoco is remarkably picturesque ; the mountains are clothed with 
forest, and their lower slopes with vineyards and olives. 

About 4'/ 2 M. from Cittaducale the road passes the Sulphur 
linths of Paterno, the ancient Aquae Cutiliae, which were regularly- 
frequented by Vespasian , and where he died in A.D. 79. The 
Pozzo di Latignano, the ancient Lacus Cutiliae, was regarded by 
Varro as the central point ('umbilicus') of Italy. The ancient 
Via Salara here ascended the valley of the Velino by Ascoli to 
Atri, the Roman Hadria. 

Antrodoco, Lat. Interocrea, beautifully situated on the Velino, 
is commanded on the N. E. by the lofty Monte Calvo; on the hill 
is the ruined castle of the Vitelli. The road to Aquila, 20 M. 
distant, leads through a defile, enclosed by mountain and forest, 
which has frequently been defended with success in warlike periods. 
The scenery is fine the whole way. The valley becomes very 
narrow. After 4 M. we reach the watershed between the Tyrrhenian 
Sea and the Adriatic. The road passes Rocca di Corno and de- 
scends into the valley of the Aterno. Aquila (p. 190), on a hill op- 
posite us, at length comes in sight. 



17. From Aquila to Avezzano and Roccasecca 

(Naples). 

From Aqdila to Avezzano, about 35 M., a new road; diligence daily 
in 7 hrs. (in the reverse direction 8 hrs.). — From Avezzano to Rocca- 
secca, about 42V-J M. ; diligence twice daily in 10 hrs. These diligences 
correspond with the trains of the Rome and Naples railway, and the hours 
of starting vary. 

The road leaves Aquila by the Porta Romana, descends into the 
valley of the Aterno, crosses the railway, and ascends gradually 
through vineyards. Beyond Ocre it passes through a grove of oaks. 
Looking back, we obtain a beautiful view of Aquila and the Gran 
Sasso ; farther on we observe the Majella to the S.E. Numerous 
villages lie scattered over the surrounding slopes. We at length 
reach the lofty plain, and then (16 M.) Rocca di Mezzo, a miserable 
village, where horses are changed. The road is level for some dis- 
tance; it then ascends and crosses the summit of the pass (3'/.2 M. 
from Rocca), not far from Ovindoli, a village picturesquely com- 
manded by a ruined castle. 

The road now descends rapidly in windings, commanding an 
admirable *View of the plain of the Lago di Fucino. The castle of 



TheAbruzzi. LACUS FUCINUS. 17. Route. 195 

Celano next comes in sight, and then the town itself , which we 
reach in 3 / 4 hr. more. 

Celano, a town with 7100 inhab., is beautifully situated on a 
hill, and from it the Lago di Fucino is sometimes called Lago di 
Celano. The Castle (*View), erected in 1450, was once occupied by 
the unfortunate Countess Covella, who was taken prisoner by her 
son Rugierotto. She was soon restored to liberty, but in 1463 her 
domains were bestowed by Ferdinand of Arragon upon his son-in- 
law Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi, and nephew of Pius IT. 
Celano was the birthplace of Thomas of Celano (d. 1253), the 
supposed author of the celebrated requiem, 'Dies ine, dies ilia'. 

The now drained Lago di Fucino (21tf 1 ft. ), the ancient Locus 
Fucinus , was once 37 M. in circumference and 65 ft. in depth. 
Owing to the want of an outlet, the surface of the lake was subject 
to great variations which were frequently fraught with disastrous 
results to the inhabitants of the banks. Attempts were therefore 
made to drain the lake in ancient times, but it was only very re- 
cently (in 1875) that this object was finally accomplished. 

The earliest sufferers from the inundations were the ancient Marsi, in 
consequence of whose complaints Caesar formed the project of affording a 
permanent remedy for the evil , but the work was not begun till the 
reign of the Emp. Claudius. The bottom of the lake lies about 80 ft. 
above the level of the Liris at Capistrello, and the plan was to con- 
struct a tunnel, or emissarius , through the intervening Monte Salviano. 
No fewer than 30,000 men were employed in the execution of the work 
during eleven years. This was the most gigantic undertaking of the 
kind ever known before the construction of the Mont Cenis tunnel. The 
length of the passage was upwards of 3'/2 M., and for about l 3 /i M. of that 
distance it was hewn in the solid rock. The transverse measurement of 
the tunnel varied from 4 to 16 sq. yds., and in other respects also the 
work was entirely destitute of uniformity. The greatest depth of the 
tunnel below the surface of the earth was 298 ft., and 33 shafts were 
constructed for the admission of air and the removal of rubbish. With 
a view to inaugurate the completion of the work, A.D. 52, Claudius 
arranged a sanguinary gladiatorial naval contest, which was attended by 
a vast concourse of spectators, but it was found necessary to deepen the 
tunnel, and it was again opened with renewed festivities, as Tacitus re- 
cords (Ann. 12, 57). Ancient writers stigmati.se the work as an entire 
failure, but their strictures are not altogether well founded, for it was 
obviously never intended to drain the whole lake, but merely to reduce 
it to one-third of its original size. Serious errors had, however, been 
committed in the construction of the tunnel, and especially in that of the 
channel which conducted the water to the emissarius. Claudius died in 
54, and nothing farther was done in the matter. Trajan and Hadrian 
partially remedied the defects, but the channel and the emissarius itself 
afterwards became choked up. Frederick II. attempted to re-open the 
tunnel, but the task was far beyond the reach of mediaeval skill. After 
the year 1783 the lake rose steadily, and by 1810 it had risen upwards 
of 30 ft. Efforts were now made under the superintendence of Rivera to 
restore the Roman emissarius, but under the Bourbon regime there seemed 
little prospect that the task would ever be completed. In 1852 the govern- 
ment was accordingly induced to make a grant of the lake to a company 
on condition that they would undertake to drain it, and the sole privilege 
was soon afterwards purchased from them by Prince Torlonia of Rome. 
M. de Montricher, a Swiss, the constructor of the aqueduct of Marseilles (d. 
at Naples in 1858), and his pupil Bermont (d. 1870), and subsequently 
31. Brisse conducted the works. The difficulties encountered were pro- 



196 Route 17. AVEZZANO. The Abruzzi. 

digious, and the natives were frequently heard to indulge in the jest, 'o 
Torlonia secca il Fucino, o il Fucino secca Torlonia'. In 1862, however, 
the emissarius was at length re-opened. It is an extension of the 
Roman work, but longer and wider, and constructed with the utmost 
care. It is nearly 4 M. long, and a transverse section measures about 21 sq. 
yds. The beginning of it is marked by a huge lock, erected in a massive 
style. This is the outlet of the channel which is intended to keep the 
lowest portions of the basin drained. A broad road, about 35 M. in length, 
runs round the reclaimed land (36,000 acres in extent) , which is con- 
verted into a vast model farm, colonised by families from the prince's 
different estates. 

The road traverses the old bed of the lake and next reaches 
Avezzano, a drive of 1 hr. from Celano. 

Avezzano [Locanda d'ltalin , tolerable), with 6300 inhab., 
possesses a chateau built by the Colonnas and now belonging to the 
Barberini, and a few inscriptions at the Tribunale. It is a good 
starting-point for a number of excursions, and particularly for a visit 
to the reclaimed Lago di Fucino. [Marco Fiorano is a good vetturino.) 

An excursion to Lvco , 6 SI. from Avezzano, will afford the traveller 
a good opportunity of inspecting the drainage operations. He should drive 
to the entrance of the new outlet, and get the custodian to conduct him 
thence to the ancient emissarius. — Luco, now an uninteresting place, 
was the Lucus Angitiae of the ancients, and was called after a temple of 
the goddess of that name. The site of the temple is now occupied by the 
venerable Benedictine Church of S. Maria di Luco, situated on the N. 
side of the village, and dating from the 6th or 7th cent. Extensive remains 
of walls in the polygonal style mark the boundary of the Temenos , or 
sacred precincts of the temple. Fine view hence, as well as from all the 
hills around the lake. 

On the E. bank of the lake lies the village of San Benedetto , on the 
site of Marrubiuni , the ancient capital of the Marsi, extensive remains of 
which are still to be seen. 

To the N. of the lake, rising abruptly from the plain, is situated the 
double-peaked Monte Velino (8202 ft.), visible from Rome. At its base, 
4 M. from Avezzano, lies the village of Albe , the ancient Alba Fucentia. 
It lay on the confines of the territories of the Vestini, Marsi, and iEqui, 
and having received a Roman colony of 6000 souls, B.C. 303, it became 
the most powerful Roman stronghold in the interior of Italy. It occupied 
three contiguous groups of hills. On the W. side a triple wall in the 
polygonal style is still extant, while in the plain rises a vast tumulus.- 
Remains of the Via Valeria, which led from Tivoli to Corfinium by Alba, 
of an amphitheatre, etc., are also traceable. The most important monu- 
ment of antiquity, however, is the "Temple, which has been converted 
into a church of S. Pietro, with eight Corinthian columns of marble in 
the interior. Fine view of the valley. 

Fkom Avezzano to Tagliacozzo, 10'/2 M., diligence once daily. The 
road passes Scurcola (fine view from above the old castle) and the Campi 
Palentini, where, on 26th Aug. 1268, the young Conradin of Hohenstaufen, 
the last scion of that illustrious imperial house, was defeated, after a most 
gallant resistance, by Charles I. of Anjou, who on the advice of the aged 
Chevalier Alard de St. Valery had placed part of his army in an am- 
buscade. Charles afterwards caused the beautiful, but now ruined church 
of £. Maria delta Viltoria C/4 M. from Scurcola, to the right of the road) 
to be erected on the spot by Niccolo Pisano, a Madonna from which is still 
preserved in the church of S. Maria at Scurcola. 

Tagliacozzo (Trattoria by the gate, on the left) lies on the margin of 
a deep ravine from which the linele emerges. The sources of the Liris 
near Cappadocia may be visited hence on foot in H/2 hr. 

From Tagliacozzo a horse or mule (6-7 fr.) may be taken to (1 hr.) 
ltocca di C'eri-o, (2'/a hrs.) Carsoli (Locanda Stella) , the ancient Carseol'i 



The Abruzzi. SORA. 17. Route. 197 

with an ancient castle, and (l'/ 2 hr.) Arsoli, all of which lie on the ancient 
Via Valeria. From Arsoli a carriage - road leads by Vicovaro to Tivoli, 
12 M. (carr. with one horse 7-8 fr.). 

The drive from Avezzano to Roccasecca through the valley of 
the Liris [to Sora in 5 hrs.) is one of the most attractive in Italy. 
The road traverses the Monte Salviano, and reaches (7 M.) Capis- 
trello, where the emissarius of the Lago di Fucino issues from the 
mountain. It then follows the left bank of the Liris. On a height 
on the right bank lies (4 M.) Civitella Itoveto, the capital of the 
Vol di Roveto, as the upper part of the valley of the Liris, as far 
as Sora, is called. Then, to the left, Civita d'Antino, the Antinum 
of the Marsi, with several relics of antiquity. To the right of the 
river lies Morino, whence the beautiful waterfall of Lo Schioppo, 
5 M. distant, may be visited. Beautiful oak and chestnut woods 
are seen in every direction. 

A charming mountainous district is now traversed , and we 
next reach (about 18 M. from Roveto) the town of — 

Sora {Liri, Hotel di Roma), with 12,400 inhab., situated in 
the plain, on the right bank of the Liris, which flows in the form 
of a semicircle round the crowded houses of the town. The Romans 
wrested the place from the Volsci, and founded a powerful colony 
here, B. C. 303. The cathedral stands on ancient substructions. 
On the precipitous rock above the town are remains of polygonal 
walls, belonging to the ancient Arx, and also traces of mediaeval 
castles. The town was the native place of several celebrated men, 
and the residence of others (the Decii, Attilius Regulus, the orator 
Q. Valerius , L. Mummius , etc.). The learned Cardinal Caesar 
Baronius was born at Sora in 1538, and died at Rome in 1607 
as librarian of the Vatican. Sora forms, as it were, the key of the 
Abruzzi. 

The road from Sora to Isola, 6 M., traverses the well culti- 
vated valley, following the left bank of the river. The abundance 
of water here imparts a freshness and charm to the scenery which 
are rarely met with in warm climates. To the left the Fibreno 
falls into the Liris. 

In the former stream, near its mouth, lies the Isola 8. Paolo, on 
which a monastery was founded by the Benedictine S. Domenico Abbate, 
a native ofFoligno. Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory VII., was once 
a monk here. The island is also supposed to be the Insula Arpinas, the 
birthplace of Cicero, the scene of his dialogue 'de legibus\ The dilapi- 
dated abbey-church is said to have been constructed on the ruins of the 
illustrious orator's villa. The latter was erected by his grandfather, and 
embellished by his father, who devoted his leisure to the study of science 
here, and it was therefore a favourite retreat of Cicero himself, and is 
described by him in his treatise De Leg. 2, 3. In the reign of Domitian 
the villa belonged to the poet Silius Italicus. The Liris was crossed by an 
ancient bridge above the island, the 'Ponte di Cicerone', one of the three 
arches of which is still standing. 

In the neighbourhood are several manufactories , chiefly of 
paper (cartiera), surrounded by well-kept gardens. The most 
important of these is the Cartiera del Fibreno, founded by 



198 Route 17. ISOLA. The Abruzzi. 

M. Lefevre, a Frenchman, now Count of Balzorano. The gardens 
connected with it contain the picturesque waterfalls (Le Casca- 
telle) of the Liris and the Fibreno. The cool water of the latter 
is praised by Cicero. From this point the road descends to — 

Isola, a small town with 5900 inhab., which, as its name in- 
dicates, stands on an island in the Liris. It is sometimes called 
lsola del Liri to distinguish it from places of the same name. The 
two arms of the river here form two magnificent waterfalls, 80 ft. 
in height. That on the E. side, a view of which is obtained from 
the bridge as the town is entered, is a perpendicular fall, while 
the other and more picturesque cascade descends over an inclined 
plane about 160 yds. in length. 

A road passing the paper-mills above Isola winds upwards to (2 l /2 M.) 
Arpino (Locanda della Pace, near the Piazza, small, but clean), a finely 
situated town with 11,700 inhab., the ancient Volscian mountain-town of 
Arpinum, and celebrated as the native place of Marius and Cicero. The 
houses in which they were born are still pointed out to the credulous. 
The Town Hall in the Piazza is embellished with busts of Marius, Cicero, 
and Agrippa. A bombastic inscription here runs thus : 'Arpinum a 
Saturno conditum, Volscorum civitatem, Romanorum municipium, Marci 
Tullii Ciceronis eloquentise Principis et Cai Marii septies Consulis 
patriam ingredere viator : hinc ad imperium triumphalis aquila egressa 
urbi totum orbem subjecit : ejus dignitatem agnoscas et sospes esto\ The 
fountain to the right of the town-hall bears the cognisance of Arpino, 
consisting of two towers over which the Roman eagle hovers. Weavers 
and fullers are frequently mentioned in old inscriptions found here, and, 
according to Dio Cassius, Cicero's father belonged to the latter handicraft. 
Arpino was the native place of the well-known painter Giuseppe Cesari 
(1560-1640), more commonly known as the Cavaliere d' Arpino, whose 
house is still pointed out. 

The town consists of four quarters. The western quarter ('civitas') 
lies on an abrupt eminence, connected with the town by a narrow isthmus. 
This was the site of the ancient Arx. On the summit stands a small 
octagonal church, which commands a beautiful view. The town itself rises 
on the slope of a still higher hill. The greater part of the ancient wall, 
consisting of large irregular blocks of stone, broken at intervals by mediaeval 
round towers, is still preserved, and may be traced throughout its whole 
extent. The ascent should be made on the N. side. On the hill lies the 
Civita Vecchia, or old town. In the wall here is the Porta delV Arco, a 
remarkable gateway with a pointed arch. 

From Arpino to Roccasecca is a drive of 2>/2 hrs. ; two-horse carr. 6 fr. 

From Isola to Roccasecca, 13 M. The road continues to follow 
the left bank of the river. To the right is the loftily situated town 
of Monte San Giovanni. To the left lies Fontana; then Arce, and 
Rocca a" Arce, the ancient Arx Volscorum, in a strikingly pictu- 
resque situation. 

From Roccasecca to Naples, see p. 3 et seq. 

18. From Foggia to Brindisi and the Apulian 
Peninsula. 

Railway to Brindisi, 146 M., in 4'/2-6'/2 hrs.; fares 26 fr. 45, 18 fr 50 
10 fr. 60 c. (nimp. p. 178). — From Brindisi to Otranto, 54 31., in 3y 4 hrs •' 
fares 9 fr. 75, 6 fr. 85, 3 fr. 90 c. ; only two through-trains daily. — Ex- 
cursions in the country are usually made here in two-wheeled Sciarrab&'s 



BARLETTA. 18. Route. 199 

(a corruption of the French 'char-a-bancs 1 ), resembling the Neapolitan cor- 
ricolo's. The average charge per day is 6-7 fr. , fee included, and the 
average journey 30-35 M. 

Foggia, see p. 181. On the right lies an extensive plain, the 
Tavoliere di Puglia. Beyond it, to the .S., rises Mte. Vulture near 
Melfl (p. 184). 

12l/ 2 M - 0rta No <"<- 22 M. Cerignola, with 26,100 inhab., 
uninteresting. Route to ( 1 ' / 2 M- ) Canosa, see below. The sur- 
rounding plain is richly cultivated, but entirely destitute of trees, 
which generally form an important feature in Italian fields and 
enhance the beauty of the landscape. Cotton-plantations begin 
here. 32'/ 2 M. Trinitapoli. The train then crosses the Ofanto, the 
ancient Aufidus, the last river of the E. coast, with banks covered 
with underwood. Between two ranges of hills to the right lies the 
broad plain on which the battle of Cann<e was fought (see below). 
42^2 M. Barletta (Locanda di Ettore Fieramosca), a seaport- 
town with 30,200 inhab., picturesquely situated, contains a number 
of well-built houses and churches. The market-place is adorned 
with a bronze statue 14 ft. in height, said to represent the Emp. 
Heraclius (according to others Theodosius), and to have been found 
in the sea. The Cathedral of S. Maria Maggiore contains the tomb 
of a Count of Barbi and Miihlingen (d. 1566), with a German in- 
scription. 8. Andrea and 8. Trinith possess several ancientpictures. 
The extensive Castello dates from the time of Charles V. 

In the wars between Louis XII. and Ferdinand the Catholic, Barletta 
was defended in 1503 by Gonsalvo da Cordova and besieged by the Duke 
of Nemours. During the siege, among other encounters, a combat took 
place in the vicinity (between Andria and Corato) between thirteen on 
each side of the most valiant knights of Italy and France, conducted re- 
spectively by Colonna , and Bayard 'sans peur et sans reproche' , which 
terminated in favour of the former. 

Canosa (Albergo Genghi, bad), with 16,200 inhab., on the slope of 
a hill , lies 14 M. inland. Of the ancient Caiiusii/111 , once a prosperous 
town, a gate (Porta Varrense , on the road to Cerignola), ruins of an ex- 
tensive amphitheatre, and other relics still exist. Numerous painted vases, 
gulden trinkets, etc., have been discovered in the neighbourhood. The 
principal church of S. Sabino, with several small domes, contains a pulpit 
and episcopal throne in marble and a number of antique columns ; its 
pavement is now several feet below the level of the street. In an adjacent 
court is the tomb of Bohemund (d. 1111), son of Rob. Guiscard, one of 
Tasso\s heroes. Extensive olive-plantations in the neighbourhood, which, 
like the whole district of Apulia, also yields excellent wine. 

About 4 M. to the N.E. of Canosa, on the right bank of the Aufidus 
(Ofanto), towards the coast, once lay Cannae, where the Romans were 
signally defeated by Hannibal , B. C. 216. The Roman army, under the 
Consuls Lucius jEmilius Paullus and Caius Terentius Varro, consisted of 
80,000 foot and 6000 horse, that of Hannibal numbered 40,000 foot and 
10,000 horse. After various changes of position the two armies engaged 
on the right bank of the Aufidus, the right wing of the Romans and the 
left wing of the Carthaginians leaning on the river. The (lallic and Spanish 
legionaries opened the battle by a successful attack on the Carthaginian 
centre, but Hasdrubal , at the head of the Carthaginian cavalry on the 
right wing, quickly put the Roman horse to flight, and then attacked the 
legions in the rear. Scarcely a single Roman foot-soldier escaped, 70,000 
being left on the field, including ^Emilius Paullus the Consul, and 10,000 
being taken prisoner. Hannibal lost only about 6000 men, — In 1019 an 



200 Route 18. TRANI. From Foggln 

Apulian and Norman army under Melo of Bari was defeated at Cannae 
by the troops of the Greek' prefect Basilius Bugianus. In 1083 Cannee was 
taken and destroyed by Robert Guiscard. 

From Canosa a road leads to (14 M.) the well-built town of Andria 
(Locanda di Milone, near the road to Trani, tolerable), with 36,700 inhab., 
founded about 1046, once a favourite residence of the Emp. Frederick II., 
whose second wife Isabella of Jerusalem died here in 1228, after having 
given birth to a son (Conrad), and was interred in the interesting old 
cathedral. His third wife, Isabella of England, who died at Foggia in 
J 241, was also interred in the cathedral of Andria, but the monuments of 
these empresses have long since disappeared, having been destroyed by 
the partizans of Anjou. On the Porta S. Andrea, or dell Imperatore, is 
a metrical inscription in letters of metal, attributed to Frederick: Andria 
f delis nostris affixa medullis, etc. The old church of S. Agostino and the 
adjoining convent belonged to the Teutonic Order during the sway of the 
llohenstaufen. Andria is 7 1 ■■< M. from Barletta (diligence twice daily in 1 hr., 
fare Va fr.), and the same distance from Trani. 

To the S. of Andria, on the summit of the pyramidal Mnrgie di Miner- 
vino, are the ruins of the conspicuous and imposing ''■' Castello del Monte, 
erected by Frederick II. who frequently resided here. This height com- 
mands a beautiful 'View of the sea, the valley of the Ofanto, Monte Vul- 
ture, etc. A bridle-path (9'/2 M.) ascends to it from Andria. — From 
Castello del Monte a road leads to (9>/2 W.) the town of Corato (28,901) 
inhab.), which is also reached by another road from Andria (9 M.). On 
the road from Andria, about two-thirds of the way to the latter, a modern 
monument called I ' Epitafio, in a field by the road-side, marks the spot 
where the above-mentioned encounter between Colonna and Bayard took 
place. From Corato to Ruvo, 3 M., see p. 201. 

The line now skirts the coast. The country is luxuriantly fer- 
tile, and is chiefly famous for large olive-plantations yielding the 
finest quality of salad oil. The district where this is produced ex- 
tends only from Barletta and Canosa, past Bari, to the neighbourhood 
of Mola (p. 202). The culture of the olive is very profitable, but 
the yield is extremely fluctuating. A first-rate crop, though very 
rare, sometimes realises a price equal to the value of the whole 
estate. 

50'/ 2 M. Trani (Albergo della Stella d' Italia, new; Alb. delle 
Puglie; Due Mori), with 25,900 inhab., is a well-built seaport. 
The loftily situated * Cathedral, built about 1100, still possesses a 
Romanesque portal and beautiful bronze doors of 1175. Interior 
barbarously modernised. The interesting Castello is now used as a 
prison. Several synagogues afford an indication of the former 
prosperity of the place and of its importance at the time of the 
Crusades. The pretty 'Villa', or public gardens, on the coast, con- 
tains two well-preserved milestones from the Via Trajana, which 
led from Benevento toBrindisi by Canosa, Ruvo, Bari, and Egnatia. 
Excellent wine (Moscado di Trani) is produced in the neighbourhood. 

55'/2 M. Bisceylie, pop. 22,600, with the ruins of a Norman 
fortress and handsome villas. 

61 M. Molfetta (28,600 inhab.), beautifully situated, an epis- 
copal see, was once in commercial alliance with Amalti. After the 
death of Johanna 1. her husband Otho, Duke of lirunswick, was 
confined in the castle here until released by Charles of Durazzo 
in i:i,S4. 



to Brindisi. BAM. IS. Route. 201 

From Holff.tta to Ruvo, 11 JI., via Terlizzi (omnibus). Ruvo (Oiov. 
Nanni, tolerable), with 16,600 inhab., the ancient Biibi, is famous for the 
numerous and beautiful vases found in the Apulian tombs in its environs, 
and now among the chief treasures in the Museum of Naples. The tombs 
have since been covered up again. Collection of Oiov. Jatta worthy of 
a visit. 

65 M. Oiovinazzo, said to have been founded by the inhabitants 
of Egnatia (p. 203), on the destruction of the latter. G9'/ 2 M. S. 
Spirito and Bitonto. The latter, situated 4 M. to the W., a town 
with 26.000 inhab., manufactures salad-oil in large quantities. 
The interesting cathedral contains several tombs of the 17th century. 

77 M. Bari. — Hotels. "Albekoo del Risokgcmento, R., L., & A. 
272 fr., bargaining necessary; Alb. Cavour, with trattoria, R. l l /2 fr. — 
Cafes Ilisorgimeitto and Stopptwi , both in the Corso Vitt. Emanuele. — 
Beer, etc. , at Orsola Ca./fisefis and the Birreria del Bolognese , both in 
the Corso Vitt. Enianuele. 

Cabs into the town, or per drive, 50 c., after dusk 70 c. ; with two 
horses 70 or 90 c. 

Steamboats. Vessels of the Soeieti Florio leave for Brindisi aud the 
Pirseus on Tuesdays, and for Treniiti, Ancona, Venice, and Trieste on 
Mondays. Also steamers of the 80c. Bari, Sor. Puglia, etc., to Genoa and 
Marseilles. 

Bari, the ancient Barium, which is still, as in the time of 
Horace, well supplied with fish ('Bari piscosi mcenia'J, a seaport, 
and the capital of a province, with 54,100 inhab. ('commune'), 
is the most important commercial town in Apulia. It is one of the 
most ancient bishoprics in Italy, and is now the seat of an arch- 
bishop. In mediaeval history it is frequently mentioned in as the 
scene of contests between Saracens, Greeks, and Normans, etc. In 
1002 it was wrested from the Saracens by the Venetians. Wil- 
liam the Bad destroyed the town in 1156, but William the Good 
sanctioned its restoration in 1169. Bari formed an independent 
duchy from the 14th cent, down to 1558, when it was united with 
the kingdom of Naples. 

The Strada Sparano, containing the new Ateneo, leads from the 
station to the Corso Vittobio Emanuele, which runs from W. to 
E. and separates the closely built old town from the new town, or 
Borgo. On theW. the Corso ends in the Piazza Garibaldi, a square 
with a public garden in the middle; at the E. end is a garden 
laid out in 1878, beyond which is the Old Harbour, now used only 
by fishing-boats and other small craft. In the middle the Corso 
expands into the Piazza delia Prefettlra, which is bounded on 
the S. by the Theatre, the Palazzo di Citta, and the Tribunali (the 
two last forming the wings of the theatre), and on the N. by the 
Prefecture. The theatre is named Piccini, after Gluck's rival, the 
composer of that name, who was born at Bari in 1728. Passing to 
the left of the prefecture we reach the Castello (now a prison), 
which was built in 1169 in the reign of William the Good, and 
afterwards repeatedly strengthened. The castello lies on the New 
Harbour, whence a tine view of Mte. Gargano is enjoyed in clear 
weather. Farther on is — 



202 Route 18. BART. From Ancona 

The cathedral of S. Sabino, originally a fine Gothic building, 
sadly modernised in 1745. Over the altar of S. Rocco is a picture 
by Tintoretto, and opposite to it one by Paolo Veronese. The lofty 
campanile resembles the Moorish tower of Seville. — Near the 
cathedral is the church of — 

*S. Nicola, begun in 1087 for the reception of the relics of the 
saint, which were brought from Myra in Lycia . The crypt was con- 
secrated by Pope Urban II. in 1089; the church itself, a pillared 
basilica in an antique style, with numerous later additions, was 
finished by the Norman king Roger in 1139. On the exterior are 
tombstones erected to members of noble families of Bari, and to 
Byzantine pilgrims who died here. The interesting facade is em- 
bellished with statues of the Virgin, S. Nicola, and S. Antonio di 
Padova (17th cent.?). 

The Interior consists of nave and aisles with flat ceiling, borne by 
double rows of columns, with galleries over the aisles. The transverse 
arches in the nave did not form part of the original structure. In the N. 
aisle is the Tombstone of Robert, Count of Bari, 'protonotarius 1 of Charles 
of Anjou, who conducted the proceedings against the ill-fated Prince Cnn- 
radin, and was afterwards assassinated by a nephew of Charles of Anjou 
on the very spot on which he had proclaimed the sentence (p. 41). lie 
was a member of the Chiurlia family, resident at Bari. — To the right 
of the high altar is a Madonna with saints, by Bartolommeo Vivarini of 
Murano, 1476. — At the back of the choir is the Tomb (erected in 1593) 
of Bona Sforza, queen of Sigismund I. of Poland and last Duchess of Bari 
(d. 1558), with statues of St. Casimir and Stanislaus. 

On the staircase leading to the Crypt are some early Christian sar- 
cophagus-sculptures representing Christ and the Evangelists (5th cent. V), 
which were perhaps brought from Mysia. — The crypt itself contains a 
silver altar with interesting * Alto-reliefs, executed in 1319 for the Servian 
king Urosius by Ruggero dalV Invidia and Roberto da Barletta, and 
restored in 1684 by Dom. Marinelli and Ant. Avitabili of Naples. Below 
the altar is the vault containing the bones of the saint, from which a 
miraculous fluid ('Manna di Bari 1 ), highly prized by believers, is said 
to exude. The festival of the saint, on 8th May, is attended by thou- 
sands of pilgrims, chiefly from the Albanese villages. 

The Treasury contains a beautifully illuminated breviary of Charles II. 
of Anjou, the sceptre of the same monarch, and an iron crown, which is 
said to have been made at Bari in 1131 for the Norman Roger. Roger 
himself, Emp. Henry VI. and his consort. Costan/.a , Manfred, and Ferdi- 
nand I. were all crowned with it in this church. — In 1271 Charles of 
Anjou presented the church with a colossal bell, which Manfred had in- 
tended for Manfredonia , but tradition reports that this giant was melted 
down and made into live smaller bells about the year 1394. The present, 
bells date from 1578, 1713, and 1830. 

The Lion in the Piazza, with the inscription 'custos justitiaV 
on its collar, is the heraldic cognisance of Bari. — In the Istituto 
Tecniro, Strada Abate, is the new Provincial Museum, containing 
antiquities found in the vicinity. 

Railway from Bari to Taranto, see R. 21. 

84 M. Noicattaro. S9 M. Mola di Bari (12,600 inhab.), on the 
coast. 99 M. Polianano a Mare is situated on a lofty and precipitous 
rock, rising above the sea and containing several fine grottoes. 
The tini'st of these lies under the new town (entrance by a small 



tn Brindi.fi. BRINDISI. 7.S. Route. 203 

door in the old town ; key at the house opposite). 102 M. Monopoli, 
the ancient Minopolis, with 20,700 inhab., the residence of an arch- 
bishop. The cathedral contains a St. Sebastian by Palma Vecchio. 
The tower of S. Francesco commands a fine view. In the direction of 
the sea there have recently been discovered several rock-hewn tombs, 
the contents of which are now in the museum at Bari (p. 202). 

HOl/2 M. Fasano, a thriving town with 15,400 inhabitants. On 
the coast between Monopoli and Fasano lies the ruined town 
('la citta distrutta') of Egnatia, the Greek OnatMa, now Anazzo, 
where a number of vases, ornaments, etc. have been found. The 
stones of the ancient walls have been nearly all removed by the 
peasants to build their cottages. The train now enters the province 
of Lecce or Otranto {Terra d'Otranto , the ancient Calabria, see 
p. 184). 123 M. Ostuni; 129 M. Carovigno ; 139 M. <S. Vito 
d'Otranto. 

146M. Brindisi. — *Gran Albergo delle Indie Orientali, built by 
the S. Italian railway company, on the quay, near the landing-place of 
the P. and O. steamers , R. 3, A. 1 , L. 3 / 4 , dejeuner 3 fr. — Albeego 
d'Europa, in the street leading from the station to the 0/v 31.) harbour, kept 
by Michele Grapsa, a Greek, good and tolerably clean, R. and L. 2 x /2 t'r., 
A. 40 c; Angleterre, very dirty, and Vittoria, both in the town, and in 
the Italian style. — Vaffe Triestino. *Os(eria, at the harbour, corner of the 
Strada Amena. — Cab from the station to the town 1 /2fr., after dusk 1 fr. 

Steamboats. Those of the Peninsular and Oriental Company touch at 
Brindisi once weekly on their way to Alexandria, which they reach hence 
in about 82 hrs. ; those of the Austrian Lloyd Co. also touch here on their 
route to Corfu, Syra, and the Pirfeus (comp. R. 46). 

Beitish Consul: Mr. Lewis Joel, Pal. Skirmunt, Piazza Sedile 9 (10-3). 

Brindisi, with 13,800 inhab., the ancient Brentesion, or Brundi- 
sium (i. e. stag's head), a name due to the form of the harbour 
which encloses the town in two arms, was once a populous seaport, 
and the usual point of embarcation for Greece and the East. 

Brundisium was a very famous place in ancient history. At an early 
period it was colonised by Tarentum, and subsequently by Rome, B.C. 245, 
and it formed the termination of the Via Appia, the construction of which 
from Capua was nearly coeval with the foundation of the colony. Horace's 
description (Sat. i. 5) of his journey from Rome to Brundisium, B.C. 37, 
in the company of Maecenas, who wished to be present at the con- 
clusion of a new alliance between Octavianus and Antony at Tarentum, 
is well known. At Brundisium the tragic poet Pacuvius was born, and 
here, in B. C. 19, Virgil died on his return from Greece (some ruins near the 
harbour being still pointed out to the credulous as the remains of the house 
where he expired). The town, when occupied by Pompey, B.C. 49, sus- 
tained a memorable siege at the hands of Csesar, who describes the event 
in the first book of his Civil War. The fleets of the Crusaders frequently 
assembled in the harbour of Brundisium , but the place soon declined 
after the cessation of the crusades. It was subsequently destroyed by 
Lewis, King of Hungary, in 1348, and again by a fearful earthquake in 
1458, which buried most of the inhabitants beneath its ruins. 

In modern times Brindisi has again become the starting-point 
of the most direct route from Central Europe to the East, and bids 
fair to become an important station for the carrying trade. The ex- 
tensive harbour, admirably sheltered from every wind, is undergoing 
improvement. The large steamers of the Peninsular and Oriental 



204 Route IS. LECCE. From Ancona 

Co., etc., are enabled to enter and lay to at the quay itself. The N. 
arm of the harbour, which once hounded the town and extended far 
into the land, was productive of malaria, owing to its muddy con- 
dition, and is now dried up. The entrance to the harbour is 
divided into two channels by an island. In order to prevent 
the harbour from becoming filled with sand, the N. channel has 
recently been closed by means of a substantial bulwark of solid 
stone. The quarantine establishment and a small fort are situated 
on the island. The fort may be visited by boat (in '^ h r -)> an ^ a 
fine view enjoyed from the top, and the trip may be extended to 
the breakwater (in all V/o-^ nrs -j fare IV2 ^ r 0- 

On a slight eminence by the quay rises a lofty unfluted 
column of Greek marble, with a highly ornate capital, repre- 
senting figures of gods. Near it are the remains of a second. 
The former bears an unfinished inscription, containing mention 
of a Byzantine governor named Spathalupus, by whom the town 
was rebuilt in the 10th cent., after its destruction by the Sara- 
cens. These columns are supposed once to have marked the 
termination of the Via Appia ; but it is more probable that they 
belonged to an honorary monument of the Byzantine period, 
like the column of Phocas at Rome. The other relics of anti- 
quity are insignificant. — The Castello with its massive round 
towers, founded by the Emp. Frederick II., and strengthened by 
Charles V., is now a bagno for criminals condemned to the galleys. 
The remarkably picturesque remains of the circular church of S. 
Giovanni, destroyed by an earthquake in the 11th cent., with colon- 
nades, and decorated with frescoes, are still preserved, and will 
probably be converted into a museum. In the Cathedral the nup- 
tials of Frederick II. with Isabella of Jerusalem were solemnised in 
1225. Several thousands of the participators in the Crusade of 1227 
perished here. Brindisi possesses a public library, presented by a 
Bishop de Leo, a native of the place. The environs are fertile, but 
malarious. 

From Beindisi to Taeanto (p. 213), 24 M., a good road (one-horse 
carr. 18-20 fr.), via Oria, the ancient Una, from which the Doria family 
is said to derive its origin , a beautifully situated place with numerous 
palaces. 

From Brindisi the train runs in 1 hr. 20 min. , by stations 
Tutttrano, S. Pietro, Squinzano, and Trepuzzi, to — 

170 M. Lecce (Albergo della Vittoria; Alb. della Ferrovia; 
Roma), the capital of a province, with 24,150 inhab., situated a 
short distance from the sea, the seat of a bishop, with the cathedral 
of St. Orontius, an ancient castle, the interesting Norman church 
of SS. Nicola e Cataldo in the Camposanto (12th cent.), and other 
handsome buildings. The Lyceum contains a small museum of an- 
tiquities (vases, coins, terracottas, Messapian and Latin inscriptions). 
The town, which is a dull place in an unattractive district, occupies 
the site of the ancient Lupia. In the vicinity lay Rudiae, where 



to Otranto. 



OTRANTO. 18. Route. 205 



Ennius, the father of Roman poetry, was born, B. C. 239, now 
Rugge, a place of no importance. The poet, who died in 168, 
was patronised by the Scipios, in whose burial-place at Rome his 
remains were deposited. — On the coast lies the Castello di S. 
Cataldo, 4*/ 2 M. distant, a favourite point for excursions. 

From Lecce a road (22 31. ; diligence daily in 3 hrs., fare 3 fr.) leads 
by the manufacturing town of Nardb , the ancient Nerelum of the Sallen- 
tini, now an episcopal residence, or by Galatina, to — 

Gallipoli, a seaport, with 10,600 inhab., beautifully situated on a rocky 
island in the Gulf of Taranto, but connected with the mainland by a 
bridge. It was founded by the Lacedemonian Leucippus and the Taren- 
tines, and is the Urbs Oraia Callipolis of the Roman geographer Mela, but 
is called Anxa by Pliny. The cathedral is a handsome building of the 17th 
century. The town was formerly celebrated for its oil, which was stored 
for long periods in subterranean cisterns, and thence drawn off for expor- 
tation in a thoroughly clarified condition. Date-palms are frequently seen 
in the gardens of the handsome villas in the vicinity. — Steamers to 
Brindisi and Taranto once weekly. 

The train runs from Lecce to (29*/2 M.) Otranto in 1 hr. 
50 min.; stations 8. Cesario di Lecce, S. Donato, Oalugnano, 
Sternatia, Zollino, Corigliano; 19472 M. Maglie; Bagnolo, Can- 
nole, and Oiurdignano. 

199'/2 M. Otranto, the Greek Hydrus, the Roman Hydrun- 
tum, a colony and municipium, often mentioned by the an- 
cients as a point of embarcation for Apollonia in Kpirus , is 
now an insignificant fishing town with 2100 inhab., and the 
seat of an archbishop. The castle with its two towers was 
erected by Alphonso of Arragon and strengthened by Charles V. 

For a long period it continued subject to the Greek emperors, but in 
the 11th cent, was captured by the Normans, who under Robert Guiscard 
and Kohemund conducted from this point the siege of Durazzo (Dyrrachium) 
in Albania. On 28th July, 1480, the then prosperous town was attacked 
by the Turkish fleet under Achmet Pasha, grand-vizier of Mohammed II., 
and entirely destroyed ; 12,000 of the inhabitants were put to death, the 
remainder carried off as slaves, the churches razed to the ground, and the 
priests barbarously maltreated. The following year the Turks were 
expelled by the Duke of Calabria, afterwards Alphonso II., but the town 
never recovered from the effects of this cruel blow. 

The Cathedral still contains some columns from a temple 
of Mercury, which once stood near the village of S. Nicola, not 
far from the town. The ancient mosaics in the church were 
much injured by the hoofs of the Turkish horses which were 
stabled in the sacred edifice. In a chapel are preserved the 
bones of many of the ill-fated victims of the Turkish onslaught. 

From the ramparts of the Castle the coast and mountains of 
Epirus are visible in clear weather. 

A road skirting the coast leads from Otranto to (31 M.) the Promon- 
tory of Leuca, by Muro (to the right), and Castro, situated on a rocky- 
eminence by the sea, and therefore supposed to be the Castrum Minervae, 
that point of Italy which, according to Virgil, was first beheld by >Eneas ; 
then through a succession of gardens and vineyards to Tricase, i'/a M. 
from the sea, Alessano, Montesardo, Patii, and finally S. Jfaria di Leuca, 
a village on the site of the ancient Leuca, not far from the promontory 
of Leuca or Finisterra. This is the Promontorium Iapygiwn, or Salentirmm, 
of antiquity, the extreme point of Apulia, commanding a noble prospect, 



206 Route 19. POTENZA. 

In fine weather the lofty Acroceraunian mountains of Albania may be 
distinguished. We may return for a change by Palii, Presicce, Uggento, 
the ancient Uxentum, an episcopal residence , and Taviano, to Gallipoli 
(31 M.). 

19. From (Naples) Eboli to Potenza and Torremare 
on the Gulf of Taranto. 

About 162 M. — (Railway from Naples to Eboli, 50 M., in3hrs.; fares 
7 fr., 5 fr. 25 c, 2 fr. 65 c.) — From Eboli to Baragiano, 35 M., by railway 
in 2'/2 hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 45, 4 fr. 55, 2 fr. 60 c. From Romagnano (the fourth 
station from Baragiana) a diligence , corresponding with the early train 
from Naples, runs daily to Potenza in 6'/2 hrs. Information may be ob- 
tained at Naples at the office of JIastrojanni, Str. Montoliveto 83, opposite 
the post-office, or at Salerno next door to the prefettura. 

Eboli, see p. 167. — The railway runs hence towards the E. 
at the foot of the hills. On the right flows the broad and turbulent 
Sele, beyond which rises the Monte di Postiglione, the Alburnus of 
the ancients, described by Virgil as 'green with holm-oaks'. 4 M. 
Pontesele ; 12 M. Contursi; 15'/2 M. Sicignano; 20i/ 4 M. Buccino, 
a town with 6300 inhab. , on the hill. 21 M. Ponte S. Cono, the 
starting-point of the Calabrian 'Corriera' (R. 20). 25 M. Ro- 
magnano; 281/2 M. Balvano; 33^2 M- Bella-Muro. 35 M. Bara- 
giano, the present terminus of the railway. 

The High Road fkom Romagnano to Potenza traverses a very 
charming district as far as Vietri di Potenza (supposed to be the 
Campi Veteres, where in B.C. 212 the proconsul Tiberius 
Sempronius Gracchus fell a victim to his premature confidence 
in the Lucanian Flavus) ; it then crosses the river Marno. To 
the left is the beautifully situated Picerno, which was almost entire- 
ly destroyed by the earthquake. The road now ascends gradually 
to the crest of Monte Foi, and descends thence to — 

Potenza (Risorgimento ; Croce di Savoia , cleaner than the 
other; *Trattoria Lombarda), with 18,700 inhab., the capital of 
the province of the same name, which forms part of the old Basili- 
cata, a district nearly corresponding with the ancient Lucania. The 
town lies on an eminence above the Basento, which rises on the 
mountain Ariosa not far from this, and falls into the Gulf of'Taranto 
near the ruins of Metapontum. The ancient Potentia, destroyed 
by Frederick II. and again by Charles of Anjou, lay lower down in 
the plain, at the spot now called La Murata, where coins and in- 
scriptions have frequently been found. 

The Earthquake of 1857, which wrecked a number of towns and 
villages in the Basilicata and occasioned a loss of upwards of 32,000 lives, 
was attended here with the most terrible consequences. The greater part 
of the town, including the Lyceum, fell, and numerous lives were lost. In 
consequence of wounds alone 4000 persons underwent amputations. The 
result in thirty or forty neighbouring villages was not less disastrous. 
This stupendous convulsion took place in a circular course in three 
distinct shocks, of which the second was the most violent. A line drawn 
from Monte Vulture to the volcano of Stromboli intersects the places 
which suffered most; thus Auletta, Aletia, Polio, Sain, Paditla, ftaponani, 



PERTOSA. 20. Route. 207 

Sapri and many other villages were entirely destroyed. In the direction 
of Mt. Vesuvius, towards Naples and Salerno to the W. , the concussions 
were much more violent than in the opposite direction. The loss of life 
was not less serious than that occasioned by the earthquake of 1783 in 
Calabria. The shocks recurred in March and April 1858. 

From Potenza to Ackrenza, an interesting excursion : diligence to 
Pietra Galla (in 3 hrs., fare 2 fr.), and a walk of 1 hr. thence. Acerenza 
{;-Locanda in the old castle), the Acherontia of Horace (comp. p. 184), 
famed for its wine, occupies a lofty and beautiful situation. The crypt 
of the cathedral contains four ancient columns of coloured marble and 
pedestals with mediaeval reliefs. 

From Potenza to Melfi (about 37 M. ; hilly road) a diligence runs in 
9-10 hrs., fare 6 fr.), via Avigliano and Atnlla. _ 

From Potenza to Orumo (p. 212), about |5 M., local communication 
only. The road leads by Montepeloso, Gravina, with a collegiate church 
and an old chateau of the Dukes of Gravina, and Altamura, with an old 
Norman cathedral. 

Potenza is about 30 M. from Calciano, which may be reached 
by carriage via Tricarico, a town with 7000inhab., in about 10 hrs. 

From Calciano to Torremare , 40 M"., railway in V/^-d hrs. 
(fares 7fr. 25, 5 fr. 10, 2 fr. 90c). — 2i/ 2 M. Grassano ; 8 M. 
Qrottole; 17 M. Ferrandina ; 24'^ M- Pisticci; 32 '/g M. Bernalda. 
40 M. Torremare, see p. 216. 

20. From (Naples) Ponte S. Cono to Reggio. 

High Road from Ponte S. Cono to Eeggio, about 275 M. The Vettura 
Corriera delle G'alabrie, which starts from Ponte S. Cono about midday on 
the arrival of the early train from Naples, accomplishes this distance in 
about 72 hrs., including the 2 hrs. by railway from Spezzano to Cosen/.a 
(p. 209). There are, however , three seats only , which are almost always 
engaged in advance. Diligences ('Giornaliera , ) also run on the whole of 
this route ; but passengers are always liable to be turned out before 
reaching their destination by others desiring seats for a stage, unless they 
prefer to pay for the whole of the longer stage. This malpractice also 
prevails in Sicily (p. 226). In the bathing season, when the traffic between 
Naples and the province is very brisk, travellers cannot expect to be taken 
up at intermediate stations, but they may sometimes obtain a seat in a hired 
carriage at a moderate charge. Veiturini from Salerno to Reggio require 
10-12 days ; hotel-expenses had better be included in the contract. 

Ponte 8. Cono, see p. 206. About 3 M. from Ponte S. Cono we 
cross the Negro, the ancient Tanager, and reach the cross-roads Bivio 
di Auletta (Locanda della Posto). The poor village of Auletta 
(3000 inhab.) lies on a hill to the left. The dilapidated church 
was destroyed by the appalling earthquake of Dec. 12th, 1857, 
through the effects of which, direct and indirect (exposure, hunger, 
etc.), no fewer than 40,000 people perished in the district of Sala 
and the valley of the Diano alone. 

Beyond Auletta lies the village of Pertosa, which was partially 
destroyed in 1857. Below the village is a large cavern, dedicated 
to St. Michael, whence, after a subterranean course of l'/2 M., the 
Negro precipitates itself into a gorge. Beyond Pertosa the road 
crosses a deep ravine, through which an arm of the Negro flows, 
by II Ponte di Campestrino , a viaduct of seven arches, and then 
ascends the mountain in zigzags. A little way beyond the c.ul- 



"208 Route 20. ROTONDA. From Naples 

minating point a charming view is disclosed of the valley of the 
Diano, to the S., into which the road now descends. On entering 
it, we leave the beautifully situated Folia, the ancient Forum 
Popilii, which was almost entirely destroyed in 1857, to the right. 
The valley, 15 M. in length, 3 M. in width, is traversed by the 
Negro, here named the Calore, and is remarkable for its fertility. 
Numerous villages are situated on the heights on both sides. The 
road ascends more rapidly. On the left lies Atena, the anoient 
Atina in Lucania, with remains of an amphitheatre , walls , and 
towers, but almost entirely destroyed by the earthquake of 1857. 
Then to the left Sala [Albergo in the Piazza, tolerable), the seat 
of a sub-prefect, picturesquely situated on a height. On an isolated 
eminence, nearly opposite, on the other bank of the river, which 
is crossed by the Ponte di Silla, an ancient Roman bridge, rises 
the small town of Diano, the ancient Tegianum, whence the valley 
derives its name. To the left, 44 M. from Eboli, lies Padula, 
below which are the shattered ruins of the Certosa di S. Lorenzo. 
From Sala and Padula beautiful routes cross the Monte S. Elia to the 
picturesque Valley of Marsico ; but until quite recently they were unfortun- 
ately not unattended with danger, and previous enquiry should therefore be 
made of the prefetto or sindaco as to the state of the country. Towards the 
N. the valley is commanded by the town of Marsico (11,300 inhab.), formerly 
a notorious haunt of brigands. After a ride of 4-5 hrs. across the fertile 
plain the traveller reaches Saponara, situated on a steep hill, at the foot 
of which, in the Agri valley, once lay the ancient Qrumenlum. The ruins 
are insignificant, but a rich treasure of vases, inscriptions, and gems has 
been found among them. The village was almost entirely destroyed by 
the earthquake in 1857. — Opposite, towards the S.W., is Viggiano, 
famous for its musicians, who are to be met with in all parts of the 
world , particularly in New York , with their harps , guitars , flutes , etc. 
Of an evening the village itself resounds with music, singing, and dancing. 
— Moliterno on the high road is 3 M. from Saponara ('giornaliera , to 
Sala in 6 hrs.). 

At Casalnuovo the ascent begins , and the road at length 
crosses the rivulet Trecchina to Lagonegro , a small town with 
4600 inhab., in a wild situation, amidst lofty mountains. The 
French gained a victory over the Neapolitans here in 1806, after 
which they committed the most savage excesses. The road now 
winds through dark and profound ravines, passing to the left of 
the Lago di Serino, the ancient Lacus Niger, in which the Sinno, 
the Siris of the ancients, takes its rise. The next village, Lauria, 
lies at the base of a lofty mountain , opposite the huge Monte 
Sirino, and is surrounded by vineyards. Then Castelluccio, on an 
eminence above a branch of the Lao, the ancient Laos, environed 
by dense woods. 

93 M. Rotonda, with 4900 inhab. We now traverse the long 
and desolate table-land of Carnpo Tenese where the Neapolitans 
fled before the French general Hegnicr in 1806. A path winds 
downwards from this point, and passes through the narrow valley 
at the base of Monte Pollino (7326 ft.) , on the W. side of which 
Monmo, the ancient Muranum, is picturesquely situated. 



to lieggio. COSENZA. 20. Route. 209 

109 M. Castrovillari , with 9600 inhab., on a hill, surrounded 
by lofty mountains, with an ancient Norman castle, is next reached. 

Beyond Castrovillari the high road leads through a well- 
cultivated district , passing Cammarata, to Spezzano , where we 
reach the Railway from Buffaloria to Cosenza mentioned at p. 218, 
by which we continue the journey (from Spezzano to Cosenza, 
34 M., in 21/4 hrs. ; fares 6 fr. 15, 4 fr. 30, 2 fr. 45 c.J. The train 
ascends the valley of the Crati, crossing several of its tributaries. 
Stations: Tarsia, 8. Marco Argentano , Mongrassano - Cervico. 
Lattarico, Bisignano, Montalto Uffugo, Rende S. Fill, and Cosenza. 

150 M. Cosenza (*Albergo dei Due Lionetti), the ancient Con- 
sentia, once the principal city of the Bruttii, is now the capital of 
the province of the same name, with 15,200 inhab., and an archi- 
episcopal residence , containing well-built houses and palaces of 
wealthy landed-proprietors and manufacturers. It lies on the N. 
slope of a hill which separates the Crati from the Busento above 
the confluence of these streams. The town is commanded by a 
castle (fine view), the walls of which, though 9 ft. in thickness, 
were unable to resist the shock of the last earthquake. Shocks are 
felt here almost every year. In 1181 the town was destroyed by 
an earthquake, and again on 4th Feb. 1783, when upwards of 
30,000 persons perished in this district. Serious damage was also 
sustained from the earthquakes of 1854 and 1870. 

The Cathedral contains the tomb of Louis III. of Anjou, who 
died here in 1435, eighteen months after his marriage with 
Margaret of Savoy. — On the piazza in front of the Prefettura 
a monument, with an allegorical figure of Liberty by Gius. Pac- 
chioni of Bologna, was erected in 1879 to the Brothers Bandiera 
and other participators in the Calabrian rising of 1844. 

Alaric, King of the "West Goths, died at Cosenza in 410, after 
he had plundered Rome and made an attempt to pass over into 
Sicily. His coffin and his treasures are said to have been buried 
in the bed of the river Buxentius (Busento). The site is unknown, 
but a tradition of Cosenza places it at the union of the Busento 
and the Crati. 

From Cosenza to Paola (p. 222), where the steamers touch four times 
weekly, a drive of 3'/2 hrs. (seat in a carriage on these days 5 fr.). 

To the E. of Cosenya rises the Sila , a lofty and wooded range of 
mountains, extending about 37 M. from N. to S., 25 M. from E. to W., 
attaining a height of 6200 ft. , and embracing an extensive network 
of valleys. These mountains, which consist of granite and gneiss, are 
remarkable for their beauty and fertility ; their slopes are studded with 
numerous villages, while higher up they are clothed with chestnuts, oaks, 
beeches, and pines. The E. and S. slopes descend to the Gulf ofTaranto. 
In ancient times these mountains supplied the Athenians and Sicilians 
with wood for ship-building , and they were famed for their cattle. The 
snow does not disappear from the higher regions until the latter end 
of May, or June, after which they afford a delightful summer abode to 
the natives with their flocks. This beautiful district, which has very 
rarely been explored by travellers , is still in a very primitive condition. 
Letters of introduction to influential inhabitants should be procured at 

Baedekkii. Ttalv TTT 7tl. 17. .m inn J4 



210 Route 20. ROGLIANO. From Naples 

Naples or Messina by intending explorers. The best months for the 
tour are July, August, and September. Either Cosenza or Cotrone 
(p. 218) may be taken as a starting-point. Fine scenery and picturesque 
costumes. 

At Cosenza the road begins to ascend, traversing well-culti- 
vated land. The heights on each side are clothed with oaks and 
chestnuts. 

178 M. Rogliano, a town of 5200 inhab. on a hill to the 
left, commands a charming view of the fertile country and the 
surrounding mountains, above which on the right rises the M. Co- 
cuzzo (5085 ft.). The road descends into the ravine of the 8a- 
vuto, the ancient Sabutus, ascends Le Crocelle di Agrifolio, an 
abrupt ridge of the Apennines, and leads by Carpanzano, Coraci, 
Arena Bianca , and through ravines and forest, to — 

203 M. Tiriolo, a town with 3600 inhab., loftily situated on 
the watershed between the Corace, which falls into the bay of 
Squillace, and the Lamato, which descends to the bay of S. Eufe- 
mia, the ancient Sinus Terinaeus. Near Tiriolo, a name perhaps 
derived from the Ager Taurianus, numerous coins and other anti- 
quities have been found. In 1640 a bronze tablet (now in the 
imperial collection at Vienna) was discovered here, bearing the 
Senatusconsultum against the Bacchanalia, of B.C. 186, mentioned 
by Livy (xxxix. 18). % 

Before Tiriolo is reached, a road to the left crosses the river Corace and 
leads to (9'/2 M.) Catanzaro (diligence, see p. 219). 

To the right a road leads to (11 M.) Nicastro, an episcopal town on 
the hill -side, in the now ruined castle of which Frederick II. once 
for several years confined his son, the German king Henry VII., who had 
rebelled against him in 1235. The latter died at Martorano in 1242, and 
was buried at Cosenza. Towards the sea, 3 M. from Nicastro, lies »S. 
Eufemia , with a celebrated Benedictine monastery founded by Robert 
Guiscard, but destroyed by the earthquake of 1638. 

The road to Reggio traverses a chain of hills, and then crosses 
the Lamato, the right bank of which it skirts for some distance, 
commanding almost uninterrupted views of the bays of Squillace 
and S. Eufemia, which are here barely 19 M. apart. 

We next pass Casino Chiriaco and cross the plain of Maida, 
where in 1806 the English auxiliaries of the Bourbons under 
Sir John Stuart defeated the French under Regnier and drove 
them out of Calabria. The road crosses the fertile , but un- 
healthy plain by Francavilla to Torre Masdea. 

225 M. Fizzo is a small town with 8400 inhab., situated on a 
sandstone rock on the coast. Below it are the ruins of the old 
castle where Joachim Murat, king of Naples, who had been com- 
pelled to land here the day before, instead of at Salerno as he had 
intended, was shot on 13th Oct. 1815. His remains were interred 
in the church at Pizzo. — The Naples and Messina steamers touch 
here (p. 223). 

A bridle-path leads hence to Tropea , beautifully situated near the 
Capo V(itica?io t whence the Lipari Islands (R. 36) may be visited. 

The road, running near the coast, next leads to — 



to Reggio. PALMI. 20. Route. 211 

234y 2 M. Monteleone (Albergo d'ltalia), a loftily situated town 
with 11,800 inhab., which was much damaged by the earthquake 
of 1783. The old castle was erected by Frederick II. Pleasant 
promenade commanding a charming view of the sea, Sicily, etc. 

A road leading N. to the coast (3 M.) passes through the village of 
Bivona , on the site of the ancient Hipponium , which was afterwards the 
Roman colony Vibo Valentia, destroyed by the Saracens in 983. 

The road now traverses a hilly district to — 

244 M. Mileto, once the favourite residence of Count Roger of 
Sicily, whose son, King Roger, was born here. Pop. 4800. It con- 
tains the ruins of the abbey of S. Trinita founded by him, where 
his remains and those of his first wife Eremberga formerly reposed 
in two sarcophagi which are now in the museum at Naples. • — 
The mountains of Sicily, and particularly the summit of ^Etna, 
now become conspicuous in the horizon. 

From Mileto a mountain-path leads E. to the (5 M.) grand ruins of 
the once celebrated monastery of Santo Ste/ano del Bosco, situated in a 
lonely valley at the foot of the Apennines. Near the neighbouring village 
of Soriano are the extensive ruins of the Dominican monastery of S. Do- 
menico Soriano, also destroyed by the earthquake of 1783 ; and, on the 
farther side of the low ridge of Monte Astore, the remains of the Certosa, 
in which St. Bruno established his austere order of Carthusians in 1094, 
and where he died and was interred in 1101. 

From Mileto the road gradually descends from the heights 
bounding the bay of Gioja on the N., and reaches (233M.) Rosarno. 
The picturesquely situated town (3800 inhab.) was destroyed by the 
earthquake of 1783. The plain is then traversed to Oioia Tauro, 
which occupies the site of the ancient Metaurum, a desolate looking 
place, situated on the coast to the right, and an extensive depot of 
oil. Owing to the prevalence of malaria here, the workmen always 
spend the night at Palmi. We now cross the Marro, the ancient 
Metaurus, a river famed for its fish. The earthquake of 1783 was 
particularly destructive in this neighbourhood. The earth opened in 
many places, swallowing up houses entire, and filling up several 
valleys. — On the coast to the right, not far from the road, on a 
cliff rising perpendicularly from the sea , stands the singularly 
picturesque town of — 

269M. Falmi (Albergo Plutini), with 10,500 inhab., surrounded 
by orange and olive plantations, and affording beautiful views of 
the coast and the island of Sicily, particularly from a *Terrace on 
the sea at the end of the main street. 

The town is situated about halfway up the '"'Monte Elia , which 
commands a superb view of the Faro , the castle of Scilla , the town and 
harbour of Messina, and the majestic iEtna in the background. The N. 
coast of Sicily is visible as far as Milazzo; out at sea are Stromboli aod 
the Lipari Islands ; to the N. the bay of Gioia as far as Capo Vaticano. 
If the traveller on the arrival of the diligence at Palmi descends to the 
sea , and at the farther end of the main street ascends to the right by a 
path through olive plantations (which a carabiniere may be asked to point 
out) , he may reach the top of the hill , stay 10 min. on the top , and 
regain the road before the diligence comes up. (The conductor should of 
course be told of the traveller's intention beforehand.) Those who prefer 
leaving the diligence at Palmi and paying a longer visit to the Monte Elia 

14* 



212 Route 20. SCILLA. 

will have little difficulty in procuring a seat in a carriage at a later hour, 
as the road between Palmi, Bagnara, and Reggio is always much frequented. 
To the S.E. of Palmi lies (2>/2 M.) Seminara, which has been the 
scene of two important conilicts. In 1495 the French army defeated that 
of King Ferdinand II. under Gonsalvo da Cordova, and on 21st April 
1503 , the French were on nearly the same spot routed by the Spaniards 
under Ugo de Cardona, one of Gonsalvo's most able generals. 

The road from Palmi to Reggio, traversing chestnut and olive 
plantations, and affording a succession of views of the sea and the 
coast, is one of the most beautiful on the Mediterranean. It crosses 
the Monte Elia [see above), on the S. slope of which is situated 
Bagnara [Locanda della Stella, tolerable), and next reaches — 

260 M. S cilia (Locanda di Baviera on the Marina, well spoken 
of ; a relative of the landlord is recommended as a guide to Aspro- 
monte), the ancient Scylla, with 7700 inhab. The castle, situated 
on a promontory commanding the town, once the seat of the 
princes of Scilla, was occupied by the English after the battle of 
Maida (p. 210), and defended for 18 months (until 1808) against 
the French. Fine view. The silk and wine produced here enjoy a 
high reputation. Numerous swordflsh (pesce spada) are caught here 
in July. To Messina, see p. 223. 

The rock of Scylla , represented in Homer's Odyssey as a roaring 
and voracious sea-monster , — a beautiful virgin above , and a monster 
with a wolf's body and dolphin's tail below — is depicted by the poets 
in conjunction with the opposite Charybdis as fraught with imminent 
danger to all passing mariners. The currents and eddies in the straits are 
still very rapid, but it is now believed that the Charybdis of the ancients 
is by no means exactly opposite to the whirlpool of Scylla, as the 
saying l incidis in Scyllam, cupiens vitare Charybdim' appears to indicate, 
but outside the harbour of Jlessina, 7'/2 M. from Scilla, at the point now 
called Garofalo (comp. p. 316). 

An Earthquake which took place on the morning of 5th Feb. 1783, 
overthrew the greater part of the town of Scilla, together with the castle, 
while the inhabitants fled to the sea. In the evening a second shock 
rent the promontory asunder , and caused the sea to rise with such impe- 
tuosity that 1500 persons were drowned, and the town laid under water. 

The distance from the castle of .Scilla to the promontory of 
Faro, the ancient Pelorum, between which the strait lies, is 
about 2M. The passage to Messina is most conveniently made from 
the beautifully situated Villa 8. Giovanni, to the S. of the Punta 
del Pezzo, 5 M. from Scilla. From that point a charming road, 
skirting the coast, and traversing luxuriant gardens, leads by the 
villages of Uallico, Arco, and <S. Caterina to — 

27;") M. (from Ponte S. Cono) Reggio, see p. 220. 

21. From Bari to Taranto. 

72 M. Railway in 32/ 3 -4V4 hrs. ; fares 13 fr., 9 fr. 10, 5 fr. 20 c. 

Bari, see p. 201. - — The line leads inland, towards the W., 
and gradually ascends. 7 M. Modugno, 9y 2 M - Bitetto. On a hill 
3 M. to the N. lies Palo del Colle, once surrounded by four villages 
(Aurimrre, Mare.scia, Staglino, Battaglia), of which few traces are 
now left. 14 AT. (irumo. 25'/2 M. Acquaviva ; about 3 M. to the 



TARANTO. 



21. Route. 213 



W. is situated Cassano, with a recently discovered stalactite grotto 
(key at the Sindaco's) ; fine view from the Capuchin monastery. 

34 M. Oioia del Colle (13,900 inhab.). The line now enters the 
Terra d'Otranto, the ancient Calabria, and traverses the low range 
of hills which form the S.E. spurs of the Apennines. The scenery 
becomes of a bleak character, the olive-trees disappearing and the 
fields often looking as if sown with fragments of limestone rocks. 
42 M. S. Basilio; a tunnel ; 48 M. stat. Castellaneta. Beyond the 
next tunnel the line crosses three deep ravines ('gravine'). 53 M. 
Palagianello ; 58 M. Palagiano ; 60^2 M. Massafra, picturesquely 
situated on the slope of a 'gravina'. The train now approaches the 
sea. Fine view of the bay with the islands of 8. Pietro and 8. Paolo. 

72 M. Taranto. — Hotels, all rather dirty. The Albergo Garibaldi, 
at the gate, V* M. from the station, with view towards the Mare Piccolo, 
R. from 1 fr. 20 c., and the Alb. di Roma, with somewhat more comfortable 
rooms, are in better repute than the others. — Trattoria del Moro al Leone 
di Venezia, charmingly situated on the coast, oyslers 60 c. per dozen. 

Cab from the station to the town, '/a M., 60 c. 

Taranto , a town with 28,700 inhab., is situated in the N. 
angle of the Gulf of Taranto, on a rocky island which divides the 




C? GaLcuneY?..' 






B.E 3PI CCOIO 






del! a Perm a 



deep inlet here into the Mare Piccolo and Mare Grande. The latter 
is bounded by the Capo S. Vito on the S.E. The harbour is pro- 
tected by two flat islands situated in front of it, the Choerades 



214 Route 21. TARANTO. 

of antiquity , now S. Paolo (the smaller) , occupied by a fort, 
and S. Pietro, the property of the chapter of the cathedral. The 
entrance to the harbour is between S. Vito and S. Paolo, on each 
of which a lighthouse is situated. Towards the N.W. the passage 
is very shallow, and navigable for small boats only. 

The modern town, occupying the site of the ancient Acropo- 
lis , which extended far towards the E. , is connected with the 
mainland by bridges on the N. and ,S. sides. Over the S. bridge 
runs an aqueduct, attributed to the Greek Emp. Nicephorus 1. 
(about 803), 2C) M. in length, and borne by arches as it ap- 
proaches the town. The ebb and flow of the tide is distinctly 
visible under the bridges of Taranto, one of the few places on 
the Mediterranean where it is perceptible. 

Taranto is the seat of an archbishop, a sub-prefect, and other 
dignitaries, and carries on a considerable traffic in oil, oats, and 
wheat. The population is densely packed in confined houses 
and narrow streets, and the traveller whose expectations regard- 
ing the town are founded on its ancient celebrity will be sadly 
disappointed. The town is intersected lengthwise by three streets, 
which form the arteries of traffic for three difierent classes of 
the community, speaking three distinct dialects. The Mare Pic- 
colo is skirted by the Strada Garibaldi, inhabited chiefly by 
fishermen, whose language is still strongly tinctured with Greek 
and is often unintelligible to the other Tarentines. This street 
is connected by a number of lanes with the narrow Main Street, 
the chief business thoroughfare, which under various names inter- 
sects the town from N.W. to S.E., and where the common Neapo- 
litan dialect is spoken. The Strada Vittorio Emanuele, recently 
constructed on the coast , where a different dialect is spoken, 
affords a view of the bay and the mountains of Calabria, and 
forms a pleasant evening promenade. 

The modernised Cathedral of S. Cataldo contains some impor- 
tant monuments, such as that of Philip of Taranto, son of Charles 
II. of Anjou. The chapel of the saint, adjoining the choir on the 
Tight, is sumptuously decorated. The crypt is closed. The tower 
commands a fine view. — The Castle, at the S. end of the town, 
and the other fortifications, date from the time of Charles V. Towards 
the (S.E., where the Tarentum of antiquity was situated, new build- 
ings are now springing up. — Near the gate towards Lecce is the 
small museum of the C'anonico Palumbo (formerly Ceci; fee '/^ fr-)- 
The huge mound of oyster-shells here dates from a very early period. 

Tarentum, or Taras, as it was called in Greek, was the most powerful 
and wealthy city of Magna Ura-'cia, and lay in a beautiful and fertile district 
to the S. of Mt. Auluu and W. of the mouth of the Uahesus. It was 
built by Spartan Parlhenians under the guidance of Phalanthus, B. C. 707, 
and was under the special protection of Neptune, by whose mythical son 
Taras it is said to have been originally founded. Its extensive commerce 
and powerful fleet were a source of great prosperity, but with the increase 
of wealth the citizens became luxurious and effeminate, in addition to 



TARANTO. 21. Route. 215 

their navy and other resources, they possessed an army of 30,000 infantry 
and 5000 cavalry. Pythagoras of Saraos once taught his philosophy here, 
and his system was farther developed by Archytas of Tarentum, the cele- 
brated mathematician. With the aid of Pyrrhus of Epirus, Tarentum 
defended itself successfully against the attacks of the Romans, but at 
length succumbed, B.C. 272, after the departure of Pyrrhus from Italy. 
In the Second Punic War the town espoused the cause of Hannibal, but 
was conquered in 209 by the Romans, who plundered it, carried off its 
treasures of art, and sold 30,000 of the citizens as slaves. In 123 the 
Romans established a colony here, and the city again became noted for its 
wealth and luxury. The famous purple dye and wool of Tarentum were 
its chief resources at this period. In Horace's time Tarentum was a place 
which the poet regarded as the 'most smiling corner of the world, where 
the spring is long, and Jupiter vouchsafes mild winters 1 (Carm. ii. 6). The 
coins of the ancient Tarentum are remarkable for their beauty. — In 
the middle ages Tarentum was the residence of Bohemund, son of Robert 
Guiscard, who took part in the first Crusade. 

The relics of the celebrated ancient city are unimportant. 
Quitting the town by the Porta di Lecce, and following the street 
which leads from the Arsenal to the right along the sea , we 
reach in 5 min. the scanty ruins of an extensive Circus. A little 
to the W., in the vineyards sloping towards the sea, are the exten- 
sive ruins of private houses, now called Le Fornaci, and dating 
from various periods, some of them being obviously mediaeval, 
others constructed of the Roman 'opus reticulatum', while a few 
are apparently of still earlier date. To the latter class belongs a 
carious cellar (or stable?) with ceiling of flat vaulting and a shaft 
for air. At the entrance of one of the rooms is a mosaic. The 
ruins are in a sadly neglected state. — Another road leads to the 
left from the Arsenal to the Villa de Beaumont- Bonelli (gardener 
i /-2ir.), with a large orchard, whence a fine view is enjoyed of the 
town, the Mare Piccolo, and the N. bank of the latter. 

The Mare Piccolo is divided into two halves by the promon- 
tory II Pizzone, and the Punta della Penna. At its E. extremity 
is the mouth of the river Cervaro, which is supposed to be the 
ancient Galaesus. At the S. end, 3 / 4 M. from Taranto, stands 
the villa of S. Lucia, once the property of the celebrated Arch- 
bishop Capecelatro (d. 1816), who placed on it the inscription 
— 'Si Adam hie peccasset, Deus ignovisset ei', and afterwards 
that of General Pepe. Although in a dilapidated condition, it 
still merits a visit, and is thus described by an old writer: — 

'This is one of the most charming spots in the neighbourhood. The 
Mare Piccolo looks like a broad lake. Gentle slopes, covered with olive- 
groves, rise in every direction. A fine view of Taranto and its towers, 
perched on a rock, is enjoyed hence, and still higher rise two magnificent 
palm-trees, the finest of which stands in the courtyard of the archiepiscopal 
residence. Gardens with oranges, lemons, figs, almonds, and pomegranates 
slope down from the town to the water's edge, filling the air with their 
delicious fragrance'. 

Excellent fish abound in the Mare Piccolo. They enter with 
the tide under the S. bridge, and are netted at night in great num- 
bers. There are no fewer than 93 different species, and they are 
largely exported in every direction. Shellfish are also bred here in 



216 



Route 22. METAPONTUM. From Taranto 



vast numbers. (Oysters and others are called cozze , the best being 
the coccioli.) The situation of the beds is indicated by stakes 
protruding from the water. The traveller may visit them by boat 
(l'/ 2 fr. per hr.), and enjoy his oysters fresh from the sea (about 
50 o. per doz. is sufficient recompense; bread should be brought 
in the boat). 

The climate of Taranto is somewhat cold in winter, and not 
unbearably hot in summer. The honey and fruit of the neigh- 
bourhood are in high repute, as they were in ancient times. The 
date-palm also bears fruit here, but it seldom ripens thoroughly. 

In the district between Taranto, Brindisi , and Otranto the venomous 
taranlola, or tarantella-spider occurs. Its bite is said by the natives to 
cause convulsions and even madness, for which evils music and dancing 
are supposed to be effectual remedies. The latter belief gave rise to the 
curious tarantella-dancing mania, which was epidemic in S. Italy in the 
15th-17th centuries. 

Fkom Takanto to Lecce (p. 204) diligence daily in 9 hrs., via S 
Giorgio, Sava, Manduria (an old town with 9400 inhab.) , and Campi 
Scenery unattractive. 

22. From Taranto to Reggio. 

293 M. Railway in 15'/ 4 -17'/ 4 hrs. (fares 40 fr. 46, 28 fr. 35, 16 fr. 20 c ) 
There are no express trains. Through-tickets to Messina, Catania, and 
other places in Sicily include transport from the station to the quay in 
Reggio, and also the steamer-fare to Messina. — The traveller should take 
refreshments with him, as the poor railway restaurant at Cotrone is the 
only one on the line. 

The Steamboats of the Florio Co. plyin" between Marseilles and 
Brindisi touch at Taranto and generally also at Catanzaro, on Thursday 
when going to Marseilles, and on Saturday on their way to Taranto. The 
next steam-boat stations to the YV. are Catania and Messina, to the E. 
Gallipoli and Brindisi. 

The railway at first traverses an uninteresting, flat country. 
The soil is very fertile, but miserably cultivated. Although 
quite capable of yielding two crops annually with proper manage- 
ment, it is allowed, in accordance with the old-fashioned system 
prevalent here, to lie fallow for two years after each crop. The 
train crosses several fiumare, or mountain-torrents , which were 
confined within embankments on the construction of the railway. 
The numerous watch-towers are a memento of the unsafe con- 
dition of the coast during the middle ages, which is also the reason 
of the distance of the settlements from the sea. The stations are 
generally 2-5 M. distant from the towns and villages, with which 
there is often no regular communication. 

27'/2 M. Torremare, a castle with a poor tavern , at which a 
horse may be hired for the journey to Metapontum (2-2i/ 2 fr.). 
About 3'/2 M. to the N. E. of the station lie the ruins of an ancient 
Greek 'Temple in the Doric style, called La Tavola Paladinn by the 
peasantry , who believe each pillar to i ave been the seat of a Saracen 
chieftain. Fifteen columns of the peristyle (ten on the N., five on the S. 
side) are still standing. The limestone of which they consist is now much 
disintegrated. This temple marks the site of the celebrated ancient Greek 
city of Metapontum. Pythagoras died here, B.C. 497, in his 90th year 



to Reggio. 



CASSANO. 



22. Route. 217 



but his philosophy long survived him in the principal towns of .Magna 
Grsecia, especially rt Metapontum itself, Tarentum, and Croton. When 
Alexander of Epirus came to Italy in B.C. 332, Metapontum allied itself 
with him, and in the Second Punic War it took the part of Hannibal. 
Its enmity to Rome on the latter occasion, however, caused its downfall, 
and at the time of Pausanias, in the 2nd cent, after Christ, it was a mere 
heap of ruins. — We may now return by the right bank of the Bradano. 
The neighbouring farm-houses (masserie), such as the Masseria Sansone, 
are built of massive blocks from the ancient walls of the town. On the 
coast are traces of a harbour now filled with sand. To the S.W. are 
rows of tombs which afford an idea of the great extent of the town. 




From Torremare to Calciano and Potenza, see p. 207. 

The Cotrone and Reggio train crosses the Basento. 32 l / 2 M. 
■S. Basilio Pisticci ; 37' /% M. Scrmzano Montalbano. We next cross 
the Agri, the ancient Aciris. 40^2 M. Policoro, near which lay 
the Greek town of Heraclea (founded by the Tarentines in 432), 
where Pyrrhus with the aid of his elephants gained his first victory 
over the Romans, B.C. 280. At Luce, in the vicinity, the celebrated 
bronze Tabula Heracleensis (Lex Julia Municipalis) , now in the 
Museum at Naples (p. 64), was discovered in 1753. 

The train traverses a wood (Pantano di Policoro), full of 
the most luxuriant vegetation (myrtles, oleanders, etc.), beyond 
which are the river Sinno , the ancient Siris , and the town of 
that name. The line now approaches the sea. 

49'/ 2 M. Rocca Imperiale. The country becomes hilly. 54 M. 
Monte Giordano ; 59 M. Roseto. The finest part of the line is 
between Roseto and Rossano. It commands a beautiful view of 



218 Route 22. COTRONE. From Taranto 

the precipitous Monte Pollino (7852 ft.) which is never free from 
snow except in summer, and of the broad valley of the Crati, at 
the head of which rise the pine-clad Sila mountains (p. 209). — 
62 M. Amendolara ; 67'/ 2 M. Trebisacce (a good echo at the sta- 
tion); 74 M. Torre Cerchiara. 

77 M. Buffaloria di Cassano, whence a branch-line ascends the 
valley of the Crati, via Doria-Cassano, Spezzano-Castrovillari, etc., 
to Cosenza (43 M. in 23/ 4 hrs. ; fares 7 fr. 80, 5 fr. 50, 3 fr. 15 c. ; 
comp. p. 209). 

Doria-Cassano is the station for (4'/ 2 M.) Cassano (9100 inhab.), a beauti- 
fully situated town , with warm baths, and an ancient castle on a lofty 
rock. The castle affords a magnificent survey of the valleys of the Coscile 
and the Crati, the Sybaris and the Crathis of antiquity. The wild, barren 
limestone mountains rise here almost immediately from the plain, culminat- 
ing in the Jlonte Pollino. The Torre di Milo is pointed out here as the 
tower whence the stone was thrown that caused the death of T. Annius 
Milo, when he was besieging Cosa on behalf of Pompey. 

The train now crosses the Crati. 

The wealthy and proverbially luxurious Sybaris, founded B.C. 720 by 
Achseans and Trcezenians, and destroyed in 510 by the Crotonians, is said 
to have lain on this river. — About 6 M. from its supposed site, near 
Terranova , are the scanty ruins of Thurii, which was founded by the 
Sybarites after the destruction of their city. In 443 the Athenians sent a 
colony thither, and with it the historian Herodotus. Owing to the wise 
legislation of Charondas, Thurii soon attained to great prosperity. It 
formed a league with the Romans in 282, and was defended by C. Fabricius 
against the attacks of the Lucanians, but it was afterwards plundered by- 
Hannibal. In 193 it received a Roman colony, and the new name of Gopiae, 
but it rapidly declined, and was at length entirely deserted. 

86 M. Stat. Corigliano Calabro. The town, with 10,700 inhab., 
lies on a height, 4 M. from the station. 

93 M. Stat. Rossano. The town (Albergo della Romanella) with 
15,600 inhab., situated on a hill, and possessing quarries of marble 
and alabaster, is 5 M. distant. This was the birthplace of St. Nilus. 

The train runs close to the sea through a mountainous district, 
and crosses the Trionto. Stations Mirto Crosia, S. Qiacomo, Cam- 
pana , and Cariati (Albergo di Sibari, miserable). Farther on, the 
train traverses pleasant plantations of olives, vines, and tigs. Stat. 
Crucoli, Cirb, Torre di Melissa, and Strongoli. This last, a squalid 
village with '2900 inhab., situated on a bold eminence 4 M. from 
the station, and reached by a bad road, was the ancient Poetelia, 
founded according to tradition by Philoctetes, and besieged by Han- 
nibal after the battle of Canna? on account of its fidelity to Rome. 

147y 2 M. Cotrone (*Albergo della Concordia, at the entrance 
to the town; carriage from the station !/ 2 f r 0> a thriving little sea- 
port with 8000 inhab., situated on a promontory, was in ancient 
times the famous Achaan colony of Croton, founded B.C. 710, 
which is said to have been once so populous and powerful as to 
be able in 510 to send an army of 100,000 men into the field 
against Sybaris. After its great victory on that occasion, however, 
Croton declined ; not long afterwards the citizens were defeated 



to Reggio. SQUILLACE. 22. Route. 2J 9 

by the Loorians on the river Sagras, and in 299 the town fell into 
the hands of Agathooles of Syracuse. During the height of the 
prosperity of the city, Pythagoras, who had been banished from 
Samos by the tyrant Polycrates, and was then in his 40th year, 
established himself at Croton. He attracted a band of disciples 
and founded his brotherhood here, B.C. 450, but was at length 
banished in consequence of the jealousy of the citizens. A visit 
should be paid to the old Castle, the highest tower of which com- 
mands a fine view (admission by applying to an officer or ser- 
geant). 

Oranges and olives thrive admirably in the environs, and are 
largely exported. Liquorice is also a staple product. An intro- 
duction to Signor Baracco, one of the wealthiest land-owners in 
Italy, who resides in the neighbourhood, will be found of great 
service. 

About 7 M. to the S.E. is the Capo delle Colonne, or Capo Nao, a low 
promontory, much exposed to the wind. (Route to it by land 2'/2 hrs., 
very rough; boat 6 fr.) As the steamer rounds this cape, the eye is 
arrested by a solitary column, rising conspicuously on massive substruc- 
tions above the few modern buildings of the place. This is now the sole 
relic of the Temple of Hera of the Latin ian Promontory, once the most 
revered divinity on the whole of the Gulf of Tarentum. There are also 
some remains of 'opus reticulatum 1 from ancient Roman villas. To the 
S.W. of this promontory are three others, the Capo delle Cimiti, the Capo 
Bizzuto, and the Capo Castella. 

Beyond Cotrone the train quits the coast, and traverses a hilly 
district, with little trace of cultivation. Near (156 M.) Cutro it 
passes through a long tunnel. 162 M. Isola-Capo-Rizzuto ; 166 M. 
Rocca Bernardo, ; 171 M. Cropani; 176 M. Simmeri. 

183 M. CatanzarO. — ' Albeego Seekavalle, with a good trattoria, 
and a dependance Albergo rf 1 Italia , R. 1-2 fr. , scale of charges posted up 
as in many Calabrian inns. Alb. Roma; Alb. Centeale. — - Caft Centrale. 

Diligence at 6 p.m. to Tiriolo (p. 210) in connection with the diligences 
to Cosenza and Reggio. — Mule 8-5 fr. a day. 

Catanzaro, with 25,000 inhab. (including the suburbs), the 
capital of the province of the same name, prettily situated 6 M. 
from the sea, boasts of a cathedral (line view from the campanile 
by evening light), a castle of Robert Guiscard , numerous velvet 
and silk manufactories, and luxuriant olive-groves. The climate is 
cool in summer, and snow often lies in winter. Many wealthy 
families reside here. The handsome Calabrian costume is still 
frequently seen here, particularly on Sundays. Catanzaro suffered 
severely by the earthquake of 1783. Numerous pleasant excursions 
may be made hence. 

Beyond Catanzaro the line skirts the coast and passes through 
several promontories by means of tunnels. 

189'/2 M. Squillace, the ancient Scylnceum, is perched on an 
almost inaccessible rock near the coast, nearly opposite the lofty 
Monte Moscia. 

Cassiodorus , the private secretary of Theodoric the Great , was born 
at Scylaeeuui , and after the death of his master retired to his native 



220 Route 22. REGGIO. 

place, where he founded a monastery , wrote a numher of learned works, 
and died there in 560 at the age of nearly a hundred. — To the N. of 
Squillace the Emp. Otho II. was defeated in July, 982, by the Arabs, 
who had crossed over from Sicily, and had recently been routed by him 
at Colonne , to the S. of Cotrone. He himself escaped almost by a 
miracle, and succeeded in reaching Rossano , where he met his consort 
Theophano. Otho did not long survive this reverse; he died at Rome in 
December, 983, and was interred in the old church of St. Peter. 

The train passes through the promontory by means of two tunnels. 
193 M. Montauro; 197 M. Soverato ; 199 M. Santo Sostcne; 201 M. 
S. Andrea; 204f/ 2 M. Badolato ; 207i/ 2 M. 8. Caterina ; 214'/ 2 M. 
Monasterace (near which, at Stilo, are iron-works); 221 M. Riace; 
223 M. Caulonia. The river Alaro is supposed to be the Sagras 
of antiquity, where an army of 130,000 Crotonians is said to have 
been utterly routed by 10,000 Locrians. On this river lies Castel- 
vetere, on the site of the ancient Achaean Caulonia, where Pytha- 
goras sought refuge after his expulsion from Croton. 

229 M. Roccella, with 6400 inhab., lies near the coast. Beyond 
(231 M.J Gioiosa, the magnificent scenery resembles that of Greece. 
234 M. Siderno. 

237 M. Oerace. The town, with 7600 inhab., and a Romanesque 
church, lies on the slope of a lofty spur of the Apennines, having 
risen from the ruins of Loeri Epizephyrii, the once celebrated 
colony of the Locrians, founded B.C. 683, provided with a salutary 
code of laws by Zaleucus (664), and extolled by Pindar and De- 
mosthenes for its wealth and love of art. The ruins of the ancient 
city near Torre di Oerace are now concealed by an orange garden. 

The Passo del Mercante, a mountain path, leads from Gerace through 
beautiful woods, and over the lofty Aspromonte , to Casalnuovo (p. 208). 
Thence by a post-road to Gioia (p. 211) or to Seminara (p. 212), about 37 M. 
The top of the pass commands a delightful view of the sea in both direc- 
tions. In descending, we overloock the Bay of Gioia as far as the Lipari 
Islands. 

242 M. Ardore; 2U l / 2 M - Bovalino; 249 1 / 2 M. Bianconuovo, 
258 M. Brancaleone. The line now skirts the Capo Spartivento, 
the Promontorium Herculis of antiquity, the S. E. extremity of 
Calabria (station, 262 M.). 266 M. Palizzi. The train turns towards 
the W. and then nearly to the N. ; 269 V2 M. Bova ; 272 M. 
Amandolea ; 277 M. Melito. 

282 Y2 M. Saline. The train affords a view of the coast and 
mountains of Sicily, and rounds the Capo dell' Armi, the Promon- 
torium Leucopetrae, which was in ancient times regarded as the 
termination of the Apennines. Cicero landed here in B.C. 44, 
after the murder of Caesar, having been compelled by adverse winds 
to turn back from his intended voyage to Greece , and he was 
then persuaded by citizens of Rhegium to repair to Velia, where 
he met Brutus. 

286 M. Lazzaro; 290 M. Pellaro ; 293y 2 M. S. Gregorio. 

297 M. Reggio. — 'Albekgo Vittoria, in the Corso Garibaldi, 
R., L., & A. 31/2, B. 3/ 4i D. 3i/ 2 f r . ; Alb. Milano. — Trattoria Lombarda, 
in a side-street of the Corso ; Gaffe Garibaldi. — Carriages (stand in the 



REGGIO. 22. Route. 221 

Piazza Vittorio Emanuele), per drive SO c, at night 1 fr. 20 c. ; per lir. 
IV2 fr., at night 2 fr. 20 c. — Steamer to Messina at 7.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. 
daily, 2 fr. ; embarcation and landing 50 c. (bargaining necessary}; the 
passage may also be made in one of the Naples mail steamers which cross 
several times weekly. 

Reggio, called Reggio di Calabria to distinguish it from Reggio 
nell* Emilia, the ancient Rhegium, and originally a Eubcean colony, 
was founded in B.C. 723 by fugitive Messenians, and soon rose to 
prosperity. It is now the capital of the province of the same name 
and an archiepiscopal residence, with 16,000, or, with the surround- 
ing villages, 36,900 inhabitants. The town was almost entirely 
destroyed by the great earthquake of 1783 (p. 212), and it there- 
fore now presents a modern appearance, with its broad and handsome 
streets extending from the sea to the beautiful hills in the rear, 
which are studded with numerous and handsome villas. The Cathe- 
dral, a spacious basilica with pillars, contains wooden statues of 
saints in place of paintings ; the Cappella del Sacramento, to the 
left of the high altar, is richly adorned with Florentine mosaics. 
Above the cathedral rises the Castello. A military band often plays 
in the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, which is embellished with a statue 
of Italia. — Nothing can surpass the beauty of the environs and 
the view of the Sicilian coast with Mt. iEtna , especially in the 
evening, when the sun sets behind the mountains near Messina. 
The distance from Reggio to Messina is about 42/3 M. The con- 
jecture that Sicily was once connected with the mainland was 
prevalent at a very early period, and is borne out by modern geolo- 
gical investigations. 

In the wars of both ancient and modern times Reggio has suffered 
terrible reverse s. It was first destroyed by the Romans, then in 549 by 
the Goth Totih. , in 918 by the Saracens , in 1005 by the Pisans, in 1060 
by Robert Guiscard, again by Frederick Barbarossa, and lastly in 1552 and 
1597 by the Turks. 

Excursions. At the back of Reggio rises the imposing , forest-clad As- 
promonte, the W. extremity of the range which in ancient times bore the 
name of Sila; the highest point is the Montalto (6907 ft.). The summit is 
overgrown with beech-trees, the slopes partly with pines. Here, in the vici- 
nity of Reggie, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner by the Italian 
troops under Pallavicini, 29th Aug. 1862. The ascent, which is very 
laborious, is best undertaken from Villa Giovanni (p. 212) or from Scilla 
(p. 212). Good mules and competent guides, however, are more easily 
obtained at Villa Giovanni (two mules and one guide for a day and a 
half 14 fr.). If possible the start should be made early on a moonlight 
night. The summit , which is reached in 9 hrs. , commands an imposing 
view of the sea, the islands, and Sicily. Those who make a sufficient 
stay at Reggio should not omit to make this beautiful forest excursion. 

To Scilla, see p. 212. — Ascent of the Mle. Elia, see p. 212. — This 
excursion is best made by driving to Palmi (4-5 hrs. ; 15-20 fr.), ascending 
the hill on foot, and descending through beautiful chestnut wood to Bag- 
nara in 2 hrs., where the carriage should be ordered to wait. Travelling 
in the province of Iieggio has always been considered free from hazard. 



"2->-2 



23. From Naples to Messina by Sea. 

Steamers of the Societit, Florio <£■ Co. (office, Strada Piliero 30) on 
Mondays , Wednesdays, and Fridays at 5.30 p.m. , direct in about 18 hrs. 
(fares 48 fr. 60, 36 fr. 60c); on Tuesdays and Saturdays at 5.30 p.m., in- 
direct, in 28 hrs., touching at the chief' places on the coast (Paola, Wed. 
and Sun. forenoons; Pizzo, Wed. and Sun. afternoons). — Society Rubattino 
(office, Strada Piliero 33) on Thursdays at 5.30 p.m., and also on two other 
days each month, in 18 hrs. (fare 51 fr., 35 fr.). — (From Messina: Societa 
Florio, direct on Mondays and Thursdays at 10 a.m., and Sundays at 3 p.m.; 
indirect on Wednesdays and Fridays at 6 p.m., arriving at Pizzo on Thurs. 
and Sat. mornings and at Paola on Thurs. and Sat. afternoons. Rubattino 
on Tuesdays at 5 p.m.) — Embarcation with luggage 1 fr., comp. Introd. vi. 

Departure from Naples, see p. 20. After 2'/ 2 hrs. , and beyond 
Castellamare and Sorrento, the steamer enters the strait between 
Capri , with the rugged and precipitous Lo Capo (p. 162), and the 
Punta di Campanella (p. 155). .Shortly afterwards a view of the 
Bay of Salerno is disclosed. As the sun sets and the vessel gradually 
stands out to sea, Mt. Vesuvius presents a most majestic appearance. 

On the Direct Voyage the steamer reaches the open sea about 
dusk. On the following forenoon the volcano of the island of 
Stromboli , near which the steamer afterwards passes, becomes 
visible on the right. The mountain-range of the N. coast of Sicily 
next comes in sight , presenting a very striking appearance. As 
the vessel steers for the Strait of Messina we observe Scilla with 
its castle on the left, and the Faro on the right. Arrival at Messina, 
see p. 310. 

The Coasting Steamers pass the promontories della Licosa 
and dello Spartivento and the Bay of Policastro during the night. 
The once powerful town of the latter name was destroyed by Robert 
Guiscard in 1055, and by the Turks in 1542, and now contains 
4000 inhab. only. 

On the following morning, Monte Pollino (7326 ft.), which 
terminates the Neapolitan Apennines, is the most conspicuous 
mountain, and adjoining it begin the Calabrian Mts. As the vessel 
proceeds southwards to Paola we enjoy a succession of fine views. 
The coast is studded with numerous towns and villages, most of 
them situated on the heights , between which valleys descend to 
empty their brooks into the sea. Verbicaro is seen somewhat 
inland, then Diamante, at the base of a lofty cliff. Farther on, 
Belvedere with 4627 inhab., charmingly situated on the slopes of 
the mountain. Then, after a small promontory is passed, in the 
bay to the S. lies Cetraro, most of the inhabitants of which are 
anchovy-fishers. We next observe Guardia, on a lofty hill, with 
warm baths ; then the town of Fuscaldo, with 9800 inhab. and the 
ruins of an old castle. 

Paola, a town with 8900 inhab., beautifully situated in a ravine 
and on the slope of the mountain, larries on an extensive oil and 
wine trade. When the vessel stops here a busy scene usually takes 



TROPEA. 23. Route. 223 

place, as the inhabitants hasten on board with all kinds of articles 
for sale. Paola , which some suppose to be the Palycus of the 
Greeks, was the birthplace of Francesco di Paola, founder o'f the 
mendicant order of Minorites. — On the arrival of the steamer 
carriages start for Cosenza (3!/2 nrs - drive, seat 5 fr. ; see p. 209). 

After a halt of about l 1 ^ hr. the vessel resumes her voyage. 
On the coast are the villages of San Lucido, Fiumefreddo, and Bel- 
monte, at the back of which rises the conspicuous Monte Cocuzzo 
(1804 ft). Amantea next becomes visible, supposed to be the 
ancient Amantia of Bruttium. The town and fortress, erected on 
a lofty rock, were garrisoned in 1806 by royalists, who repelled 
the attacks of the French troops ; but, after severe sufferings from 
famine, they were compelled to surrender the following year. To 
the S. of Amantea the Savuto falls into the sea. The coast becomes 
flat and less richly cultivated. Farther on, Nocera; then past the 
Capo Suvero to the Golfo di Santa Eufemia, at the S. end of 
which lies — 

Pizzo (see p. 210); halt l l / 2 hr. 

At the S. E. angle of the bay lies Monteleone, see p. 211. 

The steamboat rounds Capo Zambrone, and reaches Tropea, an 
ancient town (5800 inhab.) in a delightful situation, the climate 
of which is much extolled. To the S. is the Capo Vaticano with 
its lighthouse, projecting far into the sea. In the bay lies Nico- 
tera, which suffered severely from the earthquake (p. 212) of 
1783, near the influx of the Mesima. At Gioia (p. 211) the 
post-road from Naples to Reggio (R. 20) leads down to the coast, 
which it skirts during the rest of the way. Soon after the 
harbour of Pizzo is quitted the Lipari Islands (R. 36) become 
visible to the W. ; Stromboli, with its continually smoking crater, 
is the most conspicuous. Off Capo Vaticano the Sicilian mountains 
suddenly appear. 

Palmi, Bagnara, Scilla, see p. 212. The Aspromonte range, 
with the Monte Alto (6907 ft.) , looks uninteresting from this 
side. We now enter the Strait of Messina, which presents a 
busy scene during the daytime. 

Messina, see p. 310. If the steamer arrives during the night 
the passenger had better remain on board till morning, enquiring 
beforehand of the captain when the vessel is to start again. 



24. From Naples to Palermo by Sea. 

Steamers of the Societa Florio (office, Strada Piliero 30) 6-7 times 
weekly, generally at 5 or 6 p.m. , in 16-20 hrs. ; fares 48 fr. 60, 31 fr. 60 e. 
— The passenger should be on deck early next morning to enjoy the 
beautiful approach to Sicily and the entrance into the harbour. — (From 
Palermo, usually, at 3 p.m.) 

Departure from the bay, comp. p. 20; beautiful retrospect. 
Beyond Capri the steamer reaches the open sea. Early next 



224 Route -24. CAPO PI GALLO. 

morning (between 5 and 6 o'cl.) the Lipari Islands (R. 36) are seen 
to the S. (left); later the island of Vstica (p. 272) to the W., 
long remaining visible ; then, about 10 a.m., the towering moun- 
tains of Sicily ; to the extreme right is the Capo di Oallo, nearer 
rises Monte Pelleyrino (1958 ft. ; p. 268) , and to the left is the 
Monte Catalfano (1233 ft.) , with a smaller pointed promontory, 
guarding the E. entrance to the Bay of Palermo. At length we 
perceive the beautiful and extensive city. A little to the left 
of Monte Pellegrino are the lofty Monte Cuccio (3445 ft.), Monreale 
(p. 266), and farther distant the Monte Griffone. 
Palermo, see R. 25. 



SICILY. 



General Remarks. 

Strabo, the Greek geographer, in one passage calls Sicily an 'addition*, 
in another a 'detached portion 1 of Italy ; and there is indeed not one of 
the surrounding islands so intimately allied, geographically as well as 
historically, with the great peninsula which bisects the Mediterranean. 
Goethe has justly observed that, without Sicily, Italy would lose much 
of its charm: 'the climate cannot be too highly extolled; the beauties 
are innumerable.' This cannot fail to be experienced by every traveller 
who forms acquaintance with this 'gem among islands 1 . Nor is the beauty 
of the scenery the sole attraction to the wanderer from the north. Those 
equipped with even a superficial knowledge of history cannot but exper- 
ience a profound interest in the places with which the most ancient Hel- 
lenic and Roman traditions are connected, where the destinies of Athens, 
Carthage , and Rome have been decided , and where mediaeval characters 
so famous as Henry VI. and Frederick II. have ruled. There is not a 
nation which has materially influenced the destinies of European civili- 
sation, that has not left distinct traces of its agency in this island. Those 
whose time and resources permit are therefore strongly recommended to 
visit Sicily before proceeding homewards. 

Modes of Travelling. Steamboats ply daily (see pp. 223, 222) from 
Naples to Palermo, and almost daily from Naples to Messina. Others start 
on alternate Fridays from Marseilles for Palermo (Messageries Maritimes 
de France). Steamers also ply once weekly from Palermo to Sardinia (R. 44), 
and to Malta and the East. — Railway to Reggio, and the passage thence 
to Messina, see R. 22; the railway journey from Naples to Reggio occupies 
29hrs., the passage thence to Messina l 3 /4 hr. 

Other steamers (Societa Flurio, whose headquarters are at Palermo) 
make the circuit of the island once a week, Palermo being the starting- 
point, and Messina and Syracuse the principal stations. A steamboat also 
plies several times weekly between Palermo and Messina, see p. 304. The 
service is tolerably punctual on the N. and E. coasts, but on the S. side 
of the island, where the navigation is more difficult, delays of many hours 
and even days frequently occur. 

Railways. The network of railways with which the island is to be 
overspread is steadily progressing. The following lines are completed : 
(1) From Messina by Catania to Syracuse, 114 M. ; (2) From Catania to 
Campobello (104 M.), and Favnrotla (to be opened in the summer of 1880); 
(3) From Palermo by Termini to Oirgenii and Porto Empedocle, 89 M. This 
line is to be connected with the railway to Catania by a line running via 
Vallelunga and Mariannpoli to S. Caterina, and by another farther S., 
between Caldare and Canicatti. (At present the diligence running twice 
daily between the two latter places maintains the direct communication 
between Palermo and Catania.) — A railway from Palermo by Partinico, 
Alcamo, Castelvetrano, and Marsala to Trapani is also in course of con- 
struction, and when finished will greatly facilitate a visit to the ruins of 
Segesta and Selinunto, and lay open the whole of the W. coast. Several 
portions of this line are almost ready for traffic, comp. pp. 272, 276. 

Diligences run on all the principal roads in Sicily, the fare being 

Baedeker. Ttalv III. 7th Edition. 15 



226 SICILY. General Remarks. 

15 c. per kilometre (1 kilometre = »/ B English M.), or about 25 c. per 
English mile ; but the vehicles are generally bad, and there is often a diffi- 
culty in procuring seats as no supplementary carriages are provided. The 
interior of the vehicle has occasionally to be vacated in the middle of the 
night to make room for the mails. Passengers for the longer distances have 
the preference , and those who wish to be taken up at an intermediate 
station are never certain of obtaining a seat. This system moreover en- 
courages dishonesty and extortion on the part of the conductors. Diligence- 
travelling, however, has come more into favour since the completion of 
the new roads at the W. end of the island. If any danger is apprehended, 
a sufficient escort is always provided. The traveller will often find it 
convenient to travel by these vehicles from station to station, and then 
to make digressions from the high-road on foot or on mule-back. Driver's 
fee 5 soldi. The 'Periodica', or omnibus which competes with the dili- 
gence on the principal routes, is a very inferior conveyance. 

Carriages may be hired at all the larger towns. The usual charge 
throughout the island for a carriage with three horses, when hired for 
several days, is 20-25 fr. per day, including tolls (catena), but exclusive 
of 'buona mano' (2-3 fr. per day). The average daily journey is 40 Sicilian 
miles (37'/2 Engl. M.). 

Mules. Now that the new roads are completed the traveller need 
not perform the whole of his Sicilian tour on the back of a mule, as 
used to be the practice. Not only is the constant riding fatiguing and 
monotonous, but it is not pleasant to be always dependent on one's 
guide ('vetturino'), who contracts to provide the traveller with every 
necessary at a fixed sum per day. The usual charges from Palermo are 
for one person with two mules 40 fr., for two persons with four mules 
CO fr. per day, and so on. Travelling by diligence, or even in hired 
carriages on the high-roads is therefore less expensive than riding; but 
there are of course many excursions where riding or walking alone is 
practicable. 

The charge for a mule, exclusive of hotel-expenses, varies in different 
parts of the island, but the maximum may be stated at 10 fr. per diem. 
The attendant expects a slight additional fee. If a mule be engaged with 
a guide who is also mounted , for a journey of several days, the whole 
charge does not exceed 7-10 fr. per day. If, however, the traveller does 
not return to the point of starting, the return-journey must be paid for. 
The rider should previously stipulate for a good saddle (sella or sedda 
inglese), and not a 'bisazza senza staffe\ i.e. a saddle without stirrups, 
such as the Sicilians use. 

Letters of introduction to inhabitants of the island will be found 
very useful, and for scientific travellers, who wish to economise time, 
almost necessary. The card of an officer of the Carabinieri often serves 
as a kind of introduction. 

Brigandage. From the events of I860 down to the present time, the 
state of public security in Sicily has always been more or less unsatis- 
factory, and the stringent measures of government have not yet been entire- 
ly successful in rooting out the evils of brigandage. In fact an effectual 
cure can scarcely be expected as long as the present social and agricultural 
state of the island remains unchanged. (Comp. also In trod., p. xiv.) Generally 
speaking, it is wealthy natives, and not foreigners, against whom predatory 
attacks are directed. The provinces of Messina and Catania, including Mt. 
./Etna, are regarded as perfectly safe, while the most hazardous localities 
are the environs of Palermo and some parts of the interior. 

Plan of Tour. The best seasons for travelling in Sicily are the months 
of April and May, or September and October. Even in January the weather 
is often fine and settled. The ascent of .(Etna in spring is possible, but 
the best period is August or September , after the first showers of 
autumn have cleared the atmosphere. 

Many travellers, especially if accompanied by ladies, will content 
themselves with a visit to Palermo, and to Messina and Taormina amidst 
the. striking scenery of the E. coast, and they will perhaps include Ca- 
Utnitt, Ml. jFAna, Syracuse, and (lirgenli in their tour. All these places 



Qeography and Statistics. SICILY. 227 

may be visited with ease and comfort, as the steamboat and railway 
services are regular and the inns good. The W. half of the island, and 
particularly the ruins of Segesta, the Monte S. Giuliano, and Trapani, may 
be visited by diligence or hired carriage, or by steamboat. Marsala, 
Castelvetrano, and the ruins of Selinunto are reached from Trapani by good 
carriage-roads. The best mode of exploring the very picturesque N. Coast 
is mentioned at p. 304. 

Palermo, Messina, Taormina, Syracuse, and Girgenti may be visited 
in a fortnight: — At Palermo 3-4 days; journey to Girgenti 1 day; at 
Girgenti 1-2 days ; diligence and railway-journey through the interior of 
the island to Catania l'/2-2 days , or by steamer to Syracuse in 18 hrs. ; 
at Syracuse lVa-2 days v at Taormina 1-2 days; at Messina 1-2 days. — 
The most energetic of travellers, however, will take at least a month to 
exhaust the beauties of the island. The following routes are the most 
important : — At Palermo 3-4 days ; by land in 4 days, or by steamer 
direct in 18 hrs. from Palermo to Messina; in the latter case Milazzo 
and Patti (Tyndaris) should be visited from Messina, 3 days; by railway 
to Taormina 1 day; Catania and jEina 3 days; stay at Syracuse 2 days; 
by steamer in 18 hrs. to Girgenti; at Girgenti 1-2 days; by land in 2 days 
to Sciacca, Selinunto, and Caslelvetrano ; thence by Calaiafimi (Segesta) in 
2 days, or, if Marsala and Trapani be included, in 4 days, to Palermo. 



Geography and Statistics. 

Sicily (the ancient Sicilia, Sikelia, or Trinacrid) is the largest 
island in the Mediterranean. Its area, according to the most recent 
measurements, amounts to 29,240 sq. kilometres, i. e. about 11,450 
Engl. sq. M. The form of the island is an irregular triangle, the 
W., truncated angle of which is the promontory of Lilybaeum , or 
Capo di Boeo, near Marsala; the N.E. angle is the promontory of 
Pelorum (Capo del Faro) nearest the mainland of Italy, and the 
S.E. angle the promontory of Pachynum (Capo Passero). The N. 
coast is 200, the E. 135, and the S. W. 177 Engl. M. in length. 

The whole island of Sicily is mountainous in character. Closely 
connected with Italy by geological structure as well as in geo- 
graphical position, it forms a continuation of the great Apennine 
range which stretches across the Mediterranean from the main trunk 
of Europe to Africa, a submerged prolongation of the range being 
also distinctly traceable. The distance between Cape Boeo and 
Cape Bon is only 75 M. , and the depth in the direct line never 
exceeds 100 fathoms, except in one narrow belt running S.E. 
towards the island of Pantelleria (248 fathoms), while the Straits 
of Pantelleria, separating Sicily from Africa, are as a rule not more 
than 50 fathoms deep. This submerged elevation is probably of 
volcanic origin. Pantelleria and Linosa are extinct volcanoes, 
and the heights which at many points approach the surface of the 
water are probably the cones of submarine volcanoes, not yet 
levelled by the action of the waves. The submerged peak of Ora- 
ham's Shoal, to the S. of Sciacca, not more than 2y 2 fathoms from 
the surface, and now covered with beautiful corals, marks the scene 
of several submarine volcanic eruptions, the most famous of which 
took place in 1831 , and formed the ephemeral island of Giulia or 

15* 



228 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

Ferdinandca. To the N. of Sicily lies another volcanic tract , the 
eruptions of which have produced the Lipari Islands. The S.E. 
portion of the island of Sicily is of the tertiary formation, and is 
connected with the contemporaneous and similar formations of the 
Malta Islands by a submarine table-land. The virtual W. apex 
of Sicily is formed by Maritimo, the westernmost of the Aegadian 
Islands, which lie in shallow water, and are geologically identical 
with the actual W. coast of Sicily. The Straits of Messina, only 
2 M. wide at their narrowest point , and at their shallowest part 
(near the same point) 51 fathoms deep, may be regarded as a sub- 
merged depression which was not raised high enough at the last 
upheaval of the spurs of the Apennines to appear as a defile on 
land instead of a strait in water. (A converse case is that of the 
defile of Tiriolo near Cantanzaro, in Calabria, which a slightly less 
powerful upheaval would have also left a strait.) The shallowness 
of the sea on the S. and S.W., coupled with striking palaeontological 
proofs , thus warrants the conclusion that Sicily was at a com- 
paratively recent geological period united with the continent of 
Africa. On the N. and E., on the contrary, the shores of the island 
descend abruptly into the deepest parts of the Mediterranean, a 
sounding of no less than 2000 fathoms having been made within 
about 30 M. of Cape Passero. 

Mountains. Sicily, which is of a hilly or mountainous char- 
acter throughout its whole extent, may be roughly described as 
a table-land of a mean level of 2300-2800 ft., somewhat tilted 
towards the N., and higher at the edges than in the interior. The 
loftiest of the non-volcanic summits are towards the N., where a 
range of mountains runs from the Straits of Messina along the 
coast, forming a prolongation of the Apennine range which tra- 
verses the Italian peninsula. The continuity of the chain remains 
unbroken as far the valley of Polizzi, a place of historical interest, 
whence the Himera Septentrionalis (Fiume Grande) flows N. to the 
Tyrrhenian, and the Himera Meridionalis (Fiume Salso) S. to the 
African Sea. The W. part of the range, which consists rather 
of detached groups of mountains, is the only one which has received 
a distinguishing name from the natives, who call it the Madonie. Its 
highest summits are the Pizzo dell' Antenna (6480 ft.), the loftiest 
mountain in the island after .(Etna, and the Monte Salvatore, both 
covered with snow during one half of the year. Scientific geographers 
apply the name of Nebrodic Mountains to the Madonie together with 
the mountains to the N. and N.W. of jEtna (where the Monte Sori 
attains a height of 6052 ft.), while they distinguish that section of 
the range which abuts on the Straits of Messina as the Peloric Chain 
(the Monies Neptunii or Pelorides of the ancients), culminating in 
the Dinnamari or Antennamare (3707 ft.) near Messina. 

To the W. of the important watershed of the two Himeras the 
mountains still form a chain or range, though of less distinct char- 



Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 229 

acter, the highest summits of which all lie near the N. coast. 
Thus near Termini rises the Monte S. Calogero (4347 ft. J , while 
near Palermo are Monte Cuccio (3441 ft. J , and , farther inland, 
the Busambra (5298 ft.) , a huge and almost perpendicular mass 
of rock. As we proceed towards the W. , however, single moun- 
tains or isolated clusters become more prominent , till they end 
at last in the pyramid of Monte S. Oiuliano , the ancient Eryx, 
rising precipitously from the sea and standing like a gigantic sen- 
tinel to guard the W. coast of the island. From this great north- 
ern range , running from E. to W. , various minor chains branch 
off towards the !S. and S. W. into the heart of the island, leaving 
both on the E. and W. small littoral plains between them and 
the sea. From Monte Artesino (3914 ft.) , to the N.W. of Leon- 
forte, diverges a range which connects the mountains of the N. 
coast with the isolated group in the S.E. part of the island. More 
to theW., near the centre of the narrowest part of the island, rises 
the conspicuous Monte Cammarata (5177 ft.), and still farther W. 
is a considerable mass culminating in the Monte Rose (4711 ft.). 
To the S.W. of the latter are the wild and rugged Caltabelotta 
Mts. (3000 ft.) , the last spur of which is the Monte 8. Calogero 
near Sciacca, celebrated for its hot springs. 

In the S.E. corner of the island is a mountainous district of a 
very peculiar and interesting geological character, united with the 
other mountain-systems only by a narrow ridge near Caltagirone. 
In the heart of it rises the Monte Lauro (3230 ft.), whence the 
considerable rivers of this part of Sicily descend in all directions 
through profound ravines and valleys , the sides of which are 
honeycombed with caverns. These erosions reveal to us the fact, 
that , while the surface of the mountain consists chiefly of tertiary 
shell-limestone , this formation alternates lower down with strata 
of dark volcanic rock. These were most probably formed by the 
agency of submarine volcanoes at a period prior to the upheaval of 
Mt. ^Etna, the scoria and other materials emitted by each eruption 
having been afterwards levelled by the action of the waves and 
covered with marine deposits. At last came an eruption powerful 
enough to raise the whole tract above the level of the sea. Nearly 
the whole remainder of the island, particularly the districts in the 
middle, and to the S. and S.W., is also composed of the tertiary 
formation. To this formation, represented mainly by marl, clay, 
and gypsum , belong extensive deposits of sulphur and rock-salt, 
the first of which contribute so materially to Sicily's wealth and 
prosperity, while the latter are as yet almost untouched. The sul- 
phur-strata extend westwards as far as the secondary mountain- 
ranges near Salemi and Partanna , and eastwards as far as the 
mountains of Judica and Rammacca. Whatever part of the inte- 
rior of the island the traveller visits, he is sure to stumble upon 
a sulphur-mine, or meet long trains of waggons or mules conveying 



230 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

this 'yellow gold' of Sicily to the coast. The richest mines are at 
Lercara (p. 288), situated on the watershed between the Tyrrhe- 
nian and African Seas , to the N. of Girgenti, and near Caltanis- 
setta (p. 295). — The Tertiary Formations in Sicily attain a most 
unwonted altitude ; the huge rock on which lies Castrogiovanni, 
the historical Enna (p. 296), rears its head no less than 3270 ft. 
above the level of the sea. — The mountains on the N. coast, with 
the ramifications extending to the Eryx and the Monte San Calogero 
near Sciacca, belong to the secondary formations, and consist chiefly 
of calcareous limestone. This limestone is perforated by numerous 
caverns, in which the bones of huge pachydermata , denizens of 
the country before its separation from the African continent , and 
various prehistoric antiquities are frequently found. — The Pe- 
loric range and the mountains of the N. coast from Messina to Cape 
Calava are composed of crystalline rocks of the primary formations, 
but their bases are overlaid with strata of recent tertiary deposits, 
so that the older formation seldom comes to light on the coast 
itself. The identity of the geological structure of this part of the 
island with that of Calabria is a proof of the intimate connection 
between Sicily and the Italian peninsula. On both sides of the 
Strait of Messina the prevailing rock is gneiss , with which are 
associated small quantities of a fine-grained granite , mica-slate, 
pegmatite , and granular limestone. The famous rock of Scylla 
(p. 212), visible from the Faro point, and the peninsula of Milazzo 
(p. 309), are both formed of fine-grained granite and gneiss. The 
S. margins of the Peloric Mts. and of the Aspromonte (p. 221) 
consist of clay-slate. 

Mt. Mtna (10,835 ft.), the loftiest mountain in Sicily and the 
largest volcano in Europe, rises on theE. side of the island, and is 
completely detached from the other mountains by the deep valleys 
of the Simeto and Alcantara. The watershed between these rivers, 
however, near the Lake of Gurrita, which is sometimes quite dry, 
attains a considerable height (3792 ft.). The district in which this 
great volcano rises has evidently been at one time a bay of the 
sea , still recognisable in the plain of Catania. The mountain is 
capped with snow throughout the year, except during a few weeks 
in summer, while in some of the gullies the snow never melts 
entirely. 

The island contains no Plains of any extent. The most con- 
siderable is the Piano di Catania (Ager Leontinus, Campi Laestry- 
gonii), extending between the rivers Simeto and Gurnalunga. The 
littoral plains of Terranova (Campi Geloi), Licata, and Milazzo, 
the plain between Trapani and Marsala, and the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo may also be mentioned. 

The Coasts of Sicily are as a rule steep and rocky, short reaches 
of flat coast being found in the gulfs of Catania and Terranova, 
and to the S. of Trapani only. A peculiarity of the Sicilian coast 



Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 231 

is found in the numerous narrow peninsulas lying in front of it, 
which have in comparatively recent times only ceased to be islands, 
and which almost invariably form good harbours. Of this nature 
are the peninsulas of Syracuse , Augusta , Trapani , Milazzo , and 
Messina. (The strikingly picturesque Monte Pellegrino , near Pa- 
lermo, was also at one time an island off the coast.) To these capa- 
cious natural harbours falls to be added the artificial one of Pa- 
lermo , the somewhat inadequate successor of the famous ancient 
harbour , which has been gradually silted up during the geological 
elevation of the W. coast of Sicily. The same cause has rendered 
the fine harbour of Trapani almost useless. The S. coast is per- 
fectly destitute of natural harbours , and therefore unapproach- 
able in stormy weather; but artificial harbours have recently been 
constructed at great expense at Porto Empedocle and Licata. 

The Rivers of Sicily are very numerous , but none of them 
are large , and with a few exceptions they all dry up in summer. 
The district of primary formations in the N. E. of the island does 
not contain a single perennial water-course , but many broad Fiu- 
mare, or river-beds , filled after heavy rain with turbulent and 
destructive torrents , which carry down large masses of the easily 
detached rock , and refuse to be confined within embankments, 
often causing widespread devastation. During this century espe- 
cially, since most of the primeval forests have been cut down, the 
disintegration of the rocks on the mountains and the destruction 
of the orchards on their slopes and at their base, caused by these 
torrents, have assumed startling proportions. The stony beds of 
the 'fiumare' are sometimes upwards of 1 /o M. wide at the mouth, 
and even in winter are traversed by a mere thread of water only. 
The numerous streams towards the S.E., which take their rise in 
the porous, honeycombed limestone hills, are, on the other hand, 
comparatively copious in the lower part of their course. "Water 
may generally be found by digging below the dry beds of the 
fiumare even in summer. The principal rivers, none of which are 
navigable , are the Simeto (which receives the Fiume Salso , Dit- 
taino , and Ournalunga , and waters a great part of E. Sicily), the 
Alcantara, the Fiume Salso (Himera Meridionalis) , the Platani, 
the Belice, the Oreto, and the S. Leonardo near Termini. (In the 
Map at the end of the Handbook the water-courses which dry up 
in summer are coloured brown , and those which contain water 
throughout the whole year are blue.) 

The splendid Forests with which Sicily was originally covered, 
and which yielded the admirable ship-building timber mentioned 
so often in the days of the Greek and Saracenic domination, have 
been disappearing rapidly under the axe of the woodman since 
the 16th cent., and especially since the beginning of this century. 
In the 11th cent, the Monte Lauro was still clothed with forests of 
pines and fir, and in the 15th cent, the Monte Pellegrino, now 



232 SICILY. Oeoyraphy and Statistics. 

conspicuous for its baldness , was clothed with underwood. The 
total area of the forests in Sicily in 1857 was estimated at 170,000 
acres , but this has probably greatly decreased , as the forests of 
^Etna then covered 125,000 acres, while the whole province of 
Catania now contains only 60,000 acres of wood. The only con- 
siderable forests are those of iEtna and the mountains on the N. 
coast , the finest of which are the Caronian Forest and the Bosco 
di Ficuzza on the Busambra , where the Bourbon sovereigns used 
to hunt when they resided at Palermo. These woods consist of 
oaks, chestnuts, elms, ashes, etc., and are carpeted with thick 
green underwood like the woods of Central Europe , while others 
nearer the coast and in lower situations consist mainly of isolated 
evergreen oaks [Quercus Ilex, Quercus Suber, etc.). Pine-forests 
are found in the ./Etna region only. The Macchie, a kind of thicket 
of dense , almost impenetrable , and often thorny bushes , 5-13 ft. 
high, peculiar to the regions of the Mediterranean, and growing on 
the denuded sites of former forests, are less common in Sicily than 
in neighbouring lands. 

Products and Cultivation. The current impression that only 
a small portion of the area of Sicily is cultivated , is quite er- 
roneous. In 1857 it was estimated that about 200,000 acres only 
were unproductive, and 1,600,000 acres under pasture, leaving 
5,500,000 acres, or 3 / 4 of the whole area, under cultivation. Since 
that date , moreover, a large proportion , probably about one-half, 
of these unproductive lands have been reclaimed , chiefly through 
the partition of large estates falling into the hands of government 
on the failure of heirs. The value of pasture in Sicily may be 
gathered from the fact that an annual rental of 25,000 fr. has been 
paid for the apparently barren Mte. Pellegrino near Palermo. 

The cultivation of the soil has made rapid strides within the 
last few decades, especially since 1860, and arboriculture has of 
late become one of the chief occupations of the farmer. The greater 
part of the island is still devoted to the production of wheat, but 
the culture of fruit-trees, especially of the Citri (the generic term 
for oranges, lemons, and citrons), is found to be still more lucrative, 
and assumes ever-increasing proportions. In the Conca d'Oro near 
Palermo the yield of a hectare (S 1 /^ acres) of lemon-trees averages 
4300 fr., and that of a hectare of orange-trees 2900 fr. per annum. 
The export of these fruits , particularly to the United States , is 
steadily increasing, and has now reached the value of 80, 000, 000 fr. 
annually. They are shipped in almost equal quantities from Pa- 
lermo and Messina , being cultivated most sedulously on the N. 
coast from Partinico to Messina, and on the K. coast as far S. as 
Catania. The orange and lemon harvest lasts from November to 
March, but the fruit does not thoroughly ripen till January. I hir- 
ing the hot season the trees require a constant supply of water. 
About one-lit'th of the whole island is now devoted to the culti- 



Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 233 

vation of trees of various kinds, the products of which are exported 
to the value of 135,000,000 fr. annually, a sum that will appear 
still more considerable when it is remembered that nine-tenths 
of the islanders themselves subsist entirely on wheaten bread, 
fruit, and fish. This branch of agriculture is interesting, not only 
from an economical but also from a social and moral point of view. 
The constant attention which arboriculture demands renders it 
impossible for the agricultural labourers to live in crowded vil- 
lages, often at a considerable distance from their daily work ; so 
that this branch of agriculture tends to a more equal distribution 
of the population , and contributes to improve their moral con- 
dition. Sicily at present contains about 500 of these over-grown 
villages of agricultural labourers , with an average population of 
5000 each, but the people are now beginning to descend from their 
rocky nests and settle among the fields. 

Another prevalent error with regard to Sicily is that its fertility 
has decreased. Rain still falls in sufficient quantity to make the 
fruits of the field as plentiful now as of yore , in spite of the poor 
agricultural implements and the want of manuring. The porous 
nature of the soil and the hilly character of the ground greatly facil- 
itate its irrigation, and volcanic agencies also tend in some districts 
to prevent undue exhaustion. In the time of Cicero the crops of 
wheat in the Leontinian Fields, the best land in the island, yielded 
a ten-fold return, whereas at the present time the average return 
for the whole of Sicily is eleven-fold. The total quantity of grain 
produced at the same period (at which, however, a falling -off 
had begun to be perceptible) amounted annually to about two- 
thirds only of the present crop, and arboriculture had scarcely been 
attempted. Wheat, Barley, and Beans, which form almost the 
only crops, cover all the available level districts in the island. As 
the Sicilian wheat is of excellent quality and commands a high price, 
it is usually exported, while an inferior kind is imported for home 
consumption ; but the already - mentioned concentration of the 
population in a few large villages , the peculiarity of the farm- 
tenure , the inferiority of the agricultural implements , and the 
occasional deficiency of hands , which is supplied in many parts 
by peasants from Calabria , are unfavourable to the agricultural 
prosperity of the country. The fields on the N. and E. coasts, like 
those in Sardinia and N. Africa, are enclosed by Cactus-hedges 
(Opuntia Ficus Indica and Opuntia Amyclaea) , which frequently 
attain a considerable height. Their fruit , the cactus-fig , of a 
sweetish, somewhat insipid taste, is much esteemed by the natives, 
who in autumn use it to a considerable extent as a substitute for 
bread. In some places , such as the plain of the Conca d'Uro near 
Palermo , there are whole fields of the cactus, the yield of which 
is very considerable. The Cotton culture , which was greatly ex- 
tended during the American civil war, has since then declined, as 



234 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

the Sicilian cotton is very inferior to the American. Sumach [Rhus 
coriaria , the leaves of which are used in tanning and as a black 
dye) and linseed are among the staple exports. Other products 
exported, besides the Citri and their essential oils, are almonds, 
olive oil, wine (Marsala, Riposto, Catania, Vittoria, and Siracusa), 
nuts , capers , pistachios , manna , liquorice, lentils , and raisins. 
The chief animal products are silk, hides, wool, anchovies, tunny- 
fish, and cantharides. Mineral products: sulphur, salt, and 
marble. The island possesses no mines of the precious metals or of 
coal. Many of the merchants are Germans and Swiss, who have to 
a great extent taken the place of the English , but the Sicilians 
themselves are now beginning to turn their attention more zea- 
lously to commerce. About two-thirds of the manufactured goods 
imported into Sicily, as well as'Italy, pass through the hands of 
Swiss and German merchants. The statistics relating to the ex- 
ports and imports are untrustworthy , but it is ascertained that 
the former are far more considerable than the latter. This will be 
still more the case as agriculture advances in consequence of the 
partition of the vast landed estates and the promotion of the public 
safety. 

Climate. The climate of Sicily, which may be described gener- 
ally as of a marine character, is a most delightful one , and in 
equableness is second to that of Madeira alone. This is especially 
true of the climate of Palermo, which is rapidly coming into favour 
as a winter residence for invalids. Catania is somewhat colder in 
winter, and is moreover exposed to sudden changes of temperature 
on account of the proximity of Mt. .<Etna. Messina and Syracuse 
are windy places. 

In Sicily the year consists of two seasons only , the rainy and 
the dry. The Rainy Season corresponds with the winter of Cen- 
tral Europe, and is marked by a fall of temperature. The freezing- 
point , however , is seldom reached , except occasionally just be- 
fore dawn , and there are few winter days when one cannot sit 
comfortably in the open air in a sheltered situation. The rainy 
season is at the same time that of the most luxuriant vegetation. 
It is ushered in by thunder-storms in September and October, 
sets in steadily in November, generally relaxes somewhat in Jan- 
uary, ends towards the close of March, and is followed by a few 
violent thunder-storms in April and May. In June, July, and Au- 
gust, but particularly in July, almost no rain falls, but the heat is 
tempered by the proximity of the sea. Continuous rain is, how- 
ever, rare, even in the wet season, and there are seldom more than 
half-a-dozen days in the year absolutely without sunshine. Cicero's 
remark on Syracuse, that the sun shines there every day without 
exception, is almost literally true. The heaviest rainfall occurs in 
December. In Palermo it averages 22 inches per annum, of which 
3 in. fall in December and only about 1 / 6 in. in July; in Syracuse 



Geography and Statistics. SICILY. 235 

the rain-fall is 16 in. , -with practically none in June, July , and 
August. Wheat is sown at the beginning of the rains, and reaped 
shortly after their close. 

The Winds also vary in accordance with these two divisions of 
the year. Prom October to March the rainy W.S.W. wind, blowing 
from the equatorial regions , prevails ; from May to August the 
prevalent wind blows from the N.E., forming a continuation of 
the trade-winds from beyond the N. pole ; while in April and 
September these winds blow alternately. Violent winds, with the 
exception of the Scirocco , are rare , and the barometrical changes 
are on the whole slight. The Scirocco is one of the few drawbacks 
to the climate of Sicily. It visits Palermo , where it is particul- 
arly disagreeable, about twelve times a year, and may occur in any 
month , though it is most frequent and most violent in April and. 
the short transitionary seasons generally. On the E. coast it is 
generally charged with moisture, but at Palermo it is hot and dry. 
The highest temperature ever observed in the shade at Palermo 
(105° Fahr.) was registered during the scirocco. During its con- 
tinuance the sky is of a dull, leaden appearance, often with a tinge 
of red , occasioned by the columns of dust which the storm fre- 
quently brings with it from a long distance. If rain falls , these 
fine particles of dust occasion the phenomenon known as 'blood 
rain', which may be easily collected on the foliage of the trees. 
Meteorologists seem now for the most part agreed that the scirocco 
is one of the hot periodical storm-winds , which blow from the 
Sahara in all directions (such as the Harmattan , Khamsin , etc. J. 
Its effect , often less felt at first by visitors from the N. than by 
the natives, is to occasion a difficulty of breathing and lassitude, 
which unfit one for work, especially of a mental nature. The sci- 
rocco, however, often lasts for a few hours only, and rarely for 
more than three days. 

One of the great advantages of the climate of Sicily, as already 
observed, is its equableness, sudden changes of temperature being 
rare. The heat at Palermo in summer is little greater than at 
Florence, while the winters are remarkably mild. The mean tem- 
perature in August, the hottest month, is 78° Fahr., and in Jan- 
uary, the coldest month, 52°, the difference being 26° only, while 
the mean annual temperature is about 64°. The lowest tempe- 
rature yet recorded at the observatory at Palermo has been 35°, but 
it is known that the mercury occasionally descends 3-4° below the 
freezing-point in the early morning almost every winter. During 
December, January, February, and March the thermometer remains 
at almost the same level , and abrupt changes are very rare, espe- 
cially at Palermo , which is sheltered from the N. wind by the 
Monte Pellegrino. The mean daily range of temperature at Pa- 
lermo is about 12°, in winter less, and on some days not more than 
4-5°. Catania has a mean annual temperature of 65° ; in summer 



236 SICILY. Geography and Statistics. 

it is warmer than Palermo, and in winter colder. The daily range 
of temperature is also somewhat greater , and a difference of 41° 
has been noticed within 24 hours. 

Mineral Baths, most of them sulphureous, and already famous 
in ancient times, are established at Sciacca on the Monte S. Calo- 
gero (Thermae Selinuntinas), at Termini (Therina? Himerenses), at 
Termini di Castro near Barcellona , and at Acireale near Catania. 
The bath-arrangements are very defective, those at Acireale and 
the two Termini being the best. 

The Population of the island , according to the census of 
31st Dec. 1875, amounts to 2,716,672, or on an average 237 souls 
per Engl. sq. M. National schools have been established every- 
where under the new regime , and the towns now possess com- 
mercial (scuola tecnica and istituto tecnico) and grammar schools, 
but the number of 'analfaheti' (persons who can neither read nor 
write) still amounts to four-fifths of the whole population ( 9 /i ths 
in 1864). 

Districts. From the Saracen period down to the beginning of 
the present century the island was divided into three districts : the 
Vat (Welaia) di Demone, the N.E. portion; the Vat di Noto, the 
S.E. part; and the Val di Mazzara, to the S.W. Since 1817 it has 
been divided into seven prefectures : (1) Palermo, with 664,359 
inhab.; (2) Trapani, with 248,266; (3) Oirgenti, with 304,787; 
(4) Caltanissetta, with 242,359; (5) Catania, with 517,076; (6) 
Siracusa, with 306,775; (7) Messina, with 433,050 inhabitants. 

Towns. The principal towns are Palermo, Messina, Catania, 
Modica, Trapani, Termini, Acireale, and Caltagirone. Of the 120- 
130 towns in the kingdom of Italy which contain above 10,000 in- 
hab. upwards of one-quarter belong to Sicily. This is explained 
by the fact, that owing to the constant wars of the middle ages, 
the predatory incursions of barbarians, and the insecure state of 
the country, it was unsafe for the peasantry to live in villages, and 
this class has therefore mainly contributed to swell the population 
of the towns. 

Measures. Besides the official metre, the following standards 
are still used : 1 canna = 8 palmi = 2.065 metres = 2'/ 4 yds. ; 
1 palmo = 12 once = 0.258 metre. 



Historical Notice. SICILY. 237 

Historical Notice. 

1. Political History. 

First Period. According to the traditions of ancient Greek 
mariners, Sicily was once inhabited by Cyclopes, Gigantes, Loto- 
phagi, Laestrygones, etc., whom Sicilian historians have endea- 
voured to classify into iron-workers, stone-workers , farmers, and 
gardeners. The most ancient inhabitants of Sicily were a prehistoric 
race , the only certain traces of whom are the flint implements 
found in various parts of the island and perhaps a few of the stone 
monuments. They were followed by the Sicani, who were believed 
by some authorities to be of Iberian, by others of Celtic origin. It 
is more probable, however, that they belonged to an Italian race. 
They dwelt at first in the B. part of the island , but within the 
period embraced in history are found only in the W., between the 
Tyrrhenian Sea (Hykkara) and the Libyan Sea. The deserted terri- 
tory of the Sicani to the E. was taken possession of before B.C. 
1000 by the Sikeli, a tribe related to the Latins, which, as some 
authorities believe, had already had a warlike history and made 
maritime raids upon Egypt. They dwelt in the S.E. corner of the 
island, in the middle of its E. half, especially in the valley of the 
Syimethus, and on the N. coast. Their principal towns were : S. 
Hybla, Menai (Mineo), Morgantium, N. Hybla (Paterno), Centuripe, 
Agyrion(S. Filippo d'Agiro), Assorus (Asaro), Aluntium (S. Marco), 
and Agathyrnum (near C. Orlando). The Phoenicians, coming from 
the E., founded numerous colonies on the coast, and the Elymi, 
supposed to be descended from the Trojans, occupied Segesta, Eryx 
(with the sanctuary of Aphrodite), Entella, and other settlements. 
The Greeks make their appearance in Sicily in B.C. 735, when 
the Ionian Theocles of Chalcis (or Athens) founded Naxos, at the 
mouth of the Cantara. During the following year Dorians from 
Corinth under Archias founded Syracuse ; and in 728 Megara Hy- 
blaea, another Dorian colony, was settled by Lamis of Megara. 
Zankle (afterwards Messana) was peopled by Ionians, who also 
founded Leontini and Catana (729). A Dorian character was 
impressed upon the S. coast by the foundation of Gela (Terranova) 
by Rhodians and Cretans in 689, of Selinus by Megara in 628, and 
of Acragas (Girgenti) by Gela in 581. The Dorians also made 
themselves masters of the S.E. corner of Sicily through the Syra- 
cusan colonies of Acrae (664), Casmena" (624), and Camarina (589). 
Himera (648), the only Greek colony on the N. coast, was a joint 
settlement, in which the Ionian element preponderated. The oc- 
cupation of the Lipari Islands in B.C. 580 marks the close of the 
spread of the Hellenic power in Sicily, and the beginning of the 
Semitic reaction. The Phoenicians, who on the approach of the 
Greeks had retired to Solus (or Soloeis), Panormus, and Motye, now 



238 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

placed themselves under the protection of Carthage and thus 
imposed a check upon the farther progress of Hellenisation. The 
Sikelians in the E. part of the island, however, became almost 
entirely subject to the Greeks. 

The Greek colonies , as they grew in population , soon began 
to suffer from internal dissensions between the different classes of 
citizens. This led to the formation of codes of law, of which that 
of Charondas of Catana is the most famous, and to the establishment 
of tyrannies , a form of government which attained its most char- 
acteristic development in this island. The most notorious of the 
ancient tyrants was Phalaris of Acragas. About the year 500 we find 
tyrants ruling over most of the cities, of whom Gelon of Syracuse 
and Theron of Acragas, united by ties of family and interest, rescued 
the Greek sway from the perils which threatened it, when, at the 
time of the 2nd Persian War, the Greeks of the western sea were 
attacked by the Carthaginians. In 480, however, the Greek cause 
was victorious at the battle of Himera, the Salamis of Sicily. The 
short but brilliant golden age of Hellenic Sicily now began, sullied 
only by the destruction of the Chalcidian towns of the E. coast by 
Gelon and Hiero. The greater number of the temples and aqueducts 
at Syracuse, Girgenti, Selinunto, Himera, etc., the ruins of which 
excite such admiration at the present day, were erected between 480 
and 450. But internal municipal struggles, fomented by the demo- 
cratic parties of the different cities, and the renewed antagonism of 
the Doric and Ionic-Achsean elements paved the way for a cata- 
strophe, to which the great Athenian campaign against Syracuse in 
413 contributed. Previously to this the Greeks had a formidable 
enemy to subdue in Ducetius of Netum (Noto), who united the towns 
of the Sikeli in a confederacy against the Greeks (461-440), but this 
league was compelled to succumb to the united forces of Syracuse 
and Acragas. What the Sicilians had failed in effecting was now 
attempted with more success by the great power of Africa. The 
Carthaginians now began their most formidable attacks. Selinus 
and Himera were destroyed by them in 409, Acragas taken in 40b, 
Gela and Camarina conquered and rendered tributary to Carthage 
in 405, and Messana razed to the ground in 396. These events were 
instrumental in causing the rise of Dionysius I. in Syracuse (406), 
who extended and fortified the town, and after a war of varied 
success finally drove back the Carthaginians in 382 to the Halycus 
(Platani). Down to his death in 367 Dionysius was master of the 
destinies of Syracuse, and with it of Sicily ; the greater part of Magna 
Gracia was also subject to his sway, and he even intervened several 
times with effect in the affairs of Greece itself. Syracuse never again 
attained to such a pinnacle of power. On his death dissensions began 
anew. Dionysius II. was inferior to his father, and Dion able as a 
philosopher only. Timoleon, however, succeeded in 343-336 in 
restoring some degree of order, defeated the Carthaginians in 340 on 



Historical Notice. SICILY. 239 

the Crimissus (Bilice), and again restricted their territory to the 
W. of the Halycus. But even his brilliant example availed little 
to arrest the increasing degeneracy of the people. In 317-289 
Agathocles usurped the sovereignty of Syracuse, and in 310 the 
Carthaginians besieged the city, although unsuccessfully. The 
brilliant African campaign of Agathocles was without enduring re- 
sult. Pyrrhus too, who had wrested the whole island as far as Lily- 
bseum from the Carthaginians, soon quitted it again for Italy (278- 
276), dissatisfied with the prevailing anarchy and disunion. In 
274 Hiero II. usurped the tyranny of Syracuse. His siege of Mes- 
sana, of which Campanian mercenaries, or Mamertines, had treach- 
erously taken possession , compelled the latter to sue for Roman 
aid. Thus it was that the Romans obtained a footing in the island, 
and the struggle between them and the Carthaginians , who had 
supported Hiero, now began. The chequered contest for the sover- 
eignty of Sicily lasted from 264 to 241. Hiero, who in 263 had 
become an ally of Rome, ruled over a small independent kingdom 
on the E. coast, even after the final expulsion of the Carthaginians. 
After the death of Hiero II. his successor Hieronymus espoused the 
cause of Hannibal, in consequence of which Syracuse was besieged 
by Marcellus in 214-212, taken, and sacked. In 210, after the 
conquest of Agrigentum , the island became the first Roman pro- 
vince, and was divided into two districts or quaesturse, Lilybaetana 
(with the capital Lilybseum, now Marsala) and Syracusana. 

Second Period. At first the Romans endeavoured to improve 
the agriculture of the island, which had suffered seriously during 
the protracted wars, with a view to render Sicily a more profitable 
province. The system of cultivation borrowed from the Carthagi- 
nians was indeed successfully employed in rendering Sicily the 
granary of Italy, but at the same time it proved the occasion of 
the Servile Wars (139-131 and 104-101), which devastated the 
island to a greater extent than the Punic wars. Under the Roman 
governors the ancient prosperity of Sicily steadily declined. The 
notorious Verres in particular impoverished it greatly during his 
term of office in 73 -71. The civil war between Octavianus and 
Sextus Pompeius, who had made himself master of Sicily (43-36) 
but was defeated by Agrippa in the naval battle of Naulochus (on 
the N. coast, near Mylas), also accelerated its ruin, so that Augustus 
was obliged in a great measure to repeople the island and re-erect 
the towns. Little is known of its internal aifairs after this date. 
With regard to the dissemination of Christianity in Sicily numer- 
ous traditions are current, and are preserved in the different mar- 
tyrologies. It is recorded (Acts xxviii. 12) that St. Paul landed 
at Syracuse on his journey to Rome and spent three days there, 
and the evidence of monuments goes to confirm the local legends 
of missionaries from the E., and to refute the later pretensions of 
Rome to the establishment of Christianity in Sicily. Syracuse 



240 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

would thus seem to have taken an important part in the spread of 
the Christian religion. After the end of the 3rd cent, the new 
religion made rapid progress, and in the reign of Constantino it had 
hecome practically the universal faith, though heathens still existed 
in Sicily down to the 6th century. It is now, however, the boast 
of the Sicilians that their island has never produced a prominent 
heretic, and in 1860 the minister of ecclesiastical affairs expressed 
his approval of the unity of the Sicilians in matters of religion. 
The Spanish inquisition found but few victims here. The Sicilian 
of the present day is, however, far from being intolerant , while 
the majority of the educated classes are generally indifferent with 
regard to these questions. 

After another servile war had devastated the country (A.D. 
259), Syracuse began, in 278, to suffer from the incursions of bar- 
barian hordes, when it was plundered by a mere handful of wan- 
dering Franks. In B.C. 27 Sicily had become the first of the ten 
senatorial provinces , according to Augustus's distribution of the 
empire, and then a province of the diocese of Italy, according to the 
arrangement of Diocletian ; but in 395 it was separated from the 
W. and attached to the E. empire, whereby it escaped the fate of 
neither. In 440 Geiserich besieged Palermo and conquered Lily- 
bseum (Marsala). Odoacer made himself master of Sicily, and 
the island afterwards became subject to the Ostrogoths. In 535 
Belisarius brought it under the sway of the Eastern emperors, who 
retained it till its conquest by the Arabs. — The Romish church 
had great possessions in Sicily, and Pope Gregory I. was a zealous 
promoter of the cultivation of the island. Constans II. even 
transferred the seat of the E. empire to Syracuse in 663, but he 
was murdered there in 668, and the city was plundered by the 
Arabs the following year. 

Third Period. In 827 the Saracens, under Ased-ibn-Foriit, 
on the invitation of the governor Euphemius, landed near Mazzara. 
Four years later Palermo fell into their hands , and that city now 
became the capital, and swayed the destinies of the island. The 
Saracens, conquering one city after another, overran the whole is- 
land, and in 878 Syracuse was taken by Ibrahim -ibn- Ahmed. 
Although the Christians could now maintain themselves in the 
N.E. angle of the island only, and even there were deprived of 
Taormina in 902, and finally of Rametta in 965, yet the establish- 
ment of a lasting peace was rendered impossible by the antagonism 
between their Arabian and Berber conquerors, which continually 
led to sanguinary conflicts. To these evils were added the changes 
of dynasty. At first the Aghlabites of Kairvan ruled. Then Sicily 
became an independent emirate under the Fatimite Sovereigns of 
Egypt. The latter half of the 10th cent, was the most prosperous 
period of Sicily under the Mohammedan sway. But the sanguinary 
struggles of the Sunnites and Shyites in Africa, where the Ziritcs 



Historical Notice. SICILY. 241 

and usurped the supremacy, were soon transplanted hither, and 
the insurrection of several cities accelerated the downfall of the 
Arabian dynasty. In spite of these unfavourable circumstances, 
the prosperity of the island had during this period considerably 
increased, and agriculture, industry, and commerce had progressed 
so greatly that the Norman conquerors found the island a most 
valuable acquisition. 

About the middle of the 11th cent., after an ineffectual at- 
tempt to conquer the island had been made by George Maniaces, 
a Greek, in 1038-41, Robert and Roger de Hauteville, sons of 
Tancred of Hauteville in Normandy, went to Italy on the invi- 
tation of their elder brothers , who had declared themselves 
Counts of Apulia. Robert, subsequently surnamed Guiscard, i.e. 
'the Shrewd', compelled the pope to invest him with the Duchy 
of Apulia, and then, after Ibn-Thimna of Syracuse had already in- 
voked his aid, proceeded from Mileto with his brother Roger to con- 
quer Sicily in 1061. The first expedition did not immediately 
produce the desired result. But ten years later they returned, and 
by 1090 the entire island was subdued. The line of Robert Guis- 
card having become extinct in 1127, the second son of Roger 
(Ruggiero) united the whole of the Norman conquests under his 
sceptre, and caused himself to be crowned as king at Palermo in 
1130. During his reign Sicily prospered, and its fleets conquered 
the Arabs and the Greeks, from whom they wrested a portion of 
ancient Greece (Romania). He was succeeded by his second son 
William (1154-66), surnamed by the monkish and feudal chroni- 
clers 'the Bad\ who was followed by his son William II. , 'the 
Good' (d. 1189). After the death of the latter a contest as to the 
succession arose. William II. had given his aunt Constance, 
daughter of Roger, to Henry VI., son of Frederick Barbarossa, in 
marriage, and that monarch now laid claim to the crown. The Si- 
cilians, however, declared themselves in favour of Tancred, a na- 
tural son of Roger. On his death shortly afterwards he was suc- 
ceeded by his son William III., whom Henry VI. had less diffi- 
culty in subduing (1194). Henry did not long enjoy his conquest, 
and died at Messina in 1197. He was succeeded by the Emperor 
Frederick II., as Frederick I. of Sicily, whose exertions in behalf 
of Sicily have been so highly extolled, by posterity. In 1250-54 
his second son Conrad occupied the throne ; then Manfred until 
the battle of Benevento in 1266; and in 1268 Charles of Anjou 
caused the last scion of the Germanic imperial house to be exe- 
cuted (see p. 41). 

Fourth Pebjod. Charles of Anjou and Provence maintained 
his supremacy in Sicily, with which he had been invested by Pope 
Clement IV., for but a brief period. The massacre of the Sicilian 
Vespers (1282) was an expiation of the death of Conradin. Messina 
defended itself heroically against the attacks of Charles ; and Peter 

Baedekek. Italy III. 7th Edition. 16 



242 SICILY. Historical Notice. 

of Arragon, son-in-law of Manfred , became master of the island. 
But its decline dates from this period. It was repeatedly devastated 
by the interminable wars with the Anjous of Naples, while the no- 
bility, such as the Chiaramonte and the Ventimiglia, attained to 
such power as to render systematic administration on the part of 
the government impossible. In 1410, when Sicily became an ap- 
panage of the kingdoms of Naples and Spain , it still retained 
its freedom of internal administration. But this very privilege 
proved prejudicial to it, whilst its external defence against the 
barbarians was neglected. During the second half of the 18th cent. 
many mediaeval institutions were swept away by the advance of ci- 
vilisation , and in 1812 Sicily was finally rescued from the con- 
dition of a mediaeval feudal state , but only to experience once 
more (1815-1860) the evils of a despotic government. The follow- 
ing is a chronological sketch of the history of this period of six 
centuries : — 

a. 1282-1285. Peter of Arragon, King of Sicily. 
1285-1296. James the Just. 

1296-1337. Frederick II. 

1337-1342. Peter II., co-regent from 1321. 

1342-1355. Louis. 

1355-1377. Frederick III. the Simple, brother of Louis. 

1377-1402. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., married in 

1485 to Martin of Arragon. 
1402-1409. Martin I. sole monarch of Sicily , married to 

Bianca of Castille. 
1409-1410. Martin II., father of Martin I. 
1410-1412. Interregnum. 

b. 1412-1416. Ferdinand the Just, King of Arragon and 

Castille. 

1416-1458. Alphonso the Generous, King of Arragon, and 
after 1442 King of Naples. 

1458-1479. John of Arragon and Navarre. 

1479-1515. Ferdinand II. the Catholic, after 1505 also 
King of Naples. 

1515-1554. Emp. Charles V. ; 1517, Squarcialupo's re- 
bellion at Palermo. 

1554-1598. Philip II. 

1598-1621. Philip III. 

1621-1665. Philip IV.; 1647, Revolution at Palermo, 
Giuseppe Alessi. 

1665-1700. Charles II.; 1672-1678, Messina revolts in 
favour of Louis XIV. of France. 

c. 1700-1713. Philip V. of Bourbon, after 1713 King of Spain. 

d. 1713-1720. Victor Amadeus of Savoy. 

e. 1720-1734. Emp. Charles VI. of Germany. 

f. 1734-1751). Charles III. of Bourbon. 



History of Art. SICILY. 243 

1759-1806. Ferdinand IV., King of Naples and Sicily, 
married to Carolina, the profligate daughter of 
Maria Theresa, -was compelled in 1798 to fly 
from Naples to Sicily before the French under 
Championnet, and again in 1806. 

1806-1815. Ferdinand IV., King of Sicily alone. Through 
the influence of Lord William H. C. Bentinck 
the constitution of Sicily is established and a 
parliament summoned (1812). 

1815-1825. Ferdinand IV. reigns as Ferdinand I., 'King 
of the two Sicilies'. The constitution subvert- 
ed. 1820, Revolution at Palermo and throughout 
the island for the restoration of the constitution . 

1825-1830. Francis I. 

1830-1859. Ferdinand II. ; 1837, cholera-revolution; Jan. 
12th, 1848, revolution at Palermo ; 1848-49, 
Sicily ruled by a temporary government , par- 
liament at Palermo; bombardment of Messina. 

1859-1860. Francis II. 
Fifth Period : 

1860-1880. Sicily united with the Kingdom of Italy ; 11th 
May, Garibaldi lands at Marsala; 15th May, 
battle of Calataflmi ; 27th May, capture of Pa- 
lermo ; 20th July, Battle of Milazzo; 2ist Oc- 
tober, plebiscite, by which Sicily is incorpo- 
rated with the Kingdom of Italy. 

2. History of Civilisation and Art. 

Almost every one of the numerous nations which in the course 
of centuries have inhabited or governed Sicily has left behind it 
some trace of its individual capacity for art, modified, however, to 
some extent by the characteristics peculiar to the island, and there- 
fore in most cases bearing a Sicilian stamp. Cicero has observed 
that the Sicilian is never so miserable as to be unable to utter a 
bon-mot, and a similar remark might be made at the present day. 
The Sicilians of all ages have displayed marked, though not bril- 
liant abilities. Their wit, flow of conversation, and power of re- 
partee were universally known to the ancients. It was not, there- 
fore, the result of mere chance that Greek comedy attained its 
earliest development here , and that bucolic poetry originated in 
Sicily, where to this day the natives delight in rural life. Sicily 
has in all ages produced admirable speakers , although rather 
sophists and phraseologists than great orators. In the study of the 
history of their island the natives have ever manifested the utmost 
zeal, and for the concrete sciences as far as they are connected with 
practical life, such as mechanics and medicine, they possess con- 
siderable aptitude. In the manufacture of objects of an artistic 

16* 



244 SICILY. History of Art. 

character (in opposition to pure works of art) , as in architecture, 
the art of engraving, the composition of mosaics, etc., the Sicilians 
have from a very early period distinguished themselves. It must 
not be forgotten, however, that the Saracenic supremacy introduced 
a new and important element into the national character, which 
shows itself in a vein of seriousness , foreign to the character of 
neighbouring races, such as the Neapolitans. The national songs. 
for example , are strongly tinctured with Oriental melancholy. 

The monuments of Sikelian culture of the pre-Hellenic period 
still preserved in Sicily, although far more scanty than the Greek, 
merit a more minute examination than has hitherto fallen to their 
share. Prehistoric antiquities have recently been investigated in 
several different spots , and traces of the flint period have been 
found in caverns and elsewhere. The most important antiquities 
of a somewhat later date are: the Subterranean Cities with which 
the S.E. angle of the island is replete, the so-called Didieri of 
Val d'Ispica, Palazzolo, Pantelica, etc., and the Polygonal Struc- 
tures at Cefalii and on Mt. Eryx. 

The Metopes of Selinus , mementoes of the most ancient style, 
form the transition to the Hellenic sculpture. Some of the most 
magnificent Greek temples still extant have been erected in Sicily : 
Temple of Apollo at Selinus 376ft. long, 177ft. broad; Temple of 
Zeus at Girgenti 356 ft. long, 174 ft. broad (Parthenon at Athens 
229 ft. by 101ft.; Temple of Zeus at Olympia 233 ft. by 97ft.'; 
Temple of Apollo at Phigalia 195 ft. by 75 ft. ; Temple of Diana at 
Ephesus 388 ft. by 187 ft.). The Ruined Temples at Girgenti, Se- 
gesta, Selinunto, and Syracuse are nowhere surpassed. The Theatres 
of Syracuse, Taormina, Segesta, Tyndaris, Palazzolo, and Catania 
have indeed been modified by additions during the Roman period, 
but the Greek origin of their foundations and arrangements may 
easily be recognised. The fortifications of the Epipolae of Syracuse 
are among the best existing specimens of Greek structures of the 
kind. In the province of Sculpture comparatively few Greek works 
have come down to us. Among these may be mentioned the more 
recent metops of Selinus in the museum at Palermo, and a few 
relics preserved at Syracuse. Of Bronzes, in the casting of which 
Perilaos of Agrigentum is said to have excelled , scarcely a single 
specimen has survived. On the other hand a copious collection 
of admirable ancient Coins has come down to us. Beautiful 
Vases are likewise found in almost every part of the island. The 
climax of the prosperity of the Sicilian Greeks was contempo- 
raneous with that of their mother-country, and not in point of 
architecture alone. About the year 550, Stesichorus of Ilimera per- 
fected the Greek chorus by the addition of the epode to the strophe 
and antistrophe. Aeschylus resided long in Sicily , where he died 
(456), and was interred at Gela. Pindar and Sappho also enjoyed 
the hospitality of Sicily, and sang the praises of the victories 



History of Art. SICILY. 245 

of her sons at Olympia. Simonides visited Sicily, and composed 
appropriate lines for the gift dedicated to the gods hy Gelon after 
the battle of Himera in 4S0. Phormis, an oflicer of Gelon at Syra- 
cuse, who invented movable scenes, Epicharmus in 480, Sopkron 
in 460, and Xenarchus , the son of the last, distinguished them- 
selves in the composition of comedies. Nothing is more charac- 
ristic of the Sicilian enthusiasm for art than the story that the 
Syracusans once set at liberty several Athenian prisoners, because 
they knew how to recite the verses of Euripides with pathos. Even 
during the period of decline the national poetical bias was still 
pre-eminent , and gave birth to a new description of poetry, the 
idyls, in which their inventor Theocritus of Syracuse was unsur- 
passed , and which even in modern times have found numerous 
admirers. 

The Sicilians have never manifested much capacity for philo- 
sophical research , although not entirely without taste for studies 
of this nature. Pythagoras found followers here. Xenophanes of 
Colophon, the founder of the Eleatic school , died in Syracuse at 
an advanced age. A century later, Plato thrice visited Syracuse. 
But the most illustrious Sicilian thinker was Empedocles of Acra- 
gas, distinguished as a natural philosopher, and also as a practical 
statesman, physician, architect, and orator. The names of a number 
of eminent physicians are recorded : Pausanias, Acron (5th cent. 
B.C.), Menecrates (4th cent. B.C.), and Celsus (but the last, born 
at Centuripae, is not to be confounded with his famous namesake 
who lived in the reign of Augustus). Distinguished historians 
were : Antioclius, Philistus of Syracuse , Timaeus of Taormina, 
Dicaearchus of Messana, and the learned Diodorus (Siculus) of 
Agyrium, who wrote Ms celebrated Bibliotheca Historica in the 
reign of Augustus. The most brilliant of the numerous orators 
were Corax and Tisias, the teacher of lsocrates, Gorgias, and Lysias. 
Gorgias, the celebrated sophist and orator, was a native of Leon- 
tinoi, and Lysias was the son of a Syracusan. Among the mathe- 
maticians and mechanicians Archimedes was the mostdistinguished. 
Hicelas of Syracuse was one of the first who taught that the earth 
moved and the sun remained stationary. 

The Roman-Byzantine supremacy gave the death-blow to the 
intellectual progress of the Sicilians. The soldier who slew Archi- 
medes may be regarded as symbolical of this epoch. In accordance 
with the Roman custon, however, numerous magnificent amphi- 
theatres, theatres, and aqueducts were constructed during this 
period. The rapacity of Verres and other governors despoiled the 
island of countless treasures of art. The Christians used many of the 
ancient temples and tombs for sacred purposes. A single Byzantine 
church of small dimensions near Malvagna alone remains from this 
period. A proof of the abject condition to which Sicily had sunk is 
the circumstance that down to a late period of the Muslim supre- 



"246 SICILY. History of Art. 

macy not a single author of eminence arose, although crowds of 
monks and priests resided in the island. Theophanes Cerameus and 
Petrus Siculus , the historian of the Manich*ans , alone deserve 
mention. The wandering San Simeon of Syracuse died at Treves. 

The Arabs were the first to infuse new life into the island. 
They not only enriched the architectural art with new forms of 
construction, as mentioned below, but they also inaugurated a 
new era in the writing of history and geography, and under King 
Ruggiero the first medieval geographer Edrisi completed his great 
work (Nushat-ul-Mushtak). Among the Mohammedan Kasides 
(poets) Ibn-Hamdts was the most distinguished. Art developed 
itself to a still greater extent under the Norman rule, and the 
princes and great men of that race have perpetuated their names 
by the erection of numerous cathedrals. The importance they at- 
tached to learning is proved by the fact that they were in the habit 
of summoning the most learned men of the East (e. g. Petrus 
Blesensis) to instruct their young princes. Whilst the Arabs de- 
serve commendation for the introduction of the most valuable com- 
mercial products (grain, cotton, sumach, etc.) which the island 
possesses, the Norman princes established the manufacture of silk; 
and a school for the arts of weaving and the composition of mosaic 
was maintained in the royal palace. The brilliant reign of Fre- 
derick //., his legislative merits, and his zealous promotion of 
every art and science are well known. At his court at Palermo the 
Italian language developed itself so as to become a written language, 
and his counsellors, his sons , and even he himself made the first 
attempts at Italian poetry. Of Frederick II., Manfred, Enzius, 
Ciullo of Alcamo, Peter de Vineis, Quido delle Colonne, Jacopo da 
Lentini, etc., poems are still preserved to us. But this golden age 
was of brief duration. Amid the vicissitudes of subsequent cen- 
turies all intellectual superiority became extinct. Even the 
chroniclers manifest distinct traces of this degeneracy. Whilst 
well-written and interesting chronicles of Sicily were composed in 
the 13th century {Hugo Falcandus , Bartholomew of Neocastro, 
etc.), those of a later period are often unreadable. The revival of 
classical studies, however, at length roused literature from its inert 
condition. At the close of the 15th cent. Messina distinguished 
itself by its promotion of Greek studies, and Constantine Lascaris 
taught there. The following century produced the learned and 
indefatigable Thomas Fazello of Sciacca (d. 1570), the originator 
of Sicilian history and topography. His work was completed by 
the historian Maurolycus of Messina. 

The enlightened absolutism of the Bourbons during the last 
century tended to promote the progress of science in Sicily, 
although the attention of scholars was principally directed to ar- 
chaeological research relating to the history of the island. The 
wealthier of the nobility formed collections of antiquities and wrote 



History of Art. SICILY. 247 

descriptions of them (Biscari, Torremuzzn, Astuto, Judica, Airoldi, 
(laetani, etc.). The clergy collected materials for the history of 
Sicily , and others composed detailed monographs on the subject. 
The 'polyhistor' Mongitore, a writer of little critical power, but of 
great importance owing to the untiring diligence with which he 
amassed MS. authorities, who had been preceded by the eminent 
Antonino Amico , Rocco Pirro , Ayostino Jnveges , and Oiovanni 
Battista Caruso, died suddenly in 1743, at the advanced age of 80. 
His death is said to have been occasioned by his perusal of the 
Codex Diplomaticus of Giovanni di Giovanni, in which the mythical 
character of the traditions regarding the origin of Christianity in 
Sicily was exposed. Di Giovanni, Francesco Testa, the brothers 
Giovanni Evangelista and Salva tore diBlasi, Vito Amico of Catania, 
and Bosario Gregorio , the first writer of constitutional history in 
Sicily, form a series of historians of the last century who would have 
done credit to any nation. The art of poetry also revived, and found 
its most talented representative in Giovanni Meli of Palermo (d. 
1815). His anacreontic songs in the national dialect were universally 
popular even before they appeared in a printed form. Among the 
most distinguished scientific men of the present century may be 
mentioned Domenico Scinh, the naturalist and historian of literat- 
ure, the astronomer Piazzi (born, however, in the Val Tellina in N. 
Italy), the brothers Gemellaro, and the patriotic historian Giuseppe 
Lafarina, besides a number of living savants of whom the island 
can at present boast. 

Music. In the history of music Sicily occupies a less prominent 
position than in the other arts, but Bellini (b. at Catania 1802, d. 
at Paris 1835) is justly admired for the beauty and sweetness of 
his melodies. 

With regard to ancient art in Sicily , and particularly the 
sculptures of Selinunto, see p. xxviii etseq. We may now add a few 
remarks upon the principal mediaeval and modern monuments of art. 

Architecture. The mediaeval architecture of Sicily, and par- 
ticularly that of Palermo, bears the impress of the political desti- 
nies of the country in a very striking degree, showing the change 
from the Byzantine to the Arabian domination, and from the latter 
to the supremacy of the Normans. The style is accordingly of a very 
mixed character, which strict connoisseurs will not fail to censure, 
but it possesses great attractions for the less scientific lover of art. 
The leading element is the Arabian. After the overthrow of the 
Arabian supremacy the more refilled culture of that race left its 
mark on the island, and the Norman princes found it desirable to 
avail themselves of its services in the administration of the country 
and particularly in the province of art. The Arabian culture, 
however, was in its turn considerably swayed by Byzantine in- 
fluences, and it is therefore not surprising that these again should 



248 SICILY. History of Art. 

be reflected in the Sicilian architecture of the 12th century. The 
ground-plan of many of the churches of Palermo is traceable to 
Byzantine originals , viz. a square space enclosed by four pillars 
and covered with a dome. It is uncertain whether this form was 
introduced direct from Byzantium after the final triumph of Chris- 
tian culture, or whether the Arabs had already employed it in the 
construction of their numerous little oratories (of which Ibn Hau- 
kal, an Arabian traveller of the 10th cent., says that there were 
hundreds at Palermo alone), and handed it down to their Norman 
successors. The latter alternative, however, is the more probable. 
AVhile the plan of many churches, such as Martorana, S. Cataldo, 
and S. Antonio at Palermo is Byzantine, and that of others, like 
Monreale, S. Spirito and several abbey-churches at Palermo, and 
the cathedral at Cefalii, is Romanesque, the universally prevalent 
pointed arch is of Arabian origin, and quite distinct from the 
Gothic form. The Arabs brought it from Egypt and used it in all 
their buildings, and they also derived thence the custom of adorn- 
ing their flat ceilings with pendentives, resembling stalactites, and 
their friezes with inscriptions. "While the ecclesiastical architecture 
of Sicily was thus unable to resist the Arabian influence , that of 
her palaces still possesses a distinctly Arabian character, cor- 
responding with the Oriental complexion of the Norman court. Of 
the numerous palaces which are said to have encircled Palermo in 
the 12th cent., we now possess imperfect examples only in the 
Zisa and the Cuba (and in the relics of the chateaux of Mimner- 
mum at Altarello di Baida and Favara at Mare Dolce), so that it 
requires a considerable effort of imagination to picture their vaunted 
magnificence. Sicily possesses no Gothic churches of any note (S. 
Francesco and S. Agostino at Palermo, and the cathedral at Mes- 
sina), but it is curious to observe how tenaciously her architects 
clung to Gothic and other mediaeval forms down to a late period in 
the Renaissance epoch. Of the later mediaeval secular architecture 
we find many pleasing examples, especially at Palermo. 

Sculpture. In the plastic art, in so far as it rises above a 
merely decorative purpose, mediaeval Sicily attained little pro- 
ficiency. The principal works in bronze (the gates at Monreale) 
are not the work of native masters. Sculpturing in marble for de- 
corative purposes, on the other hand, was extensively and success- 
fully practised here at an early period. The capitals and several 
shafts of columns in the monastery-court of Monreale are among 
the finest works of the kind in Italy. The early Sicilian Wood 
Carving, sometimes adorned with arabesques, which is still fre- 
quently met with (as at Martorana), is of remarkably fine exe- 
cution. Another proof of the great skill of the Sicilian artificers is 
afforded by the Porphyry Sarcojilmyi of the Norman princes and 
German emperors in the cathedral at Palermo, and by the numerous 
Marhle Inrrit.-ilations and Murblt : Mosnim of the 12th century. The 



History of Art. SICILY. 249 

mural covering of the Cappella Palatina and the Martorana, and 
the mosaic decorations of the monastery court of Monreale will hear 
favourahle comparison with the finest works of the Roman sculptors 
in marhle and the memhers of the Cosmas school. Mosaic painting 
was also highly developed in the 12th century. The mosaics in 
the cathedral at Cefalu and in the Cappella Palatina. and those in 
the Martorana and at Monreale , which have been preserved from 
decay by repeated restorations, are not all of uniform value, Imt 
even those which show less vigour of conception display the bold- 
ness of touch and finish of execution peculiar to able and ex- 
perienced masters. As such artificers cannot possibly have sprung 
up under Arabian rule, we must assume that the earlier of the 
works to which we have referred were executed by Byzantine artists 
invited to Sicily from foreign countries , and that these masters 
then transmitted their art to native successors. At a later period, 
after the extinction of the Norman princes, Sicilian art fell far be- 
hind that of the mainland. Even during the Renaissance period 
Sicily made no independent exertion, her cultivation of art being 
but a slow and hesitating adoption of that of Rome and Naples. 
It must, however, be borne in mind, that the existing sculptures 
of Sicily are as yet by no means fully known. The most famous 
name connected with Renaissance sculpture at Palermo is that of 
Oagini. For three generations the Gagini's were sculptors in 
marble. Antonio Oagini, horn in 1480, is said to have studied the 
art under Michael Angelo at Rome, and to him and his sons are 
referred all the finest works in marble of the 16th cent, at Palermo. 
Painting. The history of this art in Sicily, although it has 
been the object of zealous local research , has not yet been placed 
on a satisfactory critical basis. Since the 14th cent., however, the 
island has produced several painters of considerable eminence. 
To the 14th cent, belongs Bartolomeo, a native of Camulio in the 
dominions of Genoa, whose works, however, have been more influ- 
enced by the example of the native mosaicists than by that of the 
continental painters, and who possesses no very marked individu- 
ality. In the 15th cent, flourished Antonio Crescenzio, whose frescoes 
in the Spedale Grande enjoyed great celebrity ; but one of these 
has unfortunately been destroyed, while of the other slight vestiges 
only are now extant. This circumstance renders it almost impossible 
to determine if both these frescoes were really from his brush, as 
the Last Judgment, which was compared to that of Michael Angelo 
in the Sistine Chapel at Rome, has alone been authenticated as his 
work. The St. Cecilia in the cathedral at Palermo (p. '25(>) may be 
assigned to him with almost absolute certainty. To Crescenzio may 
probably also be ascribed the mural designs in a lateral chapel of 
S. Maria di Gesu, which forcibly recall the Florentine compositions 
of the 15th century. His pupil Tommnun di Vigilia and Pietro 
Ruzulone are painters of mediocre rank. The most distinguished 



250 Route 25. PALERMO. 

Sicilian painter of the loth cent, was Antonello da Messina, but 
the only authentic works by him now in Sicily are those in the 
university of his native town (p. 314). This master must not 
be confounded with his less distinguished contemporary Antonello 
da Saliba, several pictures by whom are still preserved at Palermo. 
Of the artists of Palermo in the 16th cent, the most famous was 
Vincenzio Ainimolo, who is also known as Vincenzio Romano, and 
is said to have been a pupil of Polidoro Caldara. Most of the 
churches of Palermo boast of works by this master, who would 
therefore seem to have been very proline ; but as the works attri- 
buted to him are of very unequal merit, many of them are probably 
by a different hand, while others are partly by his pupils. His 
labours extended down to the year 1542. His finest works are the 
Ascension and the Descent from the Cross in the Museum, and 
a rich composition in a side-chapel to the left in S. Domenico. To 
the 17th cent, belongs Pietro Novelli (1603-47), surnamed 'Mon- 
realese', a master of considerable originality, and a follower of the 
Neapolitan school, to which he owes his vigorous colouring and his 
strongly individualised heads. Besides his works at Palermo, there 
is an interesting work by this master in the staircase at Monrealc 
(St. Benedict and his successors). Several of his monkish figures 
are among the finest works produced by the Italian naturalists. In 
the 18th cent. Palermo was an active follower of the degraded 
styles of the period , the proofs of which are too numerous to re- 
quire special enumeration. 

25. Palermo. 

Arrival. Travellers are conveyed to the Dogana (PI. H, 7; 1 fr. for 
each pers.) , where luggage is slightly examined. Thence to the town 
about 1 M. ; cab with luggage l'/z fr- — Omnibuses from several of the 
hotels await the arrival of the steamboats. 

Hotels. (If a stay of any length is made, charges had better be asked 
beforehand.) 'Trinacria (PI. a; C, 6), with a fine view of the Marina, en- 
tered from the Strada Butera, proprietor M. Ragusa; visitors chiefly Eng- 
lish, American, and German; R. facing the Marina on the 1st, 2nd, or 
3rd floor 5, 4th 4, 5th 2'/ 2 fr. ; sitting-room 6-10 fr. ; B. 11/*, dejeuner 3-3'/*, 
D. 5'/2, served in the traveller's apartment 6'/ a fr. ; A. 1, L. 1 fr. ; Hotel des 
Palmes (PI. b ; F, 4), a dependance of the Trinacria, in the Via Stabile, with 
beautiful garden , fine view, and numerous sunny rooms and terraces, 
sheltered from the wind and suitable for invalids ; charges somewhat higher 
than at the Trinacria. — "Hotel de Feance (PI. c ; C, 5), by the Giardino 
Garibaldi, Piazza Marina, less frequented by foreign travellers ; charges a 
shiide lower than at the Trinacria, I). 5, pens. 10 fr. — Outside the Porta 
Maequeda, Piazza 01iva72, >is the 'Hotel Oliva (PI. f, F3; kept by the land- 
lord of the Trinacria), pension 8-10 fr., recommended for moderate require- 
ments only. — Of the second class: Italia (PI. d; C, 5), Piazza Marina 60, 
near the Giardino Garibaldi, R. 2-2'/z fr., well spoken of; "Albergo Cen- 
tkale (PI. e ; D, 3), with trattoria, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 355, in the centre 
of the town, close to the Quattro Canti, R. 2-3, coffee 1 fr., dej. l'/2-2, 
D. 3>,V4, pension 6-10 fr. ; Rebecchino (PI. h; C, 2). Via Vitt. Eman., op- 
posite the cathedral; Albergo al Pizzuto (PI. g; I), 4) , Via Bandiera 30, 
near the Piazza Domenica. — Pensions: "Leiin, Via Lincoln 83, near the 
Botanical Garden (10-12fr.); "Pension Suisse, Via S. Sebastiano. 



PALERMO. 



i : 13.000 



&S.Jre/ktura D.t 

90 . Seminario dc'Otierici D . C 

91. A'aulico H.7 

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93. Grand* C.t 

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SO. S.Cosmo D.* 

21. de'O-ocifiri, D.S 

22. S.Homenieo...- — D.4 

23. S.JT&jale&a. Ct 

24. S.EuIoMcl D.4 

25. S. l*raneesco dldssisi C . 5 
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Carriages. PALERMO. 25. Route. 251 

Trattorie and Cafes. 'Villa di Roma, Via Vitt. Emanuele 313, right side, 
before the Quattro Canti is reached ; Rebecchino, see above ; Stella Ameri- 
cana, Via Vitt. Emanuele 178; Lombarda, outside the Porta Nuova. "Cafe 
Oreto, at the corner of the Piazza Marina and the Corso ; "Cafe' Lincoln, 
opposite; Progresso, Via Macqueda. Good dejeuner at the cafes. — Best 
ices at the cafe of the Teatro Bellini, Piazza della Martorana. — Con- 
fectioner ('Pasticceria') , Guli, Via Vitt. Em. 117; Caflisch, Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele 164. — Birreria, in the court of the Albergo Ce'ntrale (see above). 

The Casino Nnovo, or new club, in the Palazzo Geraci in the Via Vitt. 
Emanuele (p. 256), contains handsome apartments, and is worth visiting ; 
strangers may easily obtain an introduction for a fortnight; ticket for a 
longer period 10 fr. per month. Strangers may also be introduced to the 
Circolo Filologico, in the Pal. Natoli, near S. Salvatore, where Italian and 
foreign newspapers and periodicals may be consulted. 

Carriages. Tariff for 1-4 persons : — One-h. Two-h. 

Drive within the town-walls 0. 60 0. 80 

Drive within the suburbs, including the harbour . . 1. — 1. 50 

Small articles free. Each box 20 c. 

First hour 1. 80 2. 20 

Each additional hour 1. 60 2. — 

At night these charges are raised by one-half. Driving in the town is 
prohibited on Good Friday. Longer drives according to bargain. 

Tramways (fares, 1st cl. 25, 2nd cl. 20 c). Three lines start from the 
Piazza Marina (pi. C, 5), diverging from each other at the Porta S. Giorgio 
(PI. E,5): 1. To Acqua Santa, at the foot of Monte Pellegrino (PI. H, 5, 
6, 7 ; J, 7) ; 2. To Sampolo, at the entrance to the Favorita (PI. H, J, 5) ; 
3. To Noce, at the end of the Corso Olivuzza (PI. E, 5-2; F, 1). — A fourth 
line leads from the Piazza Bologni (PI. C, 3) through the Via Vitt. Ema- 
nuele, and on to La Rocca, at the foot of the hill of Monreale (comp. PI. D, 
3-1). — Other cross-lines are : 5. From the Harbour to Porta Carini (PI. G, 
5, 4 ; F, 4, 3 ; E, 3, 2). 6. From the end of the Corso Olivuzza to the Corso 
Calalaflmi (PI. E, D, 2, 1). 

Baths. 'Via Quattro Aprile 7, near the Piazza Marina; cold bath 1 fr., 
warm bath 1 fr. 25 c, Russian bath for 1-2 pers. 5 fr. — Sea Baths in 
the Stradone del Borgo (PI. F, o), and near Acqua Santa (PI. I, 7). Swimmers 
will probably prefer to bathe early in the morning from a boat, which 
they may hire (i/ 2 fr.) at the Sanita, outside the Porta Felice. 

Post Office (PI. 88) on the E. side of Piazza Bologni (PI. C, 3). — 
The Diligences to the interior start hence. 

Telegraph Office, Via Macqueda 226, not far from the Quattro Canti 
(on the left in going thence to the Porta Macqueda). 

Railway Station outside the Porta S. Antonino (PI. A, 4). 

Steamboats. Societa Florio (office, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 96, at the 
corner of the Piazza Marina) to Naples daily (see p. 222), going on once 
weekly to Genoa and Marseilles and once weekly to Leghorn and Genoa; 
to Messina and the Levant once weekly; to Messina and the Adriatic 
Sea once weekly. Also to the Sicilian towns : once weekly eastwards to 
Ccfalii, Capo d'Orlando, Milazzo, and Messina, see p. 273; once weekly to 
the W. to Trapani , Girgenti, and Syracuse, see p. 304 ; once weekly to 
Messina and Malta; twice monthly to Ustica; once weekly to Trapani, 
Favignana, Marsala, Pantelleria, and Tunis, see R. 45. — Societa Rubattino 
(office, adjacent to that of the Florio Co.): once a fortnight to Cagliari, 
see R. 44. — Messageries Maritimes (office in the Piazza Marina) ; once a 
fortnight to Marseilles. 

Booksellers. Fratelli Pedone Luuriel, Via Vitt. Emanuele 360. — Second- 
hand books: Giovanni Fiorenza , Via Vitt. Em. 365; both near the Quattro 
Canti, in the direction of the Piazza Vittoria; also at Via Macqueda 303. 

Photographs : Rob. Rive and Tagliarini , adjoining each other in the 
Via Vitt. Em., near the Piazza S. Spirito (PI. C, 6); Gius. Incorpora, 
Via Bosco 10 and Pal. Costantino, Quattro Canti. 

Watchmaker: Zollikofer, Via Vitt. Em. 142. 

Bankers. Ingham & Whitaker, Via Lampedusa ; Morrison <t Co., Piazza 
Marina; Kayser <fr Kressner , Via Teatro S. Cecilia 44; Hirzel , Via delP 



252 Route 25. PALERMO. Consult. 

Ucciardone 6; lVedekind, Pal. Cattolica, Via Cintorinai; Donner A- Co. — 
Money Changers : Altheimer, Via Vitt. Km. 121, and others in the same street. 

Climate and Health. Palermo is often recommended as a winter- 
residence to persons with delicate chests or nervous complaints. The air 
is mild, humid, and of very equable temperature, the temperature averaging 
52° Fahr. in January. Almost the only serious drawback to the climate is 
formed by the unpleasant winds, which, however, vary in frequency and 
intensity in different years. Precautions should be taken against illnesses of 
a gastric nature by proper attention to clothing and diet. The drinking- 
water of Palermo, unlike that of Naples, is of excellent quality; when there 
is any tendency to diarrhoea, it should be drunk mixed with red wine. 
Diseases of the eye are very common , but the blinding glare of the sun 
may be neutralised by the use of umbrellas and spectacles of coloured glass. 
Furnished apartments are unfortunately scarce, and most of the patients 
live in the hotels and pensions mentioned at p. 250. — The beautiful 
public and private Gardens in Palermo and its environs add greatly to its 
cham as a residence. Admission to the finest of the latter is generally 
obtainable by the payment of a small fee (comp. p. 269). 

Physicians. Dr. Berlin, Via S. Sebastiano 30; Dr. Ohlsen. — Chemists. 
English, Corso Vitt. Emanuele 27; Capnto, Via Vitt. Km. 107, 109. 

Theatres. Teatro Bellini (PI. 95; C, 4), Piazza della Martorana; £. 
Cecilia (PI. 96; C, 4), in the same street; Cireo, behind S. Domenico ; 
Garibaldi, Via Castrofilippo (performances in the Sicilian dialect) ; Poli- 
teama, Piazza Euggiero Settimo (PI. F, 4; p. 264), also a circus. 

Consuls. American: Mr. B. Sampson, Via Butera. — British : Mr. Robert 
Rose, vice-consul, Via Lincoln al Foro Italico 3 (10-3). — There are also 
German, French, Austrian, Portuguese, Russian, Swiss, Spanish, Turkish, 
Belgian, and Dutch consuls resident here. 

English Church, Via Stabile. Presbyterian Service performed occasion- 
ally in the Waldensian Church, Pal. Outo, Via Macqueda 32. 

Attractions. During a stay of three days at Palermo the traveller 
should visit: — 1st Day. The Museum (p. 260), La Martorana (p. 257), the 
Cathedral (p. 255), the Royal Palace (p. 253), La Flora (p. 265), and the 
Marina (p. 264). 2nd Day. Monrealc, La Zisa (p. 268), La Favorita (p 270). 
3rd Day. Monte Pellegrino (p. 268) in the forenoon; in the afternoon the 
Bagheiia (p. 270), or S. Maria di Gesii (p. 271). 

The Festival of St. Rosalia (p. 269), ll-15th July, accompanied with 
horse-races, regattas, illuminations, etc., attracts a great concourse of 
country-people to Palermo several days before the beginning of the gaieties. 
The Municipio usually contributes 30-40,000 fr., towards the expenses, in 
order that this famous feast may be celebrated with becoming splendour. 
The processsion to the chapel of the saint takes place in September. 

Palermo, the capital of Sicily, with 228,500 inh., including the 
surrounding villages , is the military, judicial, and ecclesiastical 
headquarters of the island, and possesses one of the seven principal 
Italian universities. It lies in 38°, 6', 44" N. latitude, on the W. 
side of the Bay of Palermo which opens towards the K., and is 
enclosed by the fertile plain of the Conca a" Oro, beyond which 
rises an amphitheatre of imposing mountains. On the N. the city 
is sheltered by the finely shaped Monte Pellegrino. Palermo is 
justly entitled to the epithet 'la felice', on account of its magnificent 
situation and delightful climate. 

The town is on the whole well built, although the houses are 
generally of unimposing exterior. It forms an oblong quadrangle, 
the E. end of which adjoins the sea. Two main streets divide it 
into four quarters. South-westwards, from the Porta Felice on the 
sea as far as the Porta Nuova by the royal palace, extends the Via 



Palazzo Rente. PALERMO. 25. Route. 253 

Vittorio Emanuele or Toledo, popularly known as the Cassaro, from 
the name it bore originally; this street, which was constructed in 
the 16th cent., is intersected at right angles by the Strada Nuova 
or Via Macqueda, constructed in 1600. The S. gate is the Porta 
S. Antonino, the N. the Porta Macqueda. 

The commerce of the city, which is to a great extent in the 
hands of foreigners, is little less considerable than that of Messina. 
Sumach, sulphur, oranges, and lemons are largely exported. 

The narrow and shallow harbour, called La Gala, on the N. W. side 
of which lie the ruins of Fort Castellamare, extended in ancient and mediaeval 
times farther into the city, including the present Piazza Marina and reach- 
ing on the N. as far as the Via Argenteria, whence the Greek name of the 
city 'Panormos 1 ('entirely harbour 1 ) and its reputation as a seaport, though 
it is now inaccessible to large vessels. The ancient town stretching 
down to S. Antonio (PI. 5; I), 4), was bounded by two brooks which 
emptied themselves into the harbour, the course of which may still be 
traced in the Via di Porta di Castro on the S. and the depression of the 
Papireto, the Piazza S. Onofrio, and the Piazza Nuova on the N. To the 
N. and S. of the old town lay the suburbs. Panormus was originally a, 
Phoenician settlement, called Machanath ('?), and, until the conquest of Si- 
cily by the Romans, was one of the most important strongholds of the 
Carthaginians. It afterwards belonged to the Romans and was colonised 
by Augustus. On the fall of the W. empire the city fell under the sway 
of the E. emperors; in 831 the Arabs, and in 1072 the Normans obtained 
possession of it, and here their emirs and kings resided. After 1266 the 
French took possession of Palermo, but were expelled in 1280 (Sicilian 
Vespers). The monarch.* of the house of Arragon seldom resided here. The 
Chiaramonte, powerful feudal barons, who erected a spacious palace for 
themselves at Palermo, were long the real rulers of the place. Subsequently 
the viceroys of Sicily, notwithstanding the loud remonstrances of Messina, 
selected this city as their residence. In 1799 the Bourbon Ferdinand IV., 
on his expulsion from Naples, took up his quarters in the royal palace. 
After 1815 the viceroys had to contend against the rebellions of 1820, 
1837, and 1848 ; and at length in 1860 the subversion of the existing govern- 
ment was effected. In Sept. 1866 an insurrection, half Bourbon and halt 
republican , broke out here , and to this day the environs are infested 
by brigands. From 1827 to 1848 not a single new house was erected in 
Palermo, but the town has extended considerably since 1860, especially 
towards the N. Large sums of money, averaging 1,000,000 fr. yearly, have 
been expended since that date in laying out avenues, in paving the streets, 
and in other works conducing to the beauty of the town and the public 
health. 

Palermo possesses very few ancient architectural remains , but this 
want is amply compensated for by its interesting mediaeval monuments 
(comp. pp. 247-48) and the museum. The general architectural appearance 
of the town was impressed upon it mainly during the 16th and 17th 
centuries, when most of the palaces and churches in the two principal 
streets were erected. 

On the S.W- side of the town, at the end of the Via Vit- 
torio Emanuele, lies the spacious Piazza della Vittoria (PI. 
C, 2), where the — 

*Palazzo Eeale (PI. 87~) rises on a slight eminence which 
has always been the site of the castle of the city. The building 
is of Saracenic origin. Additions were made by Robert Guiscard, 
King Roger, the two Williams, Frederick II., and Manfred; and 
it afterwards underwent many alterations, notwithstanding which 
it still retains traces of its origin as a defensive structure. 



254 Route 25. PALERMO. Cappella Palatina. 

The gate farthest to the left leads into the Palace Court, 
which is enclosed by arcades. Ascending a staircase on the left, 
and turning to the right on the first floor, we enter the — 

**Cappella Palatina, the vestibule of which, embellished 
with modern mosaics, is borne by seven columns , six of these 
being of Egyptian granite. (The chapel is best visited between 
8 and 11 a.m., fee J / 2 fr.) This famous structure, a perfect gem of 
mediaeval architecture, was built before the year 1132 by King Ro- 
ger II. in the Norman style and dedicated to St. Peter. It con- 
sists of a nave with aisles, and is 36 yds. long, including the apse, 
and 14 yds. in width. The Arabian pointed arches are borne 
by ten columns of granite and cipollino, 16 ft. in height. The 
choir is approached by five steps, and over the centre of the cross 
rises a dome 57 ft. in height. The walls are entirely covered 
with mosaics on a golden ground, executed in the reign of Wil- 
liam I., and radiant with oriental splendour. Amid the wondrous 
magic of the general effect the comparatively uninteresting details 
will attract less notice. 

The 'Mosaics represent subjects from the Old Testament, and the 
lives of Christ , St. Peter , and St. Paul. In the centre of the apse Christ 
is represented in the style which recurs in all Norman mosaics , the finest 
specimen of which is at Cefalii. The dome is perforated by eight nar- 
row windows, and bears Greek and Latin inscriptions. The characters on 
the ceiling of the nave are Cuflc or ancient Arabic (comp. p. 248). The 
mosaic pavement, an ambo or reading-desk on the right, and a marble 
candelabrum, 14'/2 ft- in height , also deserve inspection. The Gothic 
choir-stalls are modern. 

Leaving the chapel, we ascend the principal staircase on theW. 
side of the court to the arcades of the second floor, and enter 
the passage to the left, where the first door on the right bears 
the inscription, 'R. Osservatorio\ This is the entrance to the 
observatory , which is fitted up in the tower of S. Ninfa (the 
former Torre Piscina) , the oldest part of the edifice (open to the 
public on Thursdays, 10-3 ; to travellers daily). In 1801 Piazzi 
here discovered Ceres, the first of the asteroids. 

We ascend two flights of steps and enter by a door, where we find 
the custodian ('/s-1 fr.). The flat roof commands a superb "Panorama. 
At our feet lies the Piazza Vittoria, above the left angle of which rises 
S. Rosalia; in front of the latter is the Pal. Arcivescovile; on the right is 
the beginning of the Corso. To the left beyond it lies the harbour, com- 
manded on the left by the Monte Pellegrino ; to the left in the background 
rise the mountains of the Capo Gallo ; below them, in the foreground, is 
the Porta Nuova ; to the left, farther distant, La Zisa, a cubical yellow 
building with numerous windows ; farther to the left in the background 
riss the pointed Monte Cuccio, prolonged on the left by the hill of Mon- 
reale. Farther to the left, at our feet, extends the Giardino Reale, above 
which is the Piazza delTIndipendenza with the obelisks. In the foreground, 
S.E., is the tower of the red church of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti ; beyond 
it the cypress-grove of the Campo Santo ; in the distance , at the base of 
the lofty M. Griffone, lies S. Maria di Gesu; more to the left, M. Catalfano, 
abutting on the sea ; on the promontory, to the right of the latter, is the 
Iiagheria. 

The door at the end of the above-mentioned passage leads to 



Cathedral. PALERMO. 25. Route. 255 

the apartments of the palace, the most noticeable of which are 
the so-called Stanza di Euggiero , with walls of mosaic , and a 
room containing portraits of the viceroys (fee 1 fr.). 

Connected with the Palazzo Reale are the fortified city-gates. 
To the right (N.) is the Porta Nuova, through which the Mon- 
reale road (p. 265) leads past the (Y2 M.) Cuba. (The first side- 
street to the right, outside the gate, leads to the Zisa, 2 / 3 M. ; 
see p. 268.) To the left is the Porta di Castro, the road through 
which leads to Parco (p. 285). Outside these gates lies the Piazza 
dell' Indipendenza, embellished with an obelisk. 

In the corner of the Piazza della Vittoria , nearly opposite the 
entrance to the palace, rises a Monument to Philip V. (PI. C, 2), 
erected in 1856 on the site of one destroyed in 1848. 

A few hundred paces from this point, not far from the Porta 
di Castro, is the church of S. Giovanni degli Eremiti (PL 32; 
generally closed ; entrance Via de' Benedittini 36, fee '^"l fr.), 
one of the earliest existing Norman churches, and still presenting 
an almost entirely Oriental aspect. It is constructed in the form 
of a so-called Egyptian cross (T) , with three apses , a large 
dome, and four smaller ones, and is at present undergoing resto- 
ration. Adjoining the church, the bell of which was the first to 
ring the alarm on the occasion of the Sicilian Vespers, are small, 
but interesting Cloisters, in a dilapidated condition. 

On the E. side of the Piazza della Vittoria, opposite the palace, 
stands the Spedale Grande (PI. 93 ; C, 2), erected within a year by 
Count Matteo Sclafani in 1330, purchased by the city in 1440 for 
150 oncie (about 75 1, sterl.), and now a barrack. Remains of the 
old external decoration are still visible on the E. and S. walls. 
The arcades of the second court are decorated on the right with 
a large fresco of the 15th cent, ascribed to Antonio Crescenzio, the 
'Triumph of Death', in a style resembling the Florentine (p. 249). 
Keys at the Municipio. 

In 1869 the remains of an ancient Roman house were dis- 
covered in the N. corner of the piazza, but were afterwards filled 
up again. Its mosaic pavement has been removed to the museum. 

On the opposite side is the Archiepiscopal Palace (PI. 84 ; D, 2), 
with its facade adorned with statues towards the Piazza del Duomo, 
dating in its present form from the 16th century. Beautiful Gothic 
window. The tower, connected with the cathedral by a graceful 
arch, was originally erected in the 12th century, but in its present 
form is modern. 

The spacious Piazza del Duomo (PL D, 2) is enclosed by a 
marble balustrade, erected in 1753 and adorned with sixteen large 
statues of saints. In the centre rises a half-figure of 8. Rosalia, 
on a triangular pedestal, placed here in 1744. 

The *Cathedral, or church of S. Rosalia (PL 15; generally 
closed 12-4 o'clock), in which restorations to its disadvantage have 



256 Route '25. PALERMO. Cathedral. 

been undertaken in each century since its foundation, was erected 
in 1169-85 by the English Archbishop Walter of the Mill (Gualterio 
Offamilio) on the site of a more ancient church which had been 
converted into a mosque, and subsequently been reconverted into 
a Christian place of worship. The crypt, part of the S. side, 
and the E. end are the only remaining portions of the original 
structure. The S. portal, added in 1450, is an approximation to 
the northern Gothic style. The W. Facade, with the principal por- 
tal and the two towers, was erected in 1300-59. In 1781-1801 the 
church was disfigured by the addition of a dome, constructed by 
Fernando Fuga, the Neapolitan, in spite of the remonstrances of 
the Sicilian architects. The restoration of the interior was un- 
dertaken by the same architect, who has disguised its original 
character and given it an entirely modern appearance. 

The Intekioe is open to visitors before 12 noon, and after 4 p.m. — The 
S. Aisle (left of the S. Portal) contains the Tombs of the Kings. Here, in 
admirably executed sarcophagi of porphyry, surmounted by canopies, 
repose : King Eoger (d. 1154) ; his daughter Constance, wife of Henry VI. 
(d. 1198); his son-in-law Henry VI. (d. 1197), and his illustrious grandson 
Frederick II. (d. 1250). The sarcophagus of the last-named (the first on 
the left) , borne by four lions , is the finest. In a niche to the right of 
the tomb of Henry VI. is the antique marble sarcophagus of Constance 
nf Arragon, queen of Frederick II. ; another niche, to the left of Frederick 
II., contains the sarcophagus of William, son of Frederick III. of Arragon. 
On the wall to the right of the mortuary chapel are recorded the privileges 
granted to the city by Frederick, inlaid in marble. In 1781 the sarcophagi 
were transferred hither from a chapel contiguous to the choir, and opened. 
The remains of Henry VI. and Constance were greatly decomposed, whilst 
those of Frederick II. were in good preservation. With the latter the 
remains of two other bodies were found, one unknown, the other probably 
that of Peter II. of Arragon. The corpse of the great emperor was 
enveloped in sumptuous robes with inscriptions in Arabic ; beside him lay 
the crown and imperial apple, and his sword. (These relics are preserved 
in the sacristy , at the end of the aisle, and are most conveniently seen 
between 9 and 10 a.m. Visitors ascend the steps and apply to one of the 
chorister boys; fee l /2-l fr - °n leaving.) 

The marble sculptures of the church are chiefly by Antonio Gagini, the 
finest of which are those on the pilasters of the Chapel of St. Rosalia, to 
the right of the high-altar. Here the saint reposes in a sarcophagus of silver, 
1300 lbs. in weight, exhibited only on 11th Jan., 15th July, and 4th Sept. 
The choir, which possesses fine old carved stalls, is separated from the 
church by a marble screen. The statues in the niches, Christ and the 
Apostles, are by Oagini. — The Cappella di S. Ignazio (4th to the right) 
contains an altar-piece by Pietro Novelli, representing the Virgin and Child 
adored by SS. Ignatius Loyola and Francis Xavier, and also a St. Cecilia 
listening to the music of the angels by Ant. Crescenzio (about 1476). 

The Crypt beneath the choir, containing the remains of the arch- 
tushops in ancient and early Christian sarcophagi, should also be visited. 
Here, among others, repose Gualterio Offamilio, and the archbishops 
Frederick and Peter of Antioch, both of Hohenstaufen extraction. 

Proceeding hence by the Via Vittohio Emanuele to the N.E., 
towards the sea, we pass on the left a building which was formerly 
the Collegio Nuovo (PI. 79; D, 3) of the Jesuits, but now contains 
the National Library (open daily) and the Lyceum. We next reach 
on the left the Palazzo Oeraci (with the Casino Nuovo, p. 254) and 
the Pal. Riso (formerly Belmonte), opposite the second of which 



Martorana. PALERMO. 25. Route. 257 

is the small Piazza Boloyni (PI. C, 3), adorned with a statue of 
Charles V. by Livolsi da Tusa(1630). To theW. stands the Palazzo 
Villafranca, to the E. the Post Office (PI. 88). 

Farther on we come to the Quattro Canti (PI. 0, D, 3, 4), or 
Piazza Vigliena, a small octagonal piazza, situated at the inter- 
section of the Via Vittorio Emanuele and the Via Macqueda, in the 
very heart of the city. It was constructed by the viceroy Marquis 
de Villena in 1609. The four facades looking towards the piazza 
are embellished with columns and statues. — In the S. angle of the 
piazza rises the richly decorated church of S. Giuseppe de' Teatini 
(PI. 35; C, 3). 

Passing this church , we turn to the right into the Via Mac- 
queda, and reach one of the most interesting quarters of the town. 

On the left side of this street is the Piazza Pretoria (PI. C, 4), 
with a large Fountain executed in the 16th cent, by the Floren- 
tine sculptors Camilliani and Vagherino, and originally destined for 
a villa of the viceroy Garcia di Toledo. The Palazzo del Municipio 
(PI. 86) here contains on the ground-floor Roman inscriptions and 
monuments, and in one of the saloons on the first floor an antique 
*Statue of the youthful Dionysus , erroneously called Antinous. 
Here also is the former Palazzo Serradifalco. 

Farther on, in a small piazza on the left side of the Via Mac- 
queda, is the former Post-Office (see above), within the precincts 
of which is situated the deserted church of 8. Cataldo, an interest- 
ing specimen of Sicilian-Norman architecture , erected either by 
Giorgio Majone of Bari (assassinated in 1160), the powerful ad- 
miral and chancellor in the reign of William I., or before 1161 by 
Count Sylvester, grandson of Duke Roger I. 

A flight of steps in the same piazza ascends to the disused 
church of *La Martorana (PI. 54; shown daily, 8-4 o'clock; cus- 
todian's bell in the corner, at the hack of the church ; adm. x /o-l fr-)- 
It was erected by Georgios Antiochenos, grand-admiral of Roger I. 
and Roger II., in honour of the Virgin , during the first half of the 
12th cent., and from him derived its original name of S. Maria del 
Ammiraglio. 

The church was originally quadrangular, with three apses, and a dome 
borne by four columns in the Byzantine style, and was adorned inside and 
out with mosaics. In 1590 the nuns of the convent of Martorana (founded 
in 1193, and in 1433 presented with the church, whence the present name) 
caused the edifice to be extended towards the W. In 1685 the central 
apse was demolished and replaced by a square chapel , and in 1726 the 
work of destruction was carried still farther by the removal of the mosaics 
from the walls. An attempt, however, is now being made to restore the 
church in accordance with the ancient plan, the mosaics being entrusted 
to the brothers Bonanni. Some of the eight Corinthian columns bear Arabic 
inscriptions. The mosaic to the left of the entrance represents the ad- 
miral Georgios Antiochenos at the feet of the Virgin (the lower part 
mutilated). That on the right represents King Roger crowned by Christ. 
The original mosaics in the apses on the right and left, and those in the 
dome, are furnished with Greek inscriptions. — The carved door near the 
custodian's bell is also of the "Norman-Arabian period. — The two upper 

Baedekek. Italy III. 7th Edition. 17 



258 Route 25. PALERMO. 



University. 



stories of the four-storied campanile date from the 14th century. In 1726 
the dome was removed in consequence of the damage done by an earth- 
quake. 

To the right in the Via Macqueda is situated the University 
(PI. 99), with important natural history collections, among which 
the fishes in the zoological, the fossil mammalia in the palaeonto- 
logical, and the fine specimens of Sicilian sulphur and articles 
found in caves in the geological department are the most interest- 
ing. (The scientific traveller may also prohahly gain admittance 
to the Marchese Monterosato's admirable collection of Conchylia, 
Via Polacchi 27.) — In the street adjacent to the university, on 
the right, we reach the Casa Professa (PL 13; C, 3), with the 
Jesuits' Church, completed in 1683, and overladen with ornament. 
Adjoining it is the Biblioteca Comunale (PL 77), entered by a Doric 
vestibule , and containing a most valuable collection of books and 
MSS. relative to Sicilian history. On the first floor is the 'Histo- 
rical Hall', open daily from 9 to 4. 

About !/ 4 M. from the neighbouring Porta S. Antonino (PI. B, 
3, 4) is situated the railway-station, in the first side-street to the 
left of the Via Oreto (PL A, 4). 

The Via Lincoln, which runs from the Porta S. Antonino to- 
wards the sea, passes the Porta Garibaldi (PL B, 4), by which Ga- 
ribaldi entered the city on 27th May, 1860 , and terminates near 
the Flora on the Marina (see p. 264). ■ — In the Via Garibaldi, 
on the right side when approached from the gate of that name, 
stands the well-preserved Palazzo Aiutamicristo, built in 1490 by 
Matteo Carnevale, and occupied during the following century by 
Charles V., Muley Hassan of Tunis, Don John of Austria, and 
other historical celebrities. — Not far from the Porta Garibaldi is 
the disused Teutonic Lodge, the sadly disfigured church of which 
(La Magione ; PL 42) was founded in the 12th cent, by the chan- 
cellor Matteo Ajello of Salerno , and presented to the Order by 
Frederick II. The palace of Principe Fitalia Settimo, near S.Anna 
(PL 3 ; C, 4), contains a valuable collection of books and MSS. 
relating to Sicily, and other objects of interest. 

If we follow the Via Vittokio Emanuele , and cross the 
Quattro Canti in the direction of the sea, we reach after 2 min. 
a small piazza on the left, whence we proceed through a gate in- 
scribed 'Domus Dei Porta Ooeli' into a passage, which leads to the 
church of S. Antonio (PL 5 ; D, 4), a Byzantine structure of the 
early part of the 13th century. Down to the 16th cent, the sea- 
gate of the old town of Palermo stood here. 

Returning to the Via Vitt. Emanuele , we soon reach the Via 
Cintorinai, a cross-street on the right, leading to S. Francesco 
d'Assisi (PL 25), in the piazza of that name. This church is a 
Norman structure, of which the facade now alone remains (recently 
restored). It contains remains of frescoes by Pietro Novelli , of 



5. Domenico. PALERMO. 25. Route. 259 

which that over the entrance is the best preserved. Farther on, 
to the right, is the old Palazzo Cattolica, with a fine court. 

About 3 min. walk farther the Via Vitt. Emanuele emerges on 
the Piazza Marina (PL C, 5), one of the finest in Palermo, adorned 
with fountains and the pleasure-grounds of the *Oiardino Gari- 
baldi with their beautiful palms. To the left is the new gov- 
ernment Finance Office. In the S.E. corner of the piazza is situat- 
ed the historically interesting Palazzo dei Tribunali (PL 98), 
erected by Manfred Chiaramonte in 1307. Queen Bianca resided 
here in 1410, and at a later period, down to 1782, victims of 
the Inquisition were confined here. The building is now occu- 
pied by the courts of justice and the Dogana. The well-preserv- 
ed court is entered through the latter. 

In the neighbouring Via Alloro are the monastery della Oan- 
cia (PL 28), the monks of which have taken an active part in 
every revolution , including that of 1860 , and the Palazzo Pa- 
tella, with an interesting facade of 1495, by the architect of the 
Pal. Aiutamicristo (p. 259). 

In the Via Vitt. Emanuele, farther on, at the beginning of the 
side-street on the left leading to the small harbour of La Cala, 
which has recently been deepened and sheltered from the E. wind 
by a pier, is the small church of S. Maria della Catena (PL 47; D, 5), 
erected in 1400 on the site of an earlier edifice. The facade, in 
which the ancient style predominates, exhibits the unusually 
depressed form of arch frequently seen in S. Italy towards the 
close of the Gothic period. The Loggia overlooks the harbour 
of La Cala , on the opposite side of which we observe the fort 
of Castellamare (almost entirely destroyed in 1860). — Contin- 
uing to follow the Via Vitt. Emanuele, we reach the Piazza di 
S. Spirito (PI. C, 6), with the Conservatorio (Foundling Hospital, 
etc.) of that name, founded in 1608. Nearly opposite is the house 
(No. 12), marked by an inscription, in which Goethe lodged in 
1787. We then pass through the Porta Felice to the Marina (see 
p. 264). 

The finest of the other churches is S. Domenico (PL 22; 
D , 4) , in the piazza of that name, erected in 1640, and capable of 
accommodating 12,000 persons. It contains several good pictures 
by Pietro Novelli and Vincenzo Ainemolo , and the tombs and 
monuments of Meli , Piazza , Novelli , Ruggiero Settimo , and nu- 
merous other eminent Sicilians. — The Compagnia del S. S. Ro- 
sario behind S. Domenico (entrance by the Via Bambinai) contains 
paintings by Van Dyck, Novelli, L. Giordano, and others. Farther 
on, to the left, stands the church of S. Cita (PL 17; E , 5) , the 
back of the choir of which is embellished with interesting sculp- 
tures of the early Renaissance. The Via Cita leads hence to the 
Porta S. Giorgio and to the Monte Pellegrino (see p. 269). 

Between the Porta S. Giorgio and the Porta Macquetla is the 

17* 



260 Route 25. PALERMO. Museum. 

Porta Colonna (PL B, 4), beyond which, between the Via favour 
and the Via Stabile, a new quarter has recently sprung up. The 
English Church (p. 252) is in the Via Stabile. Near it is a marble 
statue of Vincenzio Florio. 

Not far from the Porta Colonna is the suppressed monastery del 
Filipfini all' Olivella , which now contains the *Museo Nazionale 
of Palermo (PL 82; E, 4), a collection chiefly famous for the me- 
topes of Selinunto , the oldest monuments of the Greek plastic art 
to which a definite date can be assigned. The museum is open 
daily, 10-3 (Sun. 11-2), except on Mondays, public holidays, the 
last three days of the Carnival, and during Passion Week. Admis- 
sion 1 fr. ; on Sundays gratis. Small catalogue by Ant. Salinas, 
Director of the Museum, in two parts, price 60 and 50 c. respec- 
tively. The Museum is at present undergoing alterations, so that 
the following arrangements arc liable to disturbance. 

Ground Floor.. We first enter a small colonnaded. Court 
(I. CortiU) with ancient and mediaeval inscriptions on the walls, 
of which No. 22 , in four languages, is the most interesting. In 
the middle is a Triton (16th cent.) from a fountain in the royal 
palace. To the left is the staircase leading to the upper floors; see 
p. 261. — To the right is the Hall of St. George, with an altar by 
A. dagini (1526) and state-coaches of the 18th century. — On the 
right and left of the entrance are two small rooms containing mo- 
dern sculptures. ■ — The Second Court, (II. Cortile), formerly the 
cloisters, contains ancient inscriptions , sarcophagi, cinerary urns, 
and architectural fragments. 

The Antechamber ( Vestibolo) , which we next enter, contains 
a statue of an emperor from Tyndaris, freely restored, a colossal 
statue of Jupiter from Soluntum (to the left) , and a statue of the 
Emp. Nerva (? on the right). — We now pass to the right through 
a small room into the Sala db' Musaict, the floor and walls of 
which are decorated with the large stone-mosaics found in the 
Piazza della Vittoria (p. 253) in 1869. That on the ground repre- 
sents various mythological subjects , among which the head of 
Neptune is particularly fine; that on the wall , also intended for 
a floor, represents Orpheus charming the animals. — We again 
turn to the right, and enter the Sala del Fauno. In the centre 
is a young * Satyr , pouring out wine, from Torre del Greco. On 
the right: 3. Priestess of Isis ; A. Head of Bacchus; 16. ^Escula- 
pius from Girgenti. On each side of the door leading into the 
room with the Metopes, Roman statues from Tyndaris. On the 
pavement is a. mosaic resembling that of Orpheus (see above), ex- 
cavated in the Via Macqueda. Some antique architectural frag- 
ments from Selinunto, etc., have been recently arranged in this 
room. 

The Principal Saloon contains the celebrated **Mctopes of 
Selimts, the most ancient specimens of Greek sculpture, with the 



Museum. 



PALERMO. 



25. Route. 261 



exception of the lions of Mycene (comp. Introd., p. xxviii). They 
belong to different periods. The oldest, to the left of the entrance, 
dating from the second half of the 7th cent. , still bear traces 
of the Oriental style from which Greek art derives its origin. 




E.1A.1T OiE'B.'B.EtN.O 



1. Quadriga (combat of Peleus and ffinomaus?); 2. Perseus slay- 
ing the Medusa; 3. Hercules Melampygos with the Cercopes. 
These reliefs belonged to the central temple (C) of the W. hill 
of Selinus (p. 277), and were discovered in 1823. 4. and 5. Frag- 
ments of temple F of the Neapolis of Selinus, representing, as is 
conjectured , a contest between the gods and giants, probably 
coeval with those from the temple of JEgma , now at Munich. On 
the wall opposite to us, 6-10, from the pronaos and posticum of 
temple E , and probably belonging to the 5th cent. : *6. Heracles 
and Hippolyta ; *7. Zeus and Hera on Mt. Ida ; *8. Diana and 
Action; *9. Athene and the giant Pallas; 10. Apollo and Daphne, 
erroneously so called. These were discovered by Cavallari in 1831. 
The nude portions of the female figures are inlaid in white marble. 
The cases to the left contain smaller fragments from Selinunto, 
those to the right larger fragments. Next, a sitting figure between 
two winged lions, from Soluntum ; archaic Minerva ; archaic Venus. 
In the middle of the room : Greek inscription discovered at Seli- 
nunto in 1871 ; sarcophagus from Girgenti ; two Phoenician sarco- 
phagi from Cannita, near Palermo ; gargoyles in the form of lions' 
heads from the Greek temple at Himera (now Bonfornello). — In 
the adjoining three rooms, part of the collection of Etruscan sculp- 
tures (Museo Casuccini) is exhibited. 

"We now return to the first small court , and ascend the stair- 
case mentioned at p. 260. — On the first landing , halfway up to 
the right , is a room in which are temporarily placed the curious 
objects found at Giardini near Taormina , with their enigmatical 
inscriptions (suspected to be a modern forgery). 

First Floor. We turn first to the left and enter the Sala del 
Medio Evo , opening off the N. corridor , which contains a plaster 
cast of the extensive Arabic frieze at La Cuba (p. 266), carvings 
in wood, weapons, bronzes, works in ivory, glasses from Murano 



262 Route 25. 



PALERMO. 



Museum. 



and Germany , terracottas , paintings , and manuscripts ■with mi- 
niatures. — Adjoining is the Arabian Room : in the middle, large 
bronze dishes with arabesques and Arabic inscriptions ; in the 
cases, white painted vessels. — The next two rooms contain noth- 
ing of importance (old views of Palermo, etc.). 




is i— a 



PRIMO Pli^NO 



The S. Corridor (Corridojo di Mezzogiorno) contains ancient 
vases : 656. Finding of Triptolemus ; 655. Battle of the Centaurs ; 
1628. Bacchus and Ariadne; 653. Bacchantes; 1631. Mercury and 
Bacchus. The finest vases , some of them from Agrigentum , are 
arranged in the middle of the corridor. The cases contain numerous 
vases from Selinunto. — To the right, at the end of the corridor, 
is the Room of the Bronzes : in the middle the famous Ram 
from ancient Syracuse, preserved down to 1848 at the royal palace, 
with a fellow which has since disappeared ; to the right, Hercules 
overcoming the stag , from Torre del Greco ; on the walls, metal 
mirrors, etc. 

We now return through the S. Corridor to the W. Corridor 
(Corridojo di Ponente), which contains Etruscan vases found at 
Chiusi (Museo Casuccini). ■ — Adjoining this corridor is the 
Chapel, with ecclesiastical vessels and vestments from the chapel 
of S. Cita. 

The N. Corridor (Corridojo di Tramontana) contains cabinets 
filled with small bronzes, glass vessels, terracottas, prehistoric 
implements of the flint and bronze periods , etc. Cabinet 64. 
Painted figures found in a tomb at Soluntum , resembling those 
of Tanagra ; 67. Small glass vessels , chiefly from Soluntum ; 
68. 'Tessera Hospitalis' of bone , from Lilybseum ; 69. Bronzes ; 
74, et seq., Catapult projectiles of stone, inscribed with the name 
of L. Piso, the Roman commander in the Servile War; 79-82. 
Etruscan bronzes from the Casuccini collection ; 83. Prehistoric 
antiquities. 

The last room of the N. corridor and the E. Corridor (Corri- 
dojo di Levante) contain Etruscan cinerary urns in stone and 
terracotta. — In the Cabinet op Coins are admirable specimens 



Museum. PALERMO. 25. Route. 263 

of fine old Sicilian coins, excellently arranged. — We now ascend 
to the — 

Sbcond Floor , which contains the Picture Gallery , a col- 
lection of no great importance , but useful for the sake of the re- 
view it affords of the Sicilian school of painting (p. 249). It also 
possesses a small early Flemish picture of great value. 

Those in the Corridors, being of inferior value, need not de- 
tain us long. At the end of the 1st (N.) Corridor is the Oabinetto 
Oallo , a collection of unimportant works of Sicilian and other 
painters. — The corridors on the right and the saloons contain the 
principal collection of the works of native masters : Camulio, Ma- 
donna, with mosaic frame ; numerous unknown altar-pieces of the 
14th and 15th cent., the chief of which is a Coronation of the Ma- 
donna. It is curious to observe how long the Gothic style of framing 
these altar-pieces prevailed. In the last corridor, No. 554, is the 
latest, and also best, of the whole series, bearing the date 1492. 
Then, 85. Antonio Crescenzio, Madonna enthroned, and surrounded 
by six saints and the donor. 

The First Room, the Sala dell' Ainemolo, principally contains 
pictures by that master: 91. Scourging of Christ, with the in- 
scription , 'expensis nationis Lombardorum , 1542'; 88-93. Six 
small scenes from the youth of Christ , the finest of which is the 
last, a Presentation in the Temple ; 97. Curious representation of 
the Madonna as the deliverer of souls from purgatory ; 169. St. 
Conrad, with predellas ; *102. Descent from the Cross, sombre but 
harmonious in colouring, tender in sentiment, and admirably exe- 
cuted , Ainemolo's master-piece. The Coronation of the Virgin 
inscribed l Scuola Messinese 1 is probably of German origin. 103. 
St. Thomas Aquinas , victorious over the heretic Averrhoes , and 
surrounded by a numerous congregation, by Antonella da Saliba. 

The Second Room , the Sala del Novelli , is chiefly hung with 
works of that painter, the last great Sicilian master, of whose style 
they afford a good illustration : 120. Portrait of himself; 110. Ma- 
donna enthroned , with saints; 112. Communion of Mary Magda- 
lene ; 113. SS. Anna and Mary; 114. Delivery of Peter from 
prison. 194-196. Remains of a fresco by Novelli from the Spedale 
Grande ; 195. Coloured sketch of the same. Among Novelli's fa- 
vourite and frequently recurring types are remarkably tall and 
almost exaggerated forms, especially in the case of female figures, 
but in his delineation of characters advanced in life he rivals the 
best masters of the Neapolitan school. 

The gem of the collection, a work of the highest merit, is pre- 
served under glass in the Gabinbtto Malvagna , adjoining the 
Sala d'Ainemolo : 59. A small **Altar-piece with wings, or trip- 
tych, of the School of Van Eyck. 

This picture would not be unworthy of John van Eyck himself, but 
the clear colouring and the miniature-like execution point to some later 
master (perhaps Memling or Gerhard David). When the shutters are closed 



264 Route 25. PALERMO. Marina. 

the spectator is presented with a scene of Adam and Eve in a richly 
peopled Paradise. Adam's head is very naturalistic, but the figure is not 
inaccurately drawn. In the background is an angel driving the pair out 
at the gate of Paradise. On the wings being opened, we perceive in the 
central scene a Madonna in a red robe, enthroned on a broad Gothic 
choir-stall, with her flowing hair covered with a white cloth. In her lap 
is the Infant Christ; on each side of her are angels singing and playing on 
instruments, beautiful and life-like figures. On the left wing is represented 
St. Catharine, on the right wing St. Dorothea, the former holding up a richly 
executed ring, the latter with white and red roses in her lap, and both 
with angels at their side. The delicate execution of the trinkets on the 
drapery of the female figures and the pleasing landscape in the background 
as far as the extreme distance are really admirable. This is one of the 
very finest works of the early Flemish school. It formerly belonged to 
the Principe di Malvagna, and was presented to the museum as a 'Dii- 
rer\ The brown case, covered with leather and adorned with Gothic or- 
naments, is probably coeval with the picture itself. 

This cabinet also contains: 60. Qarofalo, Madonna; 5. Cor- 
reggio, Head of Christ (a sketch) ; 35. Van Dyck, Family of Rubens. 

Near the Porta Macqueda (PI. E, 3, 4), at the N. end of the 
Via Macqueda, the new Teatro Massimo or Vittorio Emanuele, is 
being erected by the city on the site of the suppressed monasteries 
of Stimate and $. (iiuliano. 

About 1 / i M. from the Porta Macqueda extends the Piazza 
Ruggiero Settimo (PI. F, 3, 4) , which is embellished with a 
garden. Statues of two Sicilian patriots have recently been erected 
here : on the right that of Ruggiero Settimo (d. 1862, honorary pre- 
sident of the Italian senate) ; on the left that of Carlo C'ottone, 
Principe di Castelnuovo , who was minister in 1812 , during the 
brief parliamentary government of Sicily under King Ferdinand 
which was inaugurated by the intervention of England. On one 
side of the piazza stands the Politeama Theatre, — About 4 /3 M- 
farther is the Giardino Inglese (PI. I, 4), with pleasant grounds, 
and adorned with busts of Garibaldi, Bixio, and others. 

Of Medieval Aechitectuee of the later period Palermo pos- 
sesses many interesting examples in secular buildings scattered 
throughout the city. Besides the Chiaramonte (p. 259), Sclafani 
(p. 255), and Patella (p. 259) palaces, and the Gothic window of 
the archiepiscopal palace (p. 255), the connoisseur should examine 
the remains of a palace near S. Antonio in the Via delle Ver- 
gini (PI. D, 4) , those in the Via del Protonotaro, the tower ad- 
joining the palace of the Duca di Pietratagliata (Via Bandiera, PI. 
D, 4), the Palazzo Raffadale (PI. C, 3), the tower in the palace of 
Conte Federico near the Benfratelli (PI. 0, 3), etc. 

A beautiful walk is afforded by the * Marina, a quay extending 
from the Porta Felice along the coast towards the S., formerly call- 
ed the Foro Borbonico , and now the Foro Jtalieo (PI. 0, B, A, 6), 
commanding admirable views towards the S. as far as the promon- 
tory of Monte Catalfano (to the right of which Mt. iEtna is visible 
in clear weather), and, to the N., of the picturesque Monte Pelle- 
grino. The palace at the Porta de' Greci (PI. B, 6), formerly called 



Botanic Garten. PALERMO. 25. Route. 265 

Palazzo Forcella and now the property of the Principe di Baucina, 
contains handsome saloons in the taste of different centuries. 

At the S. end of the Marina lies the * Flora, or Villa Oiulia 
(Vf. B, A, 6) , which is entered from the Via Lincoln (p. 258), a 
street leading towards the W. to the Porta S. Antonino. This public 
garden, one of the most beautiful in Italy, first laid out in 1777, 
has recently been considerably extended and improved. The air 
here in spring is laden with the delicious and aromatic perfumes of 
oranges, citrons, Erythrina corallodendron, Oercis siliquastrum, and 
other blossoming trees and shrubs. In summer and autumn the 
fashionable citizens of Palermo congregate here to listen to a band 
of music. 

Adjoining the Flora is the Botanic Garden (PI. A, B, 5 ; also 
entered from the Via Lincoln), which deserves a visit both from 
the scientific traveller and the amateur. 

The beautiful avenue of Dale-Palms and Cycas Revoluta will attract 
the attention of every visitor. Near the entrance are two Australian 
Coco-trees , while scattered throughout the grounds are fine specimens of 
Latania Borbonica, Corypha Australis, Musa Ensele, Bananas, Bamboos (at- 
taining a height of 15 ft.), Strelitzia, Wit/anditi, PMlodetidron Prrlusum, 
Australian Myrtaceae, Melaleucea, etc. Some of the ilowcring-planls in the 
greenhouses are of astonishing brilliancy. 

Among the other beautiful Gardens in or near Palermo the 
following may be mentioned : the Oiardino d' Acclimazione (p. 266) ; 
then those of the Palazzo d'Aumalc (PI. C, 1), the Villa Tasca 
(p. 266), the Villa Serradifalco (PI. G, 1), the Villa Sofia (p. 270), 
the Villa Belmonte (p. 269), the Favorita (p. 270), and the Hotel 
des Palmes (formerly Oiardino Ingham, p. 250). Admission to 
private gardens is generally obtained without trouble by a fee to 
the gariener, or on the presentation of a visiting-card. 

26. Environs of Palermo. 

a. La Cuba. Monreale. S. Martino. La Zisa. 

Distance to Monreale about 4 ! /2 M. Tkamvvat from the Piazza Yittoria 
as far as &hi M.) La Rocca, where the road begins to ascend (50 c. ; to 
Cappuccini 20 c, thence to Villa Tasca 15 c, thence to La Eocca 15 c.). 
The ascent of the hill thence is a pleasant walk of '/2 hr. by the old road. 
Carriages for the excursion may also be hired outside the Porta Nuova for 
5 fr. (in the town 6 fr.), including a stay of lV'2-2 hrs. All the way to 
Monreale the road is guarded by soldiers. The locandas at Monreale are 
very poor; the least objectionable is the Loc. Pietro Novelli opposite the 
cathedral. The beggars and donkey-attendants in the town are often ex- 
cessively insolent. Those who purpose proceeding from Monreale to S. 
Martino (p. 267), about 3 M. farther (miserable road), will do well to take 
a supply of provisions with them. Donkey 2 1 /2-3 1 /-j fr. Inquiry as to the 
security of the road may be made of the Palermo section of the Italian 
Alpine Club, Vicolo Trugliari , Via Vitt. Emanuele. One of the officers 
stationed at Monreale may be asked for a couple of 'bersaglieri' (who also 
serve as guides ; 4-5 fr. for both) to accompany the traveller as far as 
Boccadifalco. 

Porta Nuova (PI. C, D, 1), see p. 255.' The perfectly straight 
prolongation of the Via Vittorio Emanuele , called the Corso Gala- 



266 Route 26. MONRBALE. Environs 

tafimi, leads to Monreale. On the right is situated the extensive 
poor-house [Albergo de 1 Poveri). 

A little farther on, about ^2 M. from the gate, on the left, is a 
cavalry-barrack , in the court of which is the old chateau of La 
Cuba. (Visitors apply to the sentinel and walk in.) On the frieze 
is a now illegible Arabic inscription, from which it is conjectured, 
that the building was built by William II. in 1181. Of the once 
splendid decorations of the interior nothing now remains but a few 
blackened remains of a honey-combed vaulting in a small court. 
The palace was once surrounded by an extensive park with fish- 
ponds. A pavilion once belonging to it is now on the opposite side 
of the street in the orange-garden of the Cavaliere Napoli (farther 
on, No. 421, beyond the street leading to the Cappuccini) , and is 
called La Cubola (Decamerone, v. 6); admission on ringing (fee). 

The Strada di Pindemonte , which diverges to the right about 
230 paces farther on (at the first tramway-station), leads to the 
( Y4 M.) Convento de' Cappuccini, in the subterranean corridors of 
which are preserved the mummified bodies of wealthy inhabitants 
of Palermo. On All Souls' Day (2nd Nov.) the relatives of the de- 
ceased congregrate here in great numbers. This sad, but not un- 
interesting spectacle should be seen by the curious. (The route 
hence to La Zisa , l / s M., is by the Via de' Cipressi, and then by 
the first road to the left.) 

On the left side of the Monreale road we next pass the Giar- 
dino d' Acclimazione , laid out in 1861 for agricultural purposes. 
On the same side, l'/ 2 M. from the Porta Nuova, is the Swiss 
lodge at the entrance to the charming * Villa Tasca, the property of 
Conte Tasca, one of the first systematic farmers of Sicily, who 
possesses an experimental station here, and has surrounded it with 
a tasteful garden (visitors ring at the entrance to the flower-garden ; 
5-10 soldi to the porter on leaving). 

The group of houses at the base of the height of Monreale is 
called LaRocca (tramway-terminus). The road, constructed by the 
celebrated Archbishop Testa of Monreale, ascends in windings to 
the 'royal mount' (1231ft.), on which in 1174 "William II. founded 
a Benedictine abbey, and in 1174-89 erected the famous — 

** Cathedral of Monreale, around which a town of 16,200 
inhab. has sprung up since the second archbishopric in the island 
was transferred hither. 

The church is in the form of a Latin cross, 333 ft. long and 
131 ft. wide, with three apses. The entrance is flanked by two 
square towers. The magnificent portal possesses admirable *Bronze 
Doors dating from 1186, executed by 'Bonannus Oivis Pisanus', 
and adorned with reliefs from sacred history. The bronze doors of 
the side-portals are by Barisano. The edifice was seriously damaged 
by a fire in 1811, but has been well restored; the cost of the 
handsome timber-work was defrayed by King Lewis I. of Bavaria. 



of Palermo. S. MARTINO. 26. Route. 267 

""Interiok. The pointed vaulting of the nave is supported by eighteen 
columns of granite. The transept , approached by five steps, is borne by 
four pillars. The pointed vaulting is constructed quite in the Arabian 
style. 

The "Mosaics with which the walls are entirely covered occupy an 
area of 70,400 sq. ft., and consist of three different classes: scenes from 
the Old Testament (prophecies of the Messiah), from the life of the 
Saviour, and from the lives of the apostles. The nave contains Old Testa- 
ment subjects down to the Wrestling of Jacob with the Angel, in two rows 
of twenty tableaux. Each aisle contains nine, and each transept fifteen 
scenes from the history of Christ. On the arches of the transept are 
subjects from the life of SS. Peter and Paul. In the tribune is the bust of 
Christ (with the inscription , /. Xq. 6 navroxomoiQ) ; below it a Madonna in 
Trono with two angels and the Apostles at the side ; under these are 
fourteen saints. In the niches at the sides Peter and Paul. Above the 
royal throne is pourtrayed King William in the act of receiving the crown 
direct from Christ (not from the pope !) ; above the archiepiscopal seat 
he is represented as offering a view of the cathedral to the Virgin. — 
In the right transept are the tombs of William I. and William II. The 
monument of the former is a sarcophagus of porphyry, like those in the 
Cathedral at Palermo; that of the latter was erected in 1575. — The N. 
aisle contains fine wood-carving in high-relief. Here, too, is the Cappella 
del Crocefisso, of 1690, adjoining which is the Archiepiscopal Chapel, with 
wood-carving from the history of the Passion. In the S. aisle is the 
Cappella di 8. Benedetto, with reliefs in marble of the 18th century. 
These chapels are opened by the verger. 

The visitor should not omit to ascend to the roof of the cathedral 
for the sake of the "View it affords. The entrance to the staircase is in 
a corner at the beginning of the S. aisle (172 steps to the top ; verger : /z fr.). 

Adjoining the cathedral is the Benedictine Monastery, which 
William supplied with monks from La Cava (entrance by No. 33, 
the large central door in the piazza which lies in front of the 
church ; custodian ^2 fr-)- Of the original building nothing is 
now left except the remarkably beautiful *Cloisters, the pointed 
arches of which are adorned with mosaics and supported by 216 
columns in pairs ; the capitals are all different, and the shafts also 
vary (date 1200). The S. side of the cloisters is overshadowed by 
the ruins of an ancient monastery-wall, with pointed arches. The 
garden commands a delightful *Vibw of the valley towards Palermo. 
The fragrance of the orange-blossom here in spring is almost over- 
powering. The modern part of the monastery, which is now fitted 
up as officers' quarters, and which we first reach from the piazza, 
contains a handsome marble staircase adorned with pictures by Velas- 
quez (the Sicilian) and by Pietro Novelli (Monrealese ; p. 250). 

From Monreale a steep path to the right (Le Scale) ascends in 
1 hr. to the top of the hill which is crowned by II Castellaccio, 
a deserted fort (10 min. to the right of the highest point of the 
path), commanding an extensive view. We then descend to the 
suppressed Benedictine monastery of S, Martino, founded by 
Gregory the Great in the 6th cent., and affording another fine 
*View. Handsome entrance-hall. The monastery is now occupied 
by an agricultural institution. 

The church is adorned with a fresco by Ainimolo. With the library 
of the monastery is connected the reminiscence of the extraordinary 
historical forgeries of the Abbate Giuseppe Vella , who had founded a 



268 Route i>6. LA ZISA. Environs 

history of Sicily on a forged Arabic MS., but was detected by Hager of 
Milan, the Orientalist, in 1794. — Wine is sold at the houses above the 
monastery. 

From San Martino we descend to the picturesque valley of 
Boccadifalco , and return thence to Palermo. A pleasant path 
(Y2 hr.) leads from Boccadifalco along the heights to La Rocca, 
p. 266. — Another pleasant route, commanding a fine view of the 
plain and the sea, leads N.W. from Boccadifalco to the Convento di 
Uuida, founded by Manfred Chiaramonte in 1388 for the Cistercians, 
and afterwards occupied by Franciscan Minorites. Here in the 10th 
cent, lay Baidhii ('the white'), a Saracenic village which was con- 
nected with Palermo by a row of houses. The terrace affords a line 
view. In the vicinity is the not easily accessible stalactite cavern 
of Quattro Arce. The village of Altarello di Baida contains remains 
of Mimnermum, a palace founded by Roger. Farther on, we reach 
Noce, whence a tramway-line(p.251) runs to Palermo, crossing the 
Piazza Olivuzza (PI. F, G, 1), where the *Villa Serradifalco, with 
its beautiful grounds and luxuriant vegetation , is situated. Ad- 
joining it lay the celebrated Villa Butera, now Villa Florio. 

A few paces beyond the Porta Nuova (p. 255) we turn to the 
right into the Via della Oolonna Rotta , and after 10 min., beyond 
the small triangular Piazza Ingastoni , we take the Via Zisa to the 
left (comp. PI. I), E, 1 ; cab 1 fr.), which leads us to the chateau 
of *La Zisa, now the property of the Marchese di S. Giovanni (about 
1 M. from the gate, and not far from the Piazza Olivuzza already 
mentioned). The only remains of the old building , which was 
erected by William I., are a covered fountain with water descend- 
ing over marble steps under dilapidated honeycombed vaulting, and 
some vaulting with pigeon-holes on the upper floor. The flat roof 
affords a very favourite **Vibw of Palermo. (Entrance by No. 29, 
the adjacent court on the right ; custodian Y2 fr- i adm. at present 
not easily obtained.) — The large neighbouring orange-gardens are 
worthy of a visit on account of their luxuriant vegetation (trifling 
fee). No. 25, to the left of La Zisa, is a good wine-house. 

The Catacombs outside the Porta Ossuna, discovered in 1785, 
probably belongto the ante-Christian period, and are now destitute 
of monuments. 

b. Monte Pellegrino. The Favorita. 

Distances. From the Porta S. Giorgio to the foot of Monte Pelle- 
grino 2 M. (one-horse carriage l'/^fi-'O; thence to the top l'/4 hr. (bridle- 
path; donkey from the town 2 fr.). — From the Porta Macqueda to the 
Favorita 4 1 |'i 31. — The Sampolo tramway (p. 251) runs to the entrance to 
the Favorita. The road to Mte. Pellegrino diverges from the tramway-line 
at the Carceri, to which point a car may be taken. 

'Monte Pellegrino, an indescribably beautiful mass of rock, consisting 
of grey limestone of early formation , rises at the N. W. end of the 
Kay of Palermo. In a cavern in this mountain the remains of St. 
Rosalia (according to tradition, a niece of William II., who while in the 
hloom of youth had tied hither from motives of piety) were discovered in 
1664, and conveyed to Palermo. Their presence at once banished the plague 



of Palermo. MONTE PELLEGRINO. 26\ Route. 269 

then raging, and from that time St. Rosalia has bi -en the patron saint of 
the city. Chapels were erected and brilliant festivals instituted in her 
honour. The devout undertook pilgrimages to the mountain. A pathway 
supported by buttresses and arches leads to the sacred spot, which far 
better befits the humility of the saint than the sumptuous festivities which 
are celebrated to commemorate her retirement from the world. 1 — Goethe. 
Several stately trees stand in front of the sanctuary. 

"We quit Palermo by the Porta S. Oior</io ("PI. E, F, 5, and I, 
5 , 6). The drive through the Stradone del Borgo, with its new 
stone quay, and past the prison, to the foot of the mountain takes 
less than V2 hr. — On the right, on an eminence by the sea, rises 
the Villa Belmonte, which commands a fine view. The zigzag path 
ascending the Monte Pellegrino, which is visible from the town, 
cannot be mistaken. Towards the top it becomes easier. Large 
herds of cattle, horses, and donkeys graze on the mountain in 
spring, and during the quail-hunting season it is enlivened by 
numbers of sportsmen, especially at night. 

The * Monte Pellegrino (1958 ft.), the peculiar shape of 
which renders it easily recognisable from a great distance, is an 
isolated mass of limestone rock , at one time an island and still 
separated by the plain of the Conca d'Oro from the other moun- 
tains near the coast. On the E. side it rises abruptly from the sea, 
and on the W. side slopes more gently towards the Conca d'Oro. 
Down to the 15th cent, the mountain was clothed with underwood. 
In B. C. 247-45 Hamilcar Barca settled on the mountain with his 
soldiers and their families in order to keep the Roman garrison of 
Panormus in check, and corn was then cultivated here on the Eircta. 
Under an overhanging rock of the summit of the mountain, which 
may also be reached, though not without difficulty, from the oppo- 
site side, is the Grotto of St. Rosalia, now converted into a church 
(dwelling of the 'proposto' and the priests on the left; bread and 
wine in the cottage to the left beyond the chapel). The water 
which constantly trickles down the sides is collected and carried off 
in leaden gutters. 

The small decorated cavern in which the holy maiden performed her 
devotions is shown by candle-light ; in front of it is a recumbent Statue 
of the Saint by the Florentine Gregorio Tedeschi , with sumptuously 
gilded robes. 'The head and hands of white marble, if not faultless in 
style, are at least so natural and pleasing that one can hardly help ex- 
pecting to see the saint breathe and move.' 1 (Goethe.) 

Beyond the chapel a steep path leads to the right by the cot- 
tages to the (20 min.) Survey Station on the summit of the moun- 
tain, which commands an admirable *View of the beautiful basin 
around Palermo, the numerous headlands of the N. coast, the Lipari 
Islands, and the distant jEtna. — A path to the left, before the 
houses are reached, leads in 20 min. to a small temple with a 
colossal but headless statue of the saint ; on the ground lie two 
heads. *View hence towards the sea. 

Good walkers may now descend by goat-paths towards the S. W. 
direct to the Favorita; others will prefer to retrace their steps and de- 
scend by the same path. 



270 Route 26. BAGHERIA. Environs 

In the Conca d'Oro, at the base of Monte Pellegrino on the 
W. side, and 4 M. from the Porta Macqueda, is situated the royal 
chateau of La Favorita (open to the public) , surrounded by 
numerous villas of the aristocracy of Palermo. This beautiful 
country-residence was erected by Ferdinand IV. in the Chinese 
style, and is surrounded by shady walks and extensive grounds. 
Splendid *View from the roof. — One of the finest gardens in the 
neighbourhood of Palermo is that of Mr. Whitaker, at the Villa Sofia, 
near La Favorita (adm. on application to Director Kunstmann). 

Travellers interested in agriculture may now visit the Istituto 
Agrario, founded by the minister Carlo Cottone (p. 264). 

This excursion may be pleasantly extended to Mondello , situated on 
a beautiful bay, with a sandy beach admirably adapted for bathing (poor 
inn near the pine-tree). — A picturesque footpath leads hence by the 
beach, skirting the Mte. Pellegrino , to (3'/« M.) Acquasantctf, where the 
traveller may dine (in summer) at the *Restaurant des Bains, returning 
thence to Palermo by tramway. 

To the S.W. of Cape Gallo is the Bay of Sferracavallo , whence we 
may follow the beach to Capace and the picturesquely-situated Carini 
(p. 273). This excursion should, however, be made by carriage or by a 
large party. 

c. Bagheria. Soluntum. 

Railway to Bagheria (Girgenti line), three trains daily (fares 1 fr. 50, 
1 fr. 5, or 75 c). Station outside the Porta S. Antonino (PI. A , 4). 
Travellers starting by the first train may inspect the most interesting 
points of Soluntum and Bagheria, and continue their journey by the next 
train to Termini (p. 286). — Carriage to Bagheria 8-10 fr. ; to Bagheria 
and Soluntum in 8 hrs., 12-15 fr., a charming drive. Luncheon should 
be carried with the party. 

A short distance from the town the railway crosses the 
Oreto, beyond which, to the left below us, we observe the lofty 
arch of the now abandoned Ponte dell' Ammiraglio , constructed 
in 1113 by the admiral Georgios Antiochenos. Immediately ad- 
joining it are the ruins of the most ancient Norman church in 
Sicily, San Giovanni dei Leprosi, founded by Roger. Here, 
in B.C. 251 , the consul Metellus defeated the Carthaginians, 
and captured 120 elephants. In the neighbouring bay Duquesne 
nearly annihilated the united Dutch and Spanish fleets in 1673, 
In the fertile coast-district the Saracens once cultivated the sugar- 
cane. On the right rises the Monte Griffone. 

5 M. Ficarazzelli ; 6 M. Ficarazzi. 

8 M. Bagheria, or Bagaria (Albergo Verdone, with good trat- 
toria), a country-town with 11,600 inhab. , contains groups of 
palatial villas of Sicilian nobles, now deserted. The Villa Val- 
guarnera merits a visit for the sake of the magnificent *View from 
the terrace and from the adjacent Montagnuola. The Villa Butera, 
Villa Patagonia, and others contain a few fantastic works of art. 

10 M. Santa Fluria. Phoenician tombs, probably of the Cartha- 
ginian period, were discovered here in 1H64. — (Journey hence 
to Girgenti, see R. 30.) 



of Palermo. S. MARIA DI GESU. 26. Route. 271 

Leaving the station, we cross the line to the ri